Development and evaluation of an organizational citizenship behaviour and counterproductive work behaviour structural model
Thesis (MCom)--Stellenbosch University, 2019.
ENGLISH SUMMARY : The new competitive landscape has three challenges that organisations need to respond to in order to prevent their decline. These challenges, namely globalisation, technological advance and hyper-competition, can be responded to by ensuring that an organisation has a competitive advantage. This competitive advantage can be gained by manipulating the performance of the human resources in the organisation. Performance has been defined as task performance, counterproductive work behaviour (CWB) and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB). Due to the media and large corporate fraud and embezzlement scandals, the CWB aspect of performance has become a topic of interest in research. Research on OCB has also become popular due to its links to organisational performance. Therefore, the objective of this research was to test a comprehensive model of CWB and OCB that had been placed within the framework of the job-demands resources (JD-R) model. The proposed model was tested in the South African context. This research is of importance because a better understanding of the mechanisms that lead to CWB and OCB can be used to better influence behaviour in the workplace and lead to less CWB and more OCB. The model in this research was placed within the framework of the JD-R and, as such, the theory underlying the JD-R was used to justify the relationships in the CWB and OCB model. The model contained the variables organisational justice, emotional demands, the dark triad, OCB and CWB. The aim of this study was to test this overall model, as well as the relationships among the variables. An ex post facto correlational design was used to test the formulated hypotheses. Quantitative data was collected from 179 South African employees employed in the formal job sector using non-probability convenience sampling. A web-based self-administered survey was distributed to the employees of the organisations that agreed to participate in this research. The measuring instruments consisted of: 1) the Counterproductive Work Behaviour Checklist (CWB-C), 2) Lee and Allen’s (2002) OCB scale, 3) the Emotional Demands and Emotion-Rule Dissonance Scale (Bakker, Demerouti, & Schaufeli, 2003), 4) the Short Dark Triad 3.1 (Jones & Paulhus, 2014) and 5) Colquitt’s (2001) Organisational Justice scale. The data was analysed using item analysis and structural equation modelling, with partial least squares path analysis being conducted to determine the significance of the hypothesised relationships. From the 12 hypotheses formulated in the study, five were found to be significant. More specifically, hypotheses 1, 2, 3, 4 and 10 were found to be statistically significant, while hypotheses 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11 and 12 were found not to be statistically significant. These results show that OCB and CWB are in a significant negative relationship, organisational justice is in a significant positive relationship with OCB, the Machiavellianism personality trait is in a significant negative relationship with OCB and, finally, that organisational justice moderates the relationship between emotional demands and CWB. The findings of the study show the importance of developing and maintaining practical interventions that foster organisational justice with the aim of optimising OCB and minimising CWB.
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