ITEM VIEW

Etiology and management of Neofabraea lenticel decay (bull’s eye rot) of apples in the Western Cape of South Africa

dc.contributor.advisorLennox, Cheryl L.
dc.contributor.advisorMeitz-Hopkins, J. C.
dc.contributor.authorRussouw, Andre
dc.contributor.otherStellenbosch University. Faculty of AgriSciences. Dept. of Plant Pathology.en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2019-11-23T08:38:57Z
dc.date.accessioned2019-12-11T06:39:58Z
dc.date.available2020-07-21T03:00:09Z
dc.date.issued2019-12
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/106947
dc.descriptionThesis (MScAgric)--Stellenbosch University, 2019.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractENGLISH ABSTRACT: Postharvest lenticel decay of apple and pear fruit caused by Neofabraea malicorticis, N.perennans. N. vagabunda and N. kienholzii is a disease more commonly known as Bull’seye rot. In South Africa, only N. vagabunda has been identified to cause this disease on apple fruit in Western Cape apple orchards, especially on the late harvested cultivar ‘Cripps Pink’. The pathogen infects the lenticels of fruit in the orchard and disease symptoms only become visible months after harvest. Symptoms include decay spreading outward from an infected lenticel as concentric dark and light brown discoloured rings. This disease does not spread in postharvest storage and preharvest infections thus ultimately determine disease incidence. Preharvest management strategies reduce infection levels by the pathogen, but the postharvest application of fungicides can reduce the decay incidence of already infected fruit. There are, however, no fungicides registered against bull’s eye rot in South Africa. To confirm the current causal pathogen of bull’s eye rot in South Africa, Neofabraea spp. were isolated from symptomatic fruit received from packhouses in the Western Cape. Neofabraea species were identified using a multiplex-PCR. A total of 91 isolates were all identified as N. vagabunda. Subsequently, N. vagabunda isolates from the Western Cape were tested on key apple cultivars Fuji, Cripps Pink and Golden Delicious to evaluate cultivar susceptibility. The isolates were equally pathogenic on tested cultivars with low variation between the isolates. ‘Fuji’ and ‘Cripps Pink’ were found highly susceptible to disease development, averaging lesion diameters of 8.36 mm and 8.15 mm respectively 14 days after inoculation. ‘Golden Delicious’ was significantly less susceptible averaging only 6.28 mm in lesion diameter after 14 days. Two fungicides registered for use on pome fruit in South Africa, that have reportedly been found to effectively control bull’s eye rot in other studies, are the phenyl pyrrole fludioxonil, and the anilinopyrimidine pyrimethanil. The curative ability of these fungicides was tested on N.vagabunda inoculated ‘Fuji’ and ‘Cripps Pink’ apple fruit. The fungicide efficacy wascompared as a dip, drench and thermo-fog application. Dip application with fludioxonil effectively controlled bull’s eye rot incidence on ‘Fuji’ by 83% and ‘Cripps Pink’ by 84% compared to the untreated control fruit. Pyrimethanil did not control bull’s eye rot incidence as a dip application. As a drench however, pyrimethanil could control incidence on ‘Fuji’ by 27%. Fludioxonil was less effective as a drench and controlled disease incidence on ‘Fuji’ by 73%, and on ‘Cripps Pink’ by 41%. Pyrimethanil was the most effective as a thermo-fog application, controlling incidence of bull’s eye rot on ‘Fuji’ by 59%. On ‘Cripps Pink’ however, pyrimethanil thermo-fogging only controlled bull’s eye rot incidence by 18%. As a thermo-fog treatment, fludioxonil had moderate efficacy, controlling bull’s eye rot on ‘Fuji’ by 47% and ‘Cripps Pink’ by 28%. To investigate pyrimethanil inefficacy in controlling bull’s eye rot, the sensitivity of different N.vagabunda isolates on inoculated fruit were evaluated towards pyrimethanil, as well as theeffect of incubation time before curative fungicide application. Neofabraea vagabunda isolates did not differ in their sensitivity towards pyrimethanil and reacted equally to a 500 mg/L and 1000 mg/L concentration fungicide treatment. Fludioxonil was effective regardless of the incubation time. Pyrimethanil was significantly more effective when incubation time was shortened to 6 hours before treating fruit with the fungicide. In conclusion, Neofabraea vagabunda is the causal organism of bull’s eye rot in the Western Cape province of South Africa, and the late harvest apple cultivars ‘Fuji’ and ‘Cripps Pink’ are highly susceptible to this pathogen. Fludioxonil can effectively reduce N. vagabunda bull’s eye rot disease incidence when applied postharvest. Pyrimethanil had variable efficacy towards the pathogen but should not be discarded as a postharvest treatment for bull’s eye rot in South Africa, as the inoculation method used in the trials did not truly simulate natural infection of fruit by the pathogen.