Strategic maneuvering in the 2015 tanzanian presidential election campaign speeches: a pragma-dialectical perspective

Mwombeki, Gaspardus (2019-04)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2019.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The study investigates strategic maneuvering in the 2015 Tanzanian presidential campaign speeches of Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) and Chama cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (CHADEMA)/Umoja wa Katiba ya Wananchi (UKAWA) in the Extended pragma-dialectical theory of argumentation. The study employs the Extended pragma-dialectical theory of argumentation to analyse two inaugural speeches conducted in Kiswahili language. It also analyses a part of the CCM closing campaign, that is, a response to some argumentations of the CHADEMA/UKAWA. The study evaluates argumentation structures, argument schemes, presentational devices, successful observation of rules, identification of derailments of rules, and effectiveness and reasonableness in argumentative discourse as objectives of the study. The data were collected from the Tanzania Broadcasting Corporation (TBC) and from other online sources. The audio-visual speeches were transcribed and translated from Kiswahili into English. The findings of the study reveal that the complex argumentation structure dominates the rest of the argumentation structures in the speeches. Secondly, in the perspective of Pragma-dialects, the findings indicate that the three argumentation schemes namely causal relation argumentation scheme, symptomatic argumentation schemes and argumentation by analogy are employed in the speeches. More importantly, the pragmatic and majority argumentation is the prototypical argumentative pattern in the 2015 Tanzanian presidential election campaign speeches. Thirdly, findings manifest that the three aspects of strategic maneuvering namely the topical potential, audience demand, and presentational devices, are employed accordingly. Features of persuasion mainly reflected in the study include appealing to liberal and conservative presumptions, commemorating Mwalimu Nyerere and other leaders during the time of independence. The fourth finding from the study demonstrates that critical discussion rules frequently observed are the the standpoint rule, the argument scheme rule, the relevance rule, and the freedom rule. The fifth finding from the study reavel that cmpaigners frequently violate the language rule. The findings indicate that different presentational devices and criteria for reasonableness are employed, to a large extent, in presidential campaign speeches. The study recommends further investigations in the presidential campaign speeches in Kenya where Kiswahili perhaps is not used as language of independence and unity. Furthermore, an investigation into sermon speeches in other African languages in Tanzania would give insights on how the delicate balance in maintained in the Extended pragma-dialectical perspective. The study can be extended to investigating strategic maneuvering in presidential campaign speeches by merging monological speeches in dialectical profiles.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie ondersoek die verskynsel van strategiese maneuvrering in argumentasie diskoers in die 2015 Tanzaniese presidensiële veldtog toesprake van die partye Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) en Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (CHADEMA) /Umoja wa Katiba ya Wananchi (UKAWA) binne die raamwerke van die uitgebreide pragma-dialektiese teorie van argumentasie in die analise van twee intreerede toesprake in Kiswahhili. Die studie onderneem ook ‘n analise van toesprake in die CCM afsluitingsveldtog wat ‘n respons gee op sommige argumentasie standpunte van die CHADEMA / UKAWA. Die studie evalueer argumentasie structure, argumentasieskemas, presentasiemiddele, die suksesvolle waarneming van reëls, die identifisering van die ontsporing van reels, en effektiwiteit en redelikheid in die argumentasie diskoers in presidensieële veldtog toesprake. Die data vir die studie is versamel van die Tanzaniese Uitsaai korporasie, asook vanaf ander aanlyn/internetbronne. Die oudio-visuele toesprake in Kiswahili is getranskribeer en in Engels vertaal. Die bevindings van die studie dui aan dat komplekse argumentasie strukture dominant is in die toesprake. Tweedens, in die perspektief van die pragma-dialektiese benadering, dui die bevindinge daarop dat die drie argumentasieskemas, naamlik die kousale relasie argumentasie skema, die simptomatiese argumentasie skema, en argumentasie deur analogie ingespan is in die toesprake. Van belang, is dat die pragmatiese en meerderheids argumentasie die prototipiese argumentasiepatrone is in die 2015 Tanzaniese presidensiële veldtog toesprake. Derdens manifesteer bevindings dat drie aspekte van strategiese maneuvrering, naamlik onderwerp potensiaal, gehoor-eise, en aanbiedingsmiddele teenwoordig is in die toesprake. Kenmerke van oorreding wat hoofsaaklik tevoorskyn kom in die toesprake sluit in die beroepdoenings op liberale en konserwatiewe aannames, en die herdenking van Mwalimu Nyerere en ander leiers gedurende die tyd van onafhanklikheid. Die vierde bevinding van die studie demonstreer dat kritiese besprekingsreëls wat dikwels in ag geneem word, insluit die standpunt reël, die argumentskemareël,die relevansiereël, en die vryheidsreël. Die vyfde bevinding van die studie dui aan dat veldtogdeelnemers dikwels die taalreël oortree. Oor die geheel, die bevindings van die studie daarop dat verskillende aanbiedingsmiddele, en kriteria vir redelikheid tot ‘n aansienlike mate ingespan word in presidensiële veldtog toeprake. Die studie bevel aan dat verdere navorsing gedoen word oor presidensiële veldtog toesprake in Kenia, waar Kiswahili moontlik nie gebruik word as taal van onafhanklikehid en eenheid nie. Voorts sal navorsing oor preekdiens toesprake in verskillende Afrikatale ‘n aanduiding gee van hoe die delicate balans tussen effektiwiteit en redelikheid in stand gehou word. Die studie kan ook uitgebrei word deur die samestelling van strategiese maneuvrering in presidensiële veldtog toesprake wat monologies is, met die dialektiese profiele.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/106128
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