Review of channel estimation for candidate waveforms of next generation networks
CITATION: Ijiga, O. E., et al. 2019. Review of channel estimation for candidate waveforms of next generation networks. Electronics, 8(9):956, doi:10.3390/electronics8090956.
The original publication is available at https://www.mdpi.com
Publication of this article was funded by the Stellenbosch University Open Access Fund
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The advancement in wireless communication applications encourages the use of effective and efficient channel estimation (CE) techniques because of the varying behaviour of the Rayleigh fading channel. In most cases, the emphasis of most proposed CE schemes is to improve the CE performance and complexity for ensuring quality signal reception and improved system throughput. Candidate waveforms whose designs are based on filter bank multi-carrier (FBMC) modulation techniques such as filter bank orthogonal frequency division multiplexing based on offset quadrature amplitude modulation (OFDM-OQAM), universal filtered multicarrier (UFMC) and generalised frequency division multiplexing based on offset quadrature amplitude modulation (GFDM-OQAM) are no exception to the use of these proposed CE techniques in the literature. These schemes are considered as potential waveform candidates for the physical/media access control layer of the emerging fifth generation (5G) networks. Therefore, pinpoint CE techniques represent an important requirement for these waveforms to attain their full potentials. In this regard, this paper reviews the concept of CE as applicable to these waveforms as well as other waveform candidates under consideration in the emerging 5G networks. Since the design of the majority of the waveform candidates is filter based, a review of the general filter design considerations is presented in this paper. Secondly, we review general CE techniques for candidate waveforms of next generation networks and classify some of the studied CE techniques. In particular, we classify the CE schemes used in filter bank OFDM-OQAM and GFDM-OQAM based transceivers and present a performance comparison of some of these CE schemes. Besides, the paper reviews the performances of two linear CE schemes and three adaptive based CE schemes for two FBMC based waveform candidates assuming near perfect reconstruction (NPR) and non-perfect reconstruction (Non-PR) filter designs over slow and fast frequency selective Rayleigh fading channels. The results obtained are documented through computer simulations, where the performances of the studied CE schemes in terms of the normalised mean square error (NMSE) are analysed. Lastly, we summarise the findings of this work and suggest possible research directions in order to improve the potentials of the studied candidate waveforms over Rayleigh fading channels.