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Na-oes lentisel verrotting van appel en peer vrugte wat veroorsaak word deur Neofbraea malicorticis, N. perennans, N. vagabunda en N. kienholzii is a siektekompleks wat meer algemeen as “Bull’s eye” vrot bekend staan. In Suid-Afrika is nog slegs N. vagabunda geïdentifiseer as die oorsaak van hierdie siekte op appel vrugte in appel boorde in die Wes-Kaap, veral op die laat seisoen kultivar ‘Cripps Pink’. Hierdie patogeen infekteer die lentiselle van vrugte in die boord en siekte simptome kom eers maande na oes te voorskyn. Simptome behels verrotting wat as konsentriese donker en lig bruin verkleurde ringe uitwaarts versprei vanaf die geïnfekteerde lentisel. Die siekte versprei nie in opberging na oes nie en infeksies in die boord bepaal maksimum moontlike siekte voorkoms. Voor-oes bestuurs strategieë verlaag die infeksie vlakke van die patogeen, maar die toediening van fungisiedes na-oes kan siekte ontwikkeling verlaag in reeds geïnfekteerde vrugte. Daar is egter geen fungisiedes geregistreer teen “Bull’s eye” vrot in Suid-Afrika nie. Ten einde te bevestig watter patogeen huidiglik bull’s eye vrot in Suid-Afrika veroorsaak, was Neofabraea spp. geïsoleer vanaf simptomatiese vrugte wat ontvang was van pakhuise in die Wes-Kaap. Neofabraea spesies was geïdentifiseer met ‘n veelvuldige-PCR. ’n Totaal van 91 isolate was almal geïdentifiseer as N. vagabunda. Gevolglik was sleutel appel kultivars Fuji, Cripps Pink en Golden Delicious getoets teen N. vagabunda isolate vanuit die Wes-Kaap om kultivar vatbaarheid te evalueer. Die isolate was ewe patogenies op die getoetse kultivars met lae vlakke van variasie tussen die isolate. ‘Fuji’ en ‘Cripps Pink’ was hoogs vatbaar vir siekte ontwikkeling met ‘n gemiddelde letsel deursnee van onderskeidelik 8.36 mm en 8.15 mm 14 dae na inokulasie. ‘Golden Delicious’ was aansienlik minder vatbaar met ‘n gemiddelde letsel diameter van 6.28 mm na 14 dae. Twee fungisiedes wat geregistreer is op kern-vrugte in Suid-Afrika, en na bewering in ander studies gevind was om effektief te wees in die beheer van bull’s eye vrot, is die feniel-pirrol fludioxonil, en die anilinopirimidien pyrimethanil. Die kuratiewe vermoë van hierdie fungisiedes was getoets op N. vagabunda geïnokuleerde ‘Fuji’ en ‘Cripps Pink’ appel vrugte. Die fungisied effektiwiteit was vergelyk as ‘n dompel, drenk en termoberoking. Dompel toediening met fludioxonil het bull’s eye vrot voorkoms effektief beheer op ‘Fuji’ met 83% en ‘Cripps Pink’ met 84% in vergelyking met die onbehandelde kontrole vrugte. Pyrimethanil het nie bull’s eye vrot beheer as a dompel toediening nie. As ‘n drenking het pyrimethanil egter voorkoms op ‘Fuji’ beheer met 27%. Fludioxonil was minder effektief as ‘n drenking en het siekte voorkoms op ‘Fuji’ beheer met 73%, en op ‘Cripps Pink’ met 41%. Pyrimethanil was die mees effektiewe as ‘n termoberoking toediening en het bull’s eye vrot voorkoms op ‘Fuji’ beheer met 59%. Op ‘Cripps Pink’ het pyrimethanil termoberoking egter voorkoms met slegs 18% beheer. As ‘n thermoberoking toediening het fludioxonil matige effektiwiteit gehad met bull’s eye vrot beheer van 47% op ‘Fuji’ en 28% op ‘Cripps Pink’. Ten einde die rede vir die oneffektiwiteit van pyrimethanil om bull’s eye vrot te beheer te ondersoek, was die sensitiwiteit van N. vagabunda isolate op geïnokuleerde vrugte teenoor pyrimethanil geëvalueer, sowel as die effek van inkubasie tyd voor kuratiewe toediening van funigisiedes. Neofbraea vagabunda isolate het nie verskil in hul sensitiwiteit teenoor pyrimethanil nie en het dieselfde gereageer op die 500 mg/L en 1000 mg/L konsentrasies fungisied behandelings. Pyrimethanil was beduidend meer effektief wanneer inkubasie tyd verkort was tot 6 ure voordat vrugte behandel was met die fungisied. Ter afsluiting, Neofabraea vagabunda is die oorsaaklike organisme van bull’s eye vrot in die Wes-Kaap provinsie van Suid-Afrika en die laat-oes appel kultivars, ‘Fuji’ en ‘Cripps Pink’, is baie vatbaar vir die patogeen. Fludioxonil kan effektief N. vagabunda bull’s eye vrot siekte voorkoms verlaag wanneer dit toegedien word as ‘n na-oes behandeling. Pyrimethanil het wisselvallige effektiwiteit getoon teenoor die patogeen, maar kan nie uitgeskakel word as ‘n na-oes behandeling vir bull’s eye vrot in Suid-Afrika nie, omdat die inokulasie metode wat gebruik was in proewe, nie werklike natuurlike infeksie van vrugte deur die patogeen naboots nie.af_ZA
dc.format.extentix, 69 pages : illustrations (some color)en_ZA
dc.language.isoen_ZAen_ZA
dc.publisherStellenbosch : Stellenbosch Universityen_ZA
dc.subjectPlant Pathologyen_ZA
dc.subjectApples -- Diseases and pests -- South Africa -- Western Capeen_ZA
dc.subjectPostharvest diseases and injuriesen_ZA
dc.subjectApples -- Harvestingen_ZA
dc.subjectUCTDen_ZA
dc.titleEtiology and management of Neofabraea lenticel decay (bull’s eye rot) of apples in the Western Cape of South Africaen_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.description.versionMasters
dc.rights.holderStellenbosch Universityen_ZA
dc.embargo.terms2020-05-24


Files in this item

Thumbnail
Thumbnail

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

ITEM VIEW