Towards a conceptual framework for the identification & implementation of additive manufacturing standards.

Duvenage, Barend Jacobus Lodewicus (2019-04)

Thesis (MEng)--Stellenbosch University, 2019.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Although it is widely apparent that additive manufacturing (AM) is set to replace conventional, subtractive manufacturing methods in many applications, much of the industry agrees that standards are a key obstacle to widespread adoption of the technology. However, in recent times collaborations such as that between ISO and ASTM International have resulted in many AM specific standards being produced, yet the field remains largely unstandardized due to the industry’s misperception that little AM standards exist. As such, this study seeks to determine how organisations can effectively and efficiently identify and implement AM standards. The main aim of this research is to use a systems engineering approach to develop a framework for the identification and implementation of standards that can be used by South African AM companies to increase their global competitiveness. An in-depth literature review was done to determine the various key concepts of which the problem comprises. This review considered why standards are important and how they can be identified, as well as how they should be stored and implemented. The literature review also includes a look at the key players in the field of AM standards development, followed by an exhaustive analysis of the current state of AM standards, from which it was determined that there are currently 30 Standards Development Organisations (SDO) active in the field, as well as 537 standards applicable to AMwith 144 of those being specifically developed for AM purposes. To address the research problem, a framework is developed to aid organisations in the identification, storage and implementation of standards. The resulting framework is based on the Plan-Do-Check-Act model, ensuring an element of continuous improvement. As such, the framework consists of three phases, with five stages within each phase. In order to validate the framework, various industry experts evaluated the framework to determine its usability and effectiveness. The framework is also tested on two medical case studies to refine it to the final proposed solution. Upon completion of the validation activities, it was determined that the framework is ready for beta testing. Not only does this research contain a rare analysis of the current state of AM standards, but the framework can be used to identify and implement standards to ensure the production of high quality products, thus increasing the global competitiveness of South African AM companies. The framework also facilitates newcomers in the field, thereby increasing adoption of the technology and simultaneously advancing the field.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Alhoewel dit duidelik is dat laagvervaardiging (AM) oppad is om konvensionele vervaardigingsmetodes in sekere toepassingsvelde te vervang, stem meeste van die industrie saam dat standaarde ‘n hindernis is tot die gebruik van dié tegnologie. Al het samewerkingsveldtogte tussen ISO en ASTM Internasionaal daartoe gelei dat talle AM toepaslike standaarde gepubliseer word, vind daar steeds min standarisering plaas danksy die mispersepsie dat daar min standaarde beskikbaar is in die veld. Dus poog dié studie om te bepaal hoe organisasies effektiewelik en doeltreffend AM standaarde kan identifiseer en implementeer. As sulks is die navorsing se doelwit om ‘n sisteemsingenieurswese benadering te gebruik om ‘n raamwerk te ontwikkel wat deur Suid-Afrikaanse AM maatskappye gebruik kan word om hul globale mededingendheid te verbeter deur die identifisering en implementering van AM standaarde. ‘n In-diepte literatuur studie is voltooi om die konsepte te bepaal waaruit die probleem bestaan. Dié studie het ondersoek hoekom standaarde belangrik is, hoe mens hul kan identifiseer, asook hoe hul gestoor en geïmplimenteer moet word. Die literatuur studie ondersoek ook wie die groot name is in die veld van AM standaard ontwikkelling, gevolg deur ‘n omvattende analise van die huidige stand van sake met betrekking tot AM standaarde. Hiervan is dit bepaal dat daar tans 30 Standaard Ontwikkelingsorganisasies (SDO) aktief is in die veld, asook 537 standaarde wat van toepassing is tot AM, waarvan 144 spesifiek vir AM toepassings ontwikkel is. Om die navorsingsprobleem aan te spreek is ‘n raamwerk ontwikkel om organisasies by te staan met die identifisering, berging en implementering van standaarde. Dié raamwerk is gebaseer op die “Plan-Do-Check-Act” model om ‘n element van deurlopende verbetering te verseker. As sulks bestaan die raamwerk uit drie fases, met vyf stappe in elke fase. Om die raamwerk te valideer het talle kenners dit geëvalueer om die bruikbaarheid en effektiwiteit daarvan te bepaal. Die raamwerk is ook getoets op twee mediese gevallestudies om dit te verbeter tot die finale voorgestelde oplossing. Met voltooiing van die validasie aktiwiteite is dit bepaal dat die raamwerk reg is vir die beta toetsfase. Dié navorsing bevat nie slegs ‘n skaarse analise van die huidige stand van sake met betrekking tot AM standaarde nie, maar ook ‘n raamwerk wat gebruik kan word om standaarde te identifiseer en implementeer om te verseker dat hoë kwaliteit produkte vervaardig word, sodat die globale mededingendheid van Suid-Afrikaanse AM maatskappye kan verbeter. Die raamwerk fasiliteer ook nuwelinge in die veld en verhoog daardeur die gebruik van AM tegnologieë.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/106104
This item appears in the following collections: