Evaluating the effectiveness of nutrition behaviour change communication interventions among smallholder farmers in Makoni rural district of Manicaland Province in Zimbabwe

Takawira, Delilah (2018-03)

Thesis (MNutr)--Stellenbosch University, 2018.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY : Introduction: Nutrition education has been identified by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) as critical to ensuring agriculture interventions improve nutrition. The importance of Behaviour Change Communication (BCC) approaches to improving nutrition have been suggested, together with recommendations for research on creating demand for nutritious foods and how this is affected by social, cultural and other factors. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of nutrition BCC interventions implemented by the Livelihoods and Food Security Programme (LFSP) in increasing demand for nutritious foods among smallholder farmers in Makoni district of Manicaland Province in Zimbabwe. Methods: The study employed an observational and cross-sectional design, using both quantitative and qualitative data gathering techniques to seek in-depth understanding of knowledge, behaviours and practises for food consumption, the intervention’s influence on these, factors affecting them as well as participants’ perceptions of the intervention. Secondary intervention data was reviewed to obtain baseline status of participants, followed by five Key Informant Interviews (KII) (n=5) with intervention personnel, 40 (n=40) in-depth interviews with intervention participants and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with 81 (n=81) participants divided into four groups. Participants were selected through purposive random sampling. A rapid market survey assessed access and availability of various foods. Quantitative data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) while qualitative data was analysed using NVivo. Results: The LFSP nutrition BCC intervention increased household food security from 89.5% at baseline to 96.7%, household dietary diversity from 24% of households consuming more than six food groups at baseline to 86.7% after the intervention. Diversified crop production in gardens increased from 56% growing only one type of crop and 20% and 16% growing two and three crops respectively at baseline to more than 70% growing five or more vegetables and 95% growing fruit trees after the intervention. Household consumption of meat and fish and fruits increased from 26.7% and 38.4% respectively at baseline to 65% and 96.7% respectively after the intervention. The intervention introduced biofortified maize and beans high in vitamin A and iron zinc respectively. Children aged 6 – 23 months achieving Minimum Dietary Diversity (MDD) increased from 12% at baseline to 100% post-intervention. Approximately 93.3% of women of childbearing age achieved the MDD-Women with more than 80% of women consuming eight of ten assessed food groups. Women’s dietary diversity was not assessed at baseline. Participants felt the intervention successfully increased their nutrition knowledge, ability to diversifiy crop production and access to varied foods including some new crops. Participants also reported improved knowledge of food preparation and optimum child feeding. The rapid market survey showed that local communities sought processed foods that they could not produce from the local markets. Local markets had little influence on demand for nutritious foods by the intervention population. Conclusion: The LFSP nutrition BCC interventions were effective in stimulating demand for diverse and nutritious foods in Makoni district. This proved that nutrition BCC can be effectively delivered in a nutrition sensitive agriculture intervention to influence demand and consumption of diverse, nutritious foods.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Voedingsopvoeding is deur die Voedsel en Landbou Organisasie van die Verenigde State geïdentifiseer as van kardinale belang om te verseker dat landbou-ingrypings 'n positiewe invloed op voeding het. Baie navorsers het die belangrikheid van die gebruik van voedings-gedrag-veranderings-kommunikasie evaluerings aangemoedig. Daar is ook aanbeveel dat daar navorsing gedoen word om die aanvraag na voedsame kosse te skep en die hoë sosiale, kulturele en ander faktore wat dit beïnvloed. Hierdie studie het ten doel om die doeltreffendheid van voedings-gedrag-verander-kommunikasie ingrypings, wat deur die lewensbestaan en voedselveiligheidsingryping geïmplementeer is, te evalueer en sodoende die vraag na voedsame kosse onder kleinboere in die Makoni-distrik van Manicaland-provinsie in Zimbabwe te verhoog. Die studie het 'n waarnemings- en dwarsdeursnee-ontwerp gebruik wat beide kwantitatiewe en kwalitatiewe data-insamelingstegnieke gebruik om 'n diepgaande begrip van kennis, gedrag en praktyke vir voedselverbruik te soek. Die invloed van die ingryping op hierdie faktore wat hulle beïnvloed, sowel as deelnemers se persepsies van die ingryping is ook ondersoek. 'n Oorsig van sekondêre ingrypingsdata is gedoen om die basislynstatus van deelnemers te verkry, gevolg deur 5 sleutel informant onderhoude (n = 5) met ingrypings personeel, 40 (n = 40) in-diepte onderhoude met ingrypings-deelnemers en fokus groep besprekings met 81 (n = 81) deelnemers wat in vier groepe gedeel was. Deelnemers is gekies deur doelgerigte, ewekansige steekproefneming. 'n Mark assessering is uitgevoer om die toegang tot en beskikbaarheid van verskillende kosse te bepaal. Kwantitatiewe data is geanaliseer met behulp van die statistiese pakket vir sosiale wetenskappe, terwyl kwalitatiewe data met NVivo geanaliseer is. Die Voedsel en Landbou Organisasie - voedings-gedrag-veranderings-kommunikasie-ingryping het verseker dat huishoudelike voedselsekuriteit van 89,5% op basislyn tot 96,7% toegeneem het, huishoudelike dieetdiversiteit het van 24% tot 86,7% na die ingryping verhoog. Die groei van 'n wye verskeidenheid gewasse in tuine het gestyg van 56% met slegs een tipe gewas en 20% en 16% onderskeidelik met twee en drie gewasse by basislyn tot meer as 70% wat vyf of meer groente groei. Huishoudelike verbruik van vleis, vis en vrugte het onderskeidelik van 26,7% en 38,4% na onderskeidelik 65% en 96,7% toegeneem. Die ingryping het biogefortifiseerde mielies en boontjies met 'n hoë gehalte Vitamien A, yster, en sink onderskeidelik. Kinders tussen die ouderdomme van 6 tot 23 maande wat MDD bereik het, het vanaf 12% na 100% na die ingryping toegeneem. Ongeveer 93,3% van vroue in vrugbare ouderdom het die MDD-W behaal met meer as 80% van die vroue wat agt van tien geëvalueerde voedselgroepe verbruik. Die vroue se dieetdiversiteit is nie by die basislyn geassesseer nie. Deelnemers het gevoel dat die ingryping suksesvol was in die verhoging van hul voedingskennis, die vermoë om 'n wye verskeidenheid gewasse te verbou en hul toegang tot baie kosse, insluitend nuwe gewasse. Deelnemers het ook verbeterde kennis van voedselvoorbereiding en kindervoedings frekwensie en verskeidenheid aangemeld. Die markassessering het getoon dat plaaslike gemeenskappe geprosesseerde voedsel soek wat hulle nie plaaslike kon produseer nie. Plaaslike markte het min invloed gehad op die ingrypings bevolking se vraag na voedsame kosse. Die Voedsel en Landbou Organisasie - voedings-gedrag-veranderings-kommunikasie-ingryping was effektief om die vraag na diverse en voedsame kosse in die Makoni-distrik te stimuleer. Dit het bewys dat die verandering van voedingsgedrag effektief in 'n voedingsgevoelige landbou-ingryping gelewer kan word om die vraag en verbruik van diverse, voedsame kosse te beïnvloed.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/103879
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