The effects of education on employment from a gender perspective, factoring in spatial effects

Mabela, Constance Sarah (2018-03)

Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University 2018.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Since the new democracy, government has put in place various policy directives promoting equal opportunities for males and females in the country. However, while improvements in educational attainment have been experienced (particularly for females), gender inequalities in the South African labour market remain large. The present study analyses the relationship between levels of education and employment using data from three censuses (1996, 2001 and 2011) to determine whether the potential for gaining employment and the type of job attained is equivalent for males and females between the ages of 15 and 64, within the period 1996 to 2011. The study is undertaken from a gender perspective in order to ascertain differences in female and male outcomes. Spatial effects are factored in to explain geographical variances in employment and occupation. The results showed an imbalance between male and female labour market participation. Although there was a higher proportion of females in the population of working age, females did not participate in the labour market to the same extent as males. On one hand, they were over represented among the unemployed, on the other hand those that were employed mainly worked in the lower echelons of the occupational structure. In contrast, males dominated in employment, suggesting greater employment access for males than for females. While education was the strongest predictor both for improved male and female employment, this was more relevant for females. However, among females, addition demographic and socio-economic factors further impacted employment and occupation outcomes. Spatial effects also played a role in determining access to employment. The highest percentages of employment and skilled occupations were found in districts and metros belonging to the economic hubs of the country i.e., Gauteng, the Western Cape and Kwa-Zulu Natal. However, while more males recorded the highest percentages than females in most areas, the largest gender differences (in favour of males) were shown to be prominent in areas with the highest concentration of lower levels of educational attainment, further suggesting the importance of education in reducing gender inequities in employment. The clustering of specific industrial sectors in various districts and metros also impacted the extent to which levels of employment for males and females were distributed within different geographical areas, leading to gender employment inequalities in those areas.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Sedert die nuwe demokrasie het die regering verskeie beleidsriglyne, waarvolgens gelyke geleenthede vir mans en vroue in die land aangemoedig is, neergelê. Alhoewel verbetering in geskooldheid (veral vir vroue) plaasgevind het, het geslagongelykhede in die Suid-Afrikaanse arbeidsmark groot gebly. Die huidige studie analiseer die verwantskap tussen die vlakke van geskooldheid (onderwys) en indiensneming deur gebruik te maak van data van drie sensusses (1996, 2001 en 2011) om vas te stel of die potensiaal van indiensneming en die soort werk wat verkry is ekwivalent vir mans en vroue tussen die ouderdomme 15 en 64, tussen 1996 en 2011 was. Die studie is vanuit ‘n geslagsoogpunt gedoen sodat die verskille in uitkomste tussen vroue en mans vasgestel kan word. Ruimtelike beïnvloedings (effekte) is ingefaktoreer om as verduideliking van die geografiese veranderlikes in indiensneming en beroep te dien. Die resultate dui ‘n wanbalans tussen mans en vroue se deelname in die arbeidsmark aan. Alhoewel daar ‘n hoër proporsie van vroue in die werkende bevolkingspopulasie is, het vroue nie in die arbeidsmark tot dieselfde mate as mans deelgeneem nie. Vroue aan die eenkant was oorverteenwoordigend van die werkloses en, aan die anderkant, was diegene wat werkloos was hoofsaaklik in die laer geskoolde strukture werksaam gewees. In teenstelling hiermee, was mans se indiensneming dominant gewees wat groter toegang tot indiensneming as vroue in die vooruitsig gestel het. Terwyl geskooldheid die sterkste aanduider vir verbetering van beide mans en vroue indiensneming was, was dit meer van toepassing op vroue. Onder vroue het addisionele demografiese en sosio-ekonomiese faktore egter ‘n verdere uitwerking op indiensneming en addisionele uitkomste gehad. Ruimtelike effekte het ook ‘n rol gespeel in die vasstelling van toegang tot indiensneming. Die hoogste persentasies van indiensneming en geskoolde beroepe is in distrikte en metros, wat behoort het aan die ekonomiese kern van die land, gevind. Dit is Gauteng, die Wes-Kaap en Kwazulu-Natal. Terwyl meer mans as vroue egter op ‘n persentasie basis in die meeste van die gebiede was, het die grootste geslagsverskille (in die guns van mans) prominent voorgekom in gebiede met die hoogste konsentrasie van laer vlakke van geskooldheid, wat ‘n verdere aanduiding is van die belangrikheid van onderwys om geslagsongelykhede in indiensneming te verminder. Die samevoeging van spesifieke industriële sektore in verskeie distrikte en metros het ook ‘n invloed op die vlakke van indiensneming vir mans en vroue uitgeoefen wat oor verskillende geografiese gebiede versprei was, wat tot geslagsongelyke indiensneming in daardie gebiede gelei het.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/103946
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