Cognitive and linguistic complexity in an isiZulu task-based computer-assisted language-learning syllabus for health sciences students

Gokool, Roshni (2018-12)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2018.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Effective doctor-patient communication is one of the key components entrenched in health sciences curriculum of universities in South Africa. With most patients speaking isiZulu as their mother tongue language, it is imperative that effective healthcare is provided in the patients’ language. The inclusion of the teaching of African languages in health sciences programmes is crucial. Whilst efforts are made to improve the status quo of second language (L2) teaching and learning of African languages within South African higher education institutions, the need for research based on scientific and principled theories of second language acquisition (SLA) is still required. This study, therefore investigates an isiZulu task-based syllabus design for doctor-patient communication for health sciences students studying at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The study adopts a multifaceted approach to the teaching of isiZulu L2 that invokes key principles of task-based language learning and teaching (TBLT), language for specific purpose (LSP) and computer-assisted language learning (CALL) related to second language acquisition. The aim of this study is to explore a procedure for a task-based CALL syllabus design based on a design-based approach. To prepare students for the realities in a healthcare context, it was essential that the investigation on syllabus design focused on real authentic communication tasks. Medical students registered for a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBChB) at the Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa participated in a needs analysis, an essential first step towards the investigation of the design of the task-based CALL syllabus. The purpose of the analysis was to ascertain the proficiency levels of the students, gather information regarding their current knowledge about isiZulu, or lack of knowledge thereof, and digital skills to be learnt and developed to acquire isiZulu skills to conduct a successful doctor-patient consultation. To create an organic learning environment that allows students to learn isiZulu in a real communicative sense, it was necessary to design relevant, locally produced authentic learning material that reflect doctor-patient communication, based on the students’ needs analysis. Hence, simulated and authentic doctor-patient interviews were used to create communication target tasks appropriate for healthcare professionals at a basic-intermediate proficiency level of isiZulu. The communication target tasks were used as the unit of analysis for the investigation into syllabus design. Communication tasks were graded and sequenced in terms of their cognitive complexity and linguistic complexity, which was then used to design isiZulu pedagogic tasks for enhancing second language development of students. Insights and perspectives on how to include focus on grammatical form in a communicative way were also considered. The findings of the study indicated that most of the communication target tasks were cognitively complex in terms of Robinson’s (2005) Cognition Hypothesis. It also showed that the tasks exemplified high syntactic complexity. Target tasks were simplified by descaling/decomplexifying the target tasks, using Robinson’s SSARC Model (2010) to ensure that the pedagogic tasks are more manageable for students to perform. The study is concluded that the design of a task-based CALL syllabus for isiZulu L2 health sciences students is a complex process and the success of such a syllabus design is dependent on several key elements.