Chrysomya chloropyga larvae meal as a protein source for broiler nutrition

Van der Merwe, Albertus Jacobus Wilhelmus (2018-12)

Thesis (MSc)--Stellenbosch University, 2018.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study investigated the possibility of using Chrysomya chloropyga (copper bottom blow fly) larvae meal as a protein source in broiler nutrition. At first the chemical composition of the larvae meal was determined before three balanced diets were formulated containing 5%, 10% and 15% larvae meal, along with a maize-soya based control diet. The four diets were fed to 320 day-old Cobb 500 broiler chickens. A three phase feeding system were used i.e. starter (900g per bird), grower (1200g per bird) and finisher (1200g per bird). Each treatment was replicated eight times. The effect of the copper bottom blow fly larvae on the production parameters of broilers were determined. Treatment had no effect on average intake per bird, feed conversion ratio (FCR), European production efficiency factor (EPEF) or livability. Broilers that were fed the 10% inclusion had a slightly higher live weight at slaughter and average daily gain (ADG) than the other three treatments. The chemical, physical, carcass and sensory characteristics were then evaluated. Treatment had no effect on cold carcass weight, dressing percentage, thigh-, drumstick- wing and back yields. The 10% inclusion had a higher breast portion yield than the other treatments. No differences were observed regarding the yields of skin plus fat, muscle or bone percentages. Treatment did not affect meat colour. No differences were observed regarding the initial pH (pHi) of the breast and thigh meat, or the ultimate pH (pHu) of the breast. The pHu of the thigh of the 5% and 15% inclusion were lower than that of the Control and 10% inclusion. The control meat had a higher moisture content and a lower ash content than the three treatment diets. Protein and fat did not differ. No differences regarding the amino acid composition and the mineral composition in the broiler meat were observed. Few differences were observed for sensory attributes of the broiler meat. The 5% inclusion had the highest chicken aroma, the control had the lowest chicken aroma and the 10% and 15% were intermediate. The control had the highest initial juiciness, while the 10% and 15% had significant lower values for initial juiciness. Lastly the organ, gut and tibia bone parameters were evaluated. Treatment had no effect on gizzard erosion and all gizzard scores were normal. Treatment had no effect on gizzard, liver, heart, bursa or spleen weights or the weight of these organs relative to live weight. Treatment had no effect on tibia bone breaking force and tibia bone breaking strength. Treatment had little effect on tibia bone mineral composition, with only a difference in the potassium (K) content; the control had a lower K content than the three larvae fed diets. Overall the study concluded that copper bottom blow fly larvae meal can be used in broiler diets at inclusions levels of up to 15% without any negative effect while 10% inclusion yielded positive results in some instances.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van die studie was om die moontlikheid van die gebruik van Chrysomya chloropyga (CC) larwe meel in braaikuiken voeding te ondersoek. Die chemiese samestelling van die larwe meel was bepaal, en daarna is drie gebalanseerde diëte geformuleer wat 5%, 10% en 15% larwe meel bevat het. ʼn Kontrole dieet is ook geformuleer. Die vier diëte is gevoer aan 320 dag-oud Cobb 500 braaikuikens. ʼn Drie fase voersisteem is gevolg nl. aanvangs (900g per kuiken), groei rantsoen (1200g per kuiken) en afrond rantsoen (1200g per kuiken). Elke behandeling is ag keer herhaal. Die effek van CC larwe meel op die produksie parameters van braaikuikens is bepaal. Behandeling het geen effek op voer inname, voeromsetverhouding, Europese produksie effektiwiteitsfaktor en kuiken oorlewing gehad nie. Die 10% insluiting het ‘n effe beter lewendige eindgewig en gemiddelde daaglikse toename (GDT) as die ander drie behandelings gehad. Die chemiese, fisiese, karkas en sensoriese eienskappe was bepaal. Behandeling het geen effek op koue karkasgewig, uitslag persentasie, dy-, boud-, vlerk- en rugopbrengs gehad nie. Die 10% insluiting het ʼn hoër borsopbrengs gehad as die ander behandelings. Geen verskille in terme van weefsel opbrengste was gevind nie. Behandeling het geen effek op vleis kleur gehad nie. Geen verskille was gesien in die aanvanklike pH van die bors en dy asook die finale pH van die bors nie. Die finale pH van die dy van die 5% en 15% insluitings was effens laer as die van die kontrole en die 10% insluiting. Die kontrole vleis het ‘n hoër vog inhoud gehad as die ander drie behandelings, asook ‘n laer as inhoud. Proteïene en vet het nie verskil nie. Geen verskille rakende aminosuur samestelling en die minerale samestelling van die vleis was aangemeld nie. Min verskille wat sensoriese parameters betref is gesien. Die 5% insluiting het die hoogste hoender geur gehad, die kontrole het die laagste met die 10% en 15% intermediêr. Die kontrole het die hoogste aanvanklike sappigheid gehad, terwyl die 10% en 15% laer waardes vir aanvanklike sappigheid gehad het. Laastens is die orgaan, maelmaag en tibia been parameters evalueer. Behandeling het geen effek op maelmaagerosie gehad nie, en die maelmaggies was geklassifiseer as normaal. Behandeling het geen effek op maelmaag, lewer, hart, bursa of milt gewigte, asook hulle verhoudings tot slagmassa gehad nie. Behandeling het geen effek op tibia been breekkrag of tibia been breeksterkte gehad nie. Behandeling het min effek op tibia been mineraalsamestelling gehad, met net verskille in kaliumvlakke (K). Die kontrole het ʼn beduidende laer K-waarde gehad as die drie larwe behandelings. Die gevolgtrekking kan gemaak word dat CC larwe meel in braaikuiken diëte gebruik kan word tot en met ʼn insluiting van 15% sonder enige nadelige effek, die 10% insluiting het op ʼn paar plekke die beter resultate gelewer.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/105060
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