Cardioprotective potential of N-acetyl cysteine against hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative damage : a protocol for a systematic review

Dludla, Phiwayinkosi V. ; Nkambule, Bongani B. ; Dias, Stephanie C. ; Johnson, Rabia (2017)

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Background: Hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative damage is a well-established factor implicated in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) in diabetic individuals. Some of the well-known characteristics of DCM include increased myocardial left ventricular wall thickness and remodelling that result in reduced cardiac efficiency. To prevent this, an increasing number of pharmacological compounds such as N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) are explored for their antioxidant properties. A few studies have shown that NAC can ameliorate hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative damage within the heart. Hence, the objective of this review is to synthesise the available evidence pertaining to the cardioprotective role of NAC against hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative damage and thus prevent DCM. Methods: This systematic review protocol will be reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. We will perform a comprehensive search on major databases such as EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PubMed and Google scholar for original research articles published from January 1960 to March 2017. We will only report on literature that is available in English. Two authors will independently screen for eligible studies using pre-defined criteria, and data extraction will be done in duplicate. All discrepancies will be resolved by consensus or consultation of a third reviewer. The quality of studies will be checked using Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool and The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Critical Appraisal tools for non-randomised experimental studies. Heterogeneity across studies will be assessed using the Cochrane Q statistic and the inconsistency index (I2). We will use the random effects model to calculate a pooled estimate. Discussion: Although several studies have shown that NAC can ameliorate hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative damage within the heart, this systematic review will be the first pre-registered synthesis of data to identify the cardioprotective potential of NAC against hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative damage. This result will help guide future research evaluating the cardioprotective role of NAC against DCM and better identify possible mechanisms of action for NAC to prevent oxidative damage with a diabetic heart.

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