Insertion of intrauterine devices after cesarean section : a systematic review update
CITATION: Goldstuck, N. D. & Steyn, P. S. 2017. Insertion of intrauterine devices after cesarean section : a systematic review update. International Journal of Women’s Health, 9:205-212, doi:10.2147/IJWH.S132391.
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Background: Women who undergo a cesarean section (CS) are in a unique position to receive the intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD). They may also want to use the IUD as a long-acting reversible contraceptive method provided the IUD is safe and effective in the presence of a CS scar. Search strategy: We researched and reviewed the MEDLINE, POPLINE, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases from January 1968 to June 2015. Selection criteria: Eligible studies reported event rates or practical problems relating to IUD usage in post-placental or interval insertion (>90 days) after CS. Studies with ≥20 subjects were included. Data collection and analysis: Analysis of eligible data collected from the search followed the PRISMA guidelines. Main results: Twelve eligible studies of post-placental IUD insertion after CS included four randomized controlled trials of post-placental versus delayed insertion. Women randomized to delayed insertion were less likely to receive a device. Six studies examined the problem of missing IUD threads at follow-up with only 30%–60% presence of strings observed. Conclusion: The IUD is a long-acting reversible contraceptive method that is suitable for use in all women undergoing CS. The problems of device expulsion, missing threads at follow-up, and the tendency of increased puerperal bleeding need to be solved. Solutions are proposed.