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Exploring the utility of use of an isiXhosa version of the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale and the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Children in a group of 6–10-year-old isiXhosa-speaking learners in the Western Cape; a mixed method study

dc.contributor.advisorLesch, A. M.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorBotha, Jeanineen_ZA
dc.contributor.otherStellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Psychology.en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2019-02-19T17:28:52Z
dc.date.accessioned2019-04-17T08:30:38Z
dc.date.available2019-02-19T17:28:52Z
dc.date.available2019-04-17T08:30:38Z
dc.date.issued2019-04
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/106139
dc.descriptionThesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2019.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractENGLISH ABSTRACT: Various studies have found the incidence of anxiety symptomology amongst South African children to be especially high. Research suggests that symptoms of anxiety may be minimised by increasing an individual’s level of self-efficacy, and various studies illustrate the efficacy of intervention programmes aimed at minimising the symptoms of anxiety through increasing self-efficacy. Timely intervention requires the availability of reliable and valid screening tools. However, many anxiety and self-efficacy measures currently used in the South African context are not adapted for use within our diverse, multicultural context. Considering the lack of standardised anxiety and self-efficacy measures in South Africa, this study aimed to explore whether the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Children (SEQ-C) can serve as reliable screening measures in a sample of 189 6–10-year-old isiXhosa-speaking South African children residing in the Western Cape. Quantitative data analysis was used to investigate the psychometric properties (i.e., reliability and factor structure) of the translated versions of the SCAS and SEQ-C, to determine if a significant negative correlation exists between self-efficacy and anxiety, to determine if significant correlations exist between anxiety and age and self-efficacy and age and to determine whether there are significant differences in SEQ-C and SCAS scores by gender. Qualitative focus group interviews were conducted to explore how participants understood the translated versions of the questionnaires, and whether cultural and/or linguistic differences influenced how participants understood and therefore answered the questions. Quantitative results indicated acceptable reliability for both scales. However, the expected factor structure was not obtained for either scale in this sample. While all the expected statistical results were not obtained, some of the psychometric properties of the SCAS and SEQ-C are promising. This provides limited support for the reliability of their use within this sample. Results from the qualitative focus groups indicated that cultural and linguistic differences appear to influence learners’ understanding and interpretation of the questionnaires and may therefore have an impact on the reliability of both the SCAS and SEQ-C. This study has drawn attention to how linguistic nuances and cultural practices influence children’s understanding of questions on psychological measures, which in turn influences how they answer the questions. This underscores the fact that measures developed in Western countries cannot necessarily be used reliably amongst all population groups in South Africa and stresses the need for the development of culturally appropriate tests.en_ZA
dc.description.abstractAFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Verskeie navorsingsstudies het gevind dat die insidensie van angssimptomologie besonders hoog is onder Suid-Afrikaanse kinders. Navorsing dui aan dat angsimptome verminder kan word deur ‘n individu se self-effektiwiteit te verhoog, en verskeie studies illustreer die effektiwiteit van intervensieprogramme wat daarop gemik is om angssimptome te verminder deur self-effektiwiteit te verhoog. Vroegtydige intervensie vereis egter die beskikbaarheid van betroubare meetinstrumete; die meeste toetse wat in Suid Afrika gebruik word om angs en self-effektiwiteit te meet is egter nie aangepas vir gebruik in ons diverse, multikulturele konteks nie. In ag genome die gebrek aan gestandardiseerde angs- en selfeffektiwiteitmaatinstrumente in Suid Afrika was hierdie studie gemik daarop om ondersoek in te stel of die Spence Kinderangsskaal (Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale; SCAS) en die Selfeffektiwiteits Vraelys vir Kinders (Self-efficacy Questionnare for Children (SEQ-C) kan dien as betroubare meetinstrumente in ‘n steekproef van 189 6–10-jarige isiXhosa-sprekende kinders wat in die Wes-Kaap woonagtig is. Kwanitatiewe data analise was gebruik om die psigometriese eienskappe van die vertaalde meetinstrumente te ondersoek, asook om vas te stel of ‘n beduidende korrelasie tussen angs en self-effektiwiteit, angs en ouderdom en self-effektiwiteit en ouderdom bestaan en om te bepaal of daar beduidende verskille in tellings op die SCAS en SEQ-C tussen geslagte is. Kwaltitatiewe fokusgroeponderhoude was gevoer om te ondersoek hoe deelnemers die vertaalde vraelyste verstaan het en of kulturele en/of linguistiese verskille ‘n invloed gehad het op hoe deelnemers die vrae verstaan het. Kwantitatiewe resultate het gedui op aanvaarbare betroubaarheid vir albei meetisntrumente. Faktoranalise het egter nie die verwagte faktorstruktuur vir een van die instrumente opgelewer nie. Alhoewel al die verwagte statistiese resultate nie verkry is nie, is van die psigometriese eienskappe vir die SCAS en SEQ-C in hierdie steekproef belowend, wat dui op beperkte ondersteuning vir die betroubaarheid van hierdie instrumente binne hierdie steekproef. Resultate van die fokusgroepe het aangedui dat kulturele en linguistiese faktore deelnemers se verstaan en interpretasie van die vraelyste beïnvloed het, wat die betroubaarheid van die SCAS en SEQ-C mag beïnvloed. Hierdie studie het aandag gevestig op hoe kulturelepraktyke en linguistiese nuanse kinders se verstaan van vrae op sielkundige meetinstrumente kan beïnvloed, wat dan ‘n invloed uitoefen op hoe hulle die vrae antwoord. Hierdie bevinding onderstreep die feit dat vraelyste wat in Westerse lande ontwikkel is nie noodwendig betroubaar gebruik kan word in alle bevolkinsgroepe in Suid Afrika nie en beklemtoon die belangrikheid om toetse te ontwikkel wat kultureel toepaslik is.af_ZA
dc.format.extent175 pagesen_ZA
dc.language.isoen_ZAen_ZA
dc.publisherStellenbosch : Stellenbosch Universityen_ZA
dc.subjectSpence Children's anxiety Scaleen_ZA
dc.subjectUCTDen_ZA
dc.subjectAnxietyen_ZA
dc.subjectSelf-efficacyen_ZA
dc.subjectMiddle-born childrenen_ZA
dc.titleExploring the utility of use of an isiXhosa version of the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale and the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Children in a group of 6–10-year-old isiXhosa-speaking learners in the Western Cape; a mixed method studyen_ZA
dc.typeThesisen_ZA
dc.rights.holderStellenbosch Universityen_ZA


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