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Doeltreffende dokter-pasiënt kommunikasie is een van die sleutelkomponente vasgelê in die gesondheidswetenskappe kurrikulum van universiteite in Suid-Afrika. In die lig daarvan dat die grootste getal pasiënte isiZulu as hul eerste (moeder) taal praat, is dit noodsaaklik dat doeltreffende gesondheidsorg in pasiënte se taal voorsien word. Die insluiting van die onderrig van Afrikatale in die gesondheidswetenskappe programme van universiteite is dus noodsaaklik. In die lig van pogings wat aangewend word om die huidige stand van tweedetaalonderrig en –leer van die Afrikatale aan universiteite te verhoog, bestaan daar ‘n behoefte aan navorsing gebaseer op wetenskaplike teorieë van tweedetaalverwerwing. Hierdie studie ondersoek dus Taakgebaseerde sillabusontwerp vir dokter-pasiënt kommunikasie vir die onderrig van gesondheidswetenskappe studente aan die Universiteit van KwaZulu-Natal, Suid-Afrika. Die studie gebruik ‘n multi-faset benadering tot die onderrig van isiZulu as ‘n tweedetaal wat sleutelbeginsels ontgin van taakgebaseerde leer en onderrig, taal vir spesifieke doeleindes, en rekenaargesteunde onderrig soos dit verband hou met tweedetaalverwerwing. Die doel van die studie is om ‘n prosedure te ondersoek vir taakgebaseerde rekenaargesteunde sillabusontwerp gebaseer op ‘n ontwerp-gebaseerde benadering. Ten einde studente voor te berei vir die kommunikasie werklikhede van die gesondheidsdienstekonteks, was dit noodsaaklik dat die ondersoek na sillabusontwerp fokus op outentieke kommunikasietake. Mediese studente wat geregistreer is vir ‘n Baccalaureus in Geneeskunde (MBChB) by die Nelson R Mandela Skool vir Geneeskunde aan die Universiteit van Kwazulu-Natal, Suid-Afrika, het deelgeneem aan ‘n behoefte-analise, ‘n noodsaaklike eerste stap in die ondersoek na die ontwerp van ‘n taakgebaseerde rekenaar-gesteunde sillabus. Die doel van die analise was om die taalvaardigheidsvlakke in isiZulu van die studente te bepaal, inligting te verkry van hulle bestaande kennis van isiZulu, of afwesigheid van taalkennis, en digitale vaardighede wat hulle nodig het om te leer en te ontwikkel, ten einde isiZulu taalvaardigheid te verwerf benodig vir ‘n doeltreffende dokter-pasiënt konsultasie. Ten einde ‘n organiese leeromgewing te skep wat studente in staat stel om isiZulu in ‘n werkliikheidsgetroue kommunikatiewe sin te leer, was dit nodig om relevante, plaaslik geskepte outentieke leermateriaal te ontwerp wat dokter-pasiënt kommunikasie weergee, soos gebaseer op studente se behoefte analise. Dus is gesimuleerde en outentieke dokter-pasiënt onderhoude gebruik om kommunikasie teikentake te skep wat toepaslik is vir professionele gesondheidspersoneel met ‘n basiese-intermediêre taalvaardigheidsvlak in isiZulu. Hierdie kommunikasie teikentake is gebruik as die eenheid vir analise in die ondersoek van sillabusontwerp. Die kommunikasietake is gegradeer en georden in terme van hul kognitiewe kompleksiteit en linguïstiese kompleksiteit, wat daarna gebruik is in die ontwerp van pedagogiese take vir isiZulu ten einde die tweedetaalontwikkeling van studente te bevorder. Insigte en perspektiewe rakende die insluiting van fokus op grammatikale vorm op ‘n kommunikatiewe wyse, is ook beskou. Die bevindings van die studie het aangedui dat die meeste van die kommunikasietake kognitief kompleks is in terme van Robinson (2005) se kognisiehipotese. Dit het ook aangetoon dat die take ‘n hoë mate van sintaktiese kompleksiteit vertoon. Teikentake is vereenvoudig deur die afskaling/dekompleksiefisering van die teikentake, deur gebruik van Robinson (2010) se SSARC model, ten einde te verseker dat die pedagogiese take meer toepaslik is vir leerders om uit te voer. Die studie het tot die slotsom gekom dat die ontwerp van ‘n taakgebaseerde isiZulu tweedetaal sillabus vir gesondheidswetenskappe studente ‘n komplekse proses is en dat die doeltreffendheid van so ‘n sillabus ontwerp afhanklik is van verskeie sleutel elemente.

