Die bewustheid, houding en rapporteringspraktyke van grondslagfase-onderwysers rakende kindermishandeling

Punt, Yvette (2018-12)

Thesis (MEdPsych)--Stellenbosch University, 2018.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY : Child abuse is a serious, widespread social problem in South Africa, with one in every three children exposed to sexual and physical abuse before the age of 18 (USB Optimus Stigting, 2016). It not only has an immediate effect on the perpetrator, victim, families, and the community, but the prolonged impact of emotional and psychological scars can also influence the abused child during his or her whole life. Foundation-phase teachers find themselves in an ideal position to identify and report child abuse because of the large amount of time spent with children. Because of this reality, teachers play a vital role in identifying and reporting child abuse to protect and support children. Furthermore, a legal obligation rests on teachers to report child abuse if they suspect it. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine foundation-phase teachers' awareness, attitudes, and reporting practices regarding child abuse. The study is embedded in the social context perspective that considers both the bio-ecological model and social-constructionism. The approaches provided insight into the teachers' different experiences, multiple realities, and different social contexts in which they move around. The bio-ecological approach also provided insight into the various factors that affect an educator's identification and reporting practices. To achieve the objectives of the study, an interpretivist-constructivist qualitative research approach was followed. A multiple case study involving two different schools was used to approach the research questions. Three teachers per school were identified by means of purposive sampling and approached to participate voluntarily in the study. Data were generated by means of in-depth, semi-structured individual and focus group interviews that provided colourful qualitative descriptions. In addition, thematic analysis was used to group the participants' responses in different themes by means of coding. The research findings indicate that the teachers have the highest regard for their professional responsibility to protect children and thus identify and report child abuse. However, this study found that several factors prevent teachers from identifying and reporting child abuse. Although teachers have positive experiences with regard to their support structures, they seem to lack knowledge and training, together with potential challenges that could affect their attitude. These challenges prevent them from effectively fulfilling their role in dealing with abuse and include contextual and cultural beliefs, time limits and administrative aspects, their fear of the consequences of identification and reporting, as well as mistrust in the national protection and justice system. The results of the study also indicate that teachers have different needs with regard to identifying and reporting child abuse. Consequently, meaningful recommendations were made based on the findings from the study. Recommendations have been made especially regarding training, resources, and prevention strategies.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Kindermishandeling is 'n ernstige, wydverspreide sosio-maatskaplike probleem in Suid-Afrika met een uit drie kinders wat voor die ouderdom van 18 reeds aan seksuele- en fisiese mishandeling blootgestel is (USB Optimus Stigting, 2016). Nie net het dit 'n onmiddellike effek op die oortreder, slagoffer, families asook die gemeenskap nie, maar die langdurige effek van emosionele en sielkundige verwonding kan die mishandelde kind sy of haar hele lewe bybly. Grondslagfase-onderwysers bevind hulself in 'n ideale posisie om kindermishandeling te identifiseer en te rapporteer weens die groot hoeveelheid tyd wat hulle saam met kinders deurbring. Vanweë hierdie realiteit speel onderwysers 'n onontbeerlike rol in die identifisering en rapportering van kindermishandeling om kinders te beskerm en te ondersteun. Verder rus daar ook 'n wetlike verpligting op onderwysers om kindermishandeling te rapporteer indien hul dit vermoed. Gevolglik was die doel van hierdie studie om grondslagfase-onderwysers se bewustheid, houding asook rapporteringspraktyke ten opsigte van kindermishandeling te bepaal. Die studie is ingebed in die sosiale konteks-perspektief wat beide die bio-ekosistemiese model en sosiaal-konstruksionisme in ag neem. Die benaderings het insig gebied oor die onderwysers se verskillende ervarings, veelvuldige realiteite en verskillende sosiale kontekste waarin hul beweeg. Die bio-ekosistemiese benadering het ook insig gebied ten opsigte van die verskeie faktore wat 'n invloed op 'n onderwyser se identifiserings- en rapporteringspraktyke het. Ten einde die doelstellings van die studie te bereik, is 'n interpretatiewe-konstruktivistiese kwalitatiewe navorsingsbenadering gevolg. 'n Veelvuldige gevallestudie wat twee verskillende skole betrek het, is vervolgens gebruik om die navorsingsvrae te benader. Drie onderwysers per skool is deur middel van doelgerigte steekproefneming geïdentifiseer en genader om vrywillig aan die studie deel te neem. Data is gegenereer deur diepgaande, semi-gestruktureerde individuele- en fokusgroeponderhoude wat ryk geskakeerde en in-diepte kwalitatiewe beskrywings gebied het. Daarbenewens is tematiese analise gebruik om deelnemers se response deur middel van kodering in temas te groepeer. Die navorsingsbevindinge dui aan dat onderwysers hul professionele verantwoordelikheid om kinders te beskerm en sodoende kindermishandeling te identifiseer en rapporteer, hoog op prys stel. Hierdie studie het bevind dat verskeie faktore onderwysers egter verhoed om kindermishandeling te identifiseer en te rapporteer. Alhoewel onderwysers positiewe ervarings jeens hul ondersteuningstrukture het, blyk dit dat onderwysers 'n gebrek aan kennis en opleiding het, tesame met ander moontlike uitdagings wat hul houding beïnvloed. Hierdie uitdagings weerhou hulle daarvan om hul rol ten opsigte van mishandeling effektief te vervul en sluit onder andere kontekstuele en kulturele oortuigings, tydsbeperkings en administratiewe aspekte, hul vrees vir die gevolge van identifisering en rapportering, asook wantroue in die nasionale beskerming- en regstelsel in. Die studie se resultate dui ook daarop dat onderwysers verskeie behoeftes het met betrekking tot die identifisering en rapportering van kindermishandeling. Gevolglik is betekenisvolle aanbevelings op grond van die bevindinge van die studie gemaak. Aanbevelings is veral gemaak ten opsigte van opleiding, hulpbronne en voorkomingstrategieë.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/105180
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