Development and empirical evaluation of an intention to quit structural model for teachers in South Africa

Maingard, Joanna Leigh (2019-04)

Thesis (MCom)--Stellenbosch University, 2019.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY : Teaching is eroding teachers’ attitudes, health and spirit. Teachers in South Africa are facing high levels of anxiety, depression, job dissatisfaction, lower quality of life and increased absenteeism (Jackson & Rothman, 2005). Burnout, stress and exhaustion are common complaints and are most likely due to insufficient resources and high demands (for example: role overload, unmanageable class sizes, violence in classrooms and cuts in government funding) faced by teachers (Jackson et al., 2005). In 2002 is was reported that there are more South African teachers leaving the profession than entering it, highlighted the problem of teacher retention (Xaba, 2003). The overarching aim of this study was, therefore, to develop a nomological network of variables which accounts for variance in ITQ in teachers to better understand this phenomenon. This study used the premise of the Job Demands-Resources theory (Demerouti & Bakker, 2011) to derive a structural model to explicate the psychological mechanism deriving public school teachers’ intention to quit levels in Kwa-Zulu Natal. The study included proactive personality (measured using the Proactive Personality scale by Claes, Beheydt, & Lemmens, 2005), negative and positive work-home and home-work interference (measured with the Survey Work-home Interference Nijmegen, de Klerk & Mostert, 2010), burnout (operationalised with the Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey, Maslach & Schaufeli, 2001), engagement (Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-9, Schaufeli & Bakker, 2003) and intention to quit (the Turnover Intention Scale-3, Cohen, 1993). An ex post facto correlational design with a convenience sample of 135 Kwa-Zulu Natal public school teachers was used. The Partial Least Squares approach was used to analyse the fit of the structural (inner) and measurement (outer) model of this study. Seven out of the ten hypothesised paths contained in the model were found to be significant. The overall model results showed that burnout is the strongest predictor of intention to quit for teachers. A lack of engagement was found to predict intention to quit, but not as strongly as burnout. Furthermore, burnout was more strongly predicted by negative work-home/homework interference than proactive personality, while proactive personality was found to be a moderate predictor of engagement. These results helped formulate recommendations to school management as well as the Department of Education in the form of interventions aimed specifically at reducing intention to quit levels of teachers in public schools.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Die huidige stand van onderwys knou onderwysers se gesindheid, gesondheid en gees. In Suid- Afrika ondervind onderwysers hoë vlakke van spanning, depressie, werksontevredenheid, lae lewenskwaliteit en toenemende afwesigheid (Jackson & Rothman, 2005). Uitbranding, stres en uitputting is algemene klagtes wat heel waarskynlik toegeskryf kan word aan hulpbrontekort en stram vereistes (byvoorbeeld werkslading, onhanteerbare klasgroottes, klaskamergeweld en die sny van regeringsbefondsing) (Jackson et al, 2005). In 2002 was daar berig dat meer Suid-Afrikaanse onderwysers die beroep verlaat as toetree, wat hierdie behoudsprobleem benadruk (Xaba, 2003). Die oorkoepelende mikpunt van hierdie studie was gevolglik om ‘n nomologiese netwerk van veranderlikes te ontwikkel wat die variansie in die voorneme om te bedank (ITQ: Intention to Quit) by onderwysers verduidelik. Die werkseishulpbronteorie (Demerouti & Bakker, 2011) is gebruik as ‘n uitgangspunt om ‘n strukturele model te bepaal wat die sielkundige meganisme ontleed wat lei tot staatsonderwysers se voorneme om te bedank in Kwa-Zulu Natal. Die studie het die volgende ingesluit: Die impak van ‘n proaktiewe persoonlikheid (gemeet deur gebruik te maak van die Proaktiewe-Persoonlikheidskaal deur Claes, Beheydt & Lemmens, 2005); negatiewe en positiewe werksplek-huis en huis-werksplek inmenging (gemeet met die opname: Werk-Huis Inmenging, Njimegen, De Klerk & Mostert, 2010); uitbranding (gemeet met die Maslach Uitbranding Algemene Steekproef, Maslach & Schaufeli, 2001); betrokkenheid (Utrecht Werksbetrokkenheidskaal-9, Schaufeli & Bakker, 2003); voorneme om te bedank (Die Omsetkoers-Voorneme-Skaal-3, Cohen, 1993). ‘n Ex post facto korrelasie ontwerp met ‘n gerieflikheidsteekproef van 135 Kwa-Zulu Natal staatsonderwysers is gebruik. Die parsiële kleinste kwadrate benadering is gebruik om te analiseer hoe gepas die strukturele- (binne) en metings- (buite) modelle van die studie is. Sewe uit die tien hipoteses vervat in hierdie studie het beduidende resultate gelewer. Die algehele resultate van die model het bewys dat uitbranding the beste voorspeller vir voorneme om te bedank by onderwysers is. ‘n Tekort aan betrokkenheid het ook gedui op voorneme om te bedank maar nie so sterk soos uitbranding nie. Uitbranding was sterker voorspel deur negatiewe werksplek-huis/huis-werksplek inmenging as deur ‘n proaktiewe persoonlikheid terwyl ‘n proaktiewe persoonlikheid ‘n matige voorpeller van betrokkenheid was. Hierdie bevindings het gehelp om aanbevelings vir skoolbestuur en die Departement van Onderwys te formuleer om ingrypings van stapel te stuur wat die vlakke van voorneme om te bedank in staatsonderwysers verlaag.

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