IQOQA LESIZULU: Ukuxhumana ngendlela efanele phakathi kukadokotela nesiguli kuyisakhi esibaluleke kakhulu ohlelweni lwezemfundo lwesayensi yezempilo emanyuvesi aseNingizimu Afrika. Njengoba iningi leziguli zikhuluma isiZulu njengolimi lwazo lwebele, kubalulekile ukuthi ukunakekelwa kwazo ngokwezempilo kunikezelwe ngolimi lwazo. Ukufakwa kokufundiswa kwezilimi zase-Afrika ezinhlelweni zesayensi yezempilo kubaluleke kakhulu. Nakuba ikhona imizamo eyenziwayo ukuthuthukisa isimo sokufundiswa nokufundwa kolimi lwesibili (L2) lwase-Afrika ezikhungweni zemfundo ephakeme eNingizimu Afrika, isidingo socwaningo olusekelwe ezesayensi nemigomo yezinjulalwazi zokufundiswa nokufundwa kolimi lwesibili (SLA) kusadingeka. Ngakho-ke, lolu cwaningo luhlola kabanzi uhlelo lokufundisa isiZulu olwesekelwe ukwenza oluveza indlela yokuxhumana phakathi kukadokotela nesiguli olwenzelwe abafundi bezesayensi yezempilo abafunda eNyuvesi YaKwaZulu-Natali, eNingizimu Afrika. Lolu cwaningo luthathe izindlela ezahlukene zokufundisa isiZulu njengolimi lwesibili okuhlanganisa imigomo ebalulekile yokufundiswa nokufundwa kolimi okusekelwe indlela yokwenza, ukufundiswa kolimi kwenzelwa imigomo ethile kanye nokufunda nokufundiswa kolimi lwesibili (TBLT), ukufundiswa kolimi kwenzelwa izinhloso ezithile kanye nokufundiswa kolimi kulekelelwa usizo lwamakhompyutha (CALL) okuhlobene nokufunda nokufundisa ulimi lwesibili. Inhloso yalolu cwaningo ukuhlola indlela yokufundisa okusekelwe indlela yokwenza okusebenzisa ubuchwepheshe bamakhompyutha okunesisekelo sendlela yokuqamba. Ukuze ulungiselele abafundi ukuze bakwazi ukubhekana nobunjalo besimo endaweni enakekela ngezempilo uma sebephothule iziqu, kwakubalulekile ukuba ukuhlolwa kohlelo lokufunda oluhlongoziwe lugxile emaqinisweni emisebenzi yezokuxhumana. Abafundi bezempilo ababhalisele iziqu zobudokotela (MBChB) eNelson R Mandela School of Medicine, eNyuvesi YaKwaZulu-Natali, eNingizimu Afrika babamba iqhaza ekuhlaziyeni izidingo, okuyigxathu lokuqala elibaluleke kakhulu ekuhloleni uhlelo lokufunda olusekelwe indlela yokwenza (CALL) kusetshenziswa ubuchwepheshe bamakhompyutha. Inhloso yokuhlaziya kwakuwukuthola amazinga abafundi okukhuluma isiZulu ngokuhululeka, ukuqoqa ulwazi olumayelana nokuqonda kwabo isiZulu njengamanje, ukuntuleka kolwazi lwaso kanye namakhono okubhala ngekhompyutha okumele afundwe futhi athuthukiswe ukuze bathole amakhono esiZulu okuxhumana okuyimpumelelo phakathi kukadokotela nesiguli uma kudingeka. Ukuze kwakhiwe isimo sokufunda esiphilayo esivumela abafundi baziqeqeshe olimini lwesiZulu ekuxhumaneni kwangempela, kwakunesidingo sokuba kwakhiwe izinsiza-kufundisa eziqondene ngqo nakho, ezakhiwe ngalo ulimi lwesiZulu ezikhombisa ukuxhumana phakathi kukadokotela nesiguli, ezakhelwe ukuhlaziya izidingo zabafundi. Ngakho-ke izingxoxo ezifanele futhi eziyiqiniso phakathi kukadokotela nesiguli zasetshenziselwa ukwenza imisebenzi yokuxhumana ehlosiwe kubasebenzi bezempilo abenza umsebenzi abawufundele emazingeni ayisisekelo aphakathi okukhuluma ngokukhululeka ulimi lwesiZulu. Imisebenzi yokuxhumana ehlosiwe yasetshenziswa njengeyunithi yokuhlaziya ukuhlola ukwakhiwa kohlelo lokufunda. Imisebenzi yokuxhumana yakalwa futhi yalandelaniswa ngokujula bokuqonda nobolimi, obabe sebusetshenziswa ukwakha imisebenzi yokufundisa isiZulu ukuthuthukisa ulimi lwesibili lwabafundi. Kwabhekwa ukuhlola nokuqonda ukuthi kungafakwa kanjani ekugcizeleleni igrama ngezindlela zokuxhumana. Okutholakele kulolu cwaningo kukhombise ukuthi imisebenzi eminingi ehlose ukuxhumana yayinokuningi okuthinta ingqondo ngokukaRobinson’s Cognition Hypothesis (2005). Okutholakele kuphinde kwakhombisa ukuthi imisebenzi ikhombise ukuhleleka kwemisho okusezingeni eliphezulu. Imisebenzi ehlosiwe yenziwa lula ngokuba kuhlukaniswe imisebenzi ehlosiwe, kusetshenziswa indlela kaRobinson iSSARC (2010) ukuqinisekisa ukuthi imisebenzi yokufundisa ulimi ilula futhi ayimningi ukuze abafundi bakwazi ukuyenza. Lolu cwaningo luphethe ngokuthi ukwakhiwa kohlelo lokufunda olusebenzisa obuchwepheshe bamakhompyutha olugxile ekwenzeni lolimi lwesibili kubafundi bezesayensi yezempilo kuwuhlelo olujulile kanti impumelelo yohlelo lokufunda olunjalo incike ezintweni eziningi ezibalulekile.

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