Urinary incontinence in adolescent gymnasts

Wilsdorf Samuel, Annegret (2018-03)

Thesis (MScPhysio)--Stellenbosch University, 2018.


ENGLISH SUMMARY : Introduction Urinary incontinence (UI) affects women of all ages, but its presence in adolescence is associated with UI in later life. While pregnancy and parity have a strenuous and even damaging effect on the urogenital system, they are not risk factors in adolescence. In South Africa, the prevalence of adolescent UI is unknown and investigations into the particular risk factors are required. Prevalence rates of incontinence in young athletes are concerning. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is the most common form of UI. Great variation in the prevalence of SUI in nulliparous athletes has been reported. High-impact sports, in particular gymnastics and ballet, have the highest prevalence rates. Connective tissue disorders have been associated with SUI in adults and nulliparous females. Normally, gymnasts and ballerinas regard general joint hypermobility (GJH) as an asset due to the enhanced flexibility it affords them, but it may also place the athletes’ musculoskeletal system under strain, resulting in early fatigue. The investigation into a nulliparous adolescent gymnastic population is needed to identify early risk factors. The aim of this thesis is to describe the prevalence, severity and risk factors of SUI in the female adolescent population and to determine if GJH is a risk factor for SUI in an adolescent gymnastic population. Methodology We used a structured literature review to summarise the prevalence rates of UI in females, adolescents, and nulliparous sportswomen. Search engines included Google Scholar, PubMed, CINAHL and Science Direct. An analytical cross-sectional design was used to describe the prevalence and risk factors of SUI in an adolescent gymnastic population. Twenty-four gymnastic clubs were randomly selected from the fifty-five gymnastic clubs in the Cape Metropole. The female adolescent gymnasts, between the ages of 11 and 19 years, voluntarily participated. The participants completed an Incontinence Severity Index, a self-compiled questionnaire, and one practical hypermobility assessment. Results The literature review reported on the UI prevalence in adolescence, pathology of SUI, risk factors for SUI in adolescence and pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function in a nulliparous sporting population. It revealed that the prevalence of SUI in a non-sporting adolescent population ranged from 7.2%-22%. Prevalence rates in a nulliparous sporting population vary greatly (0%-80%) and depend on the type of sports that females participate in. Gymnastics and ballet have the highest prevalence rates and acquire the most flexibility to excel in the sport. Risk factors in adolescence are high-impact exercise, obesity, cystic fibrosis, neurological disturbances, childhood enuresis and constipation. Connective tissue disorders, like benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS), and decreased collagen content are possible risks factors of SUI in adult and nulliparous populations. Connective tissue laxity may affect the pelvic floor muscles (PFMs) and decrease urogenital support even more. GJH is a phenomenon in otherwise normal subjects, which result in joints moving more than the normal range due to a lack of connective tissue support. This hypothesised connective tissue involvement in SUI, prompted this primary study. The primary study investigated seven gymnastic clubs, which includes sixty-seven female gymnasts that agreed to participate. The prevalence of SUI was 35.82% (95% CI [24.74%–48.53%]) and urge urinary incontinence (UUI) was 8.96% (95%CI [3.69%–19.12%]). The incontinent gymnasts were older (p=0.02). Race (p=0.50) and body mass index (BMI) (p=0.53) was not associated with SUI. The average number of gymnastic training days, hours, years and levels did not influence the presence of incontinence. Participants are eight times (OR 8 95% CI [1.91-33.60]) more likely to develop SUI when involved in trampoline gymnastics than in other gymnasts. Most participants experienced SUI when jumping (p≤0.001). The Incontinence Severity Index (ISI) used in this study, is sensitive enough to distinguish between incontinence and continence in this adolescent group (p≤0.001). It is also sensitive enough to distinguish the severity amongst different types of incontinence [SUI (p<0.001), mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) (p=0.002), and UUI (p=0.026)]. Twenty-five (38.8%) gymnasts were classified with GJH according to the Beighton score with a cut off of 5/9 (GJH5). The presence of hypermobility (GHJ5) did not differ with age (p=0.227), BMI (p=0.274), race (p=0.70) or gymnastic discipline. Regular ligament injuries are three times more common (OR 3.09 95 % CI [1.11–8.56]) in GJH5 participants than participants that are not hypermobile. A stepwise backward logistic regression (r2=0.554) demonstrated that adolescent gymnasts that present with a history of regular ligament sprains (OR=4.58), are older (OR=1.41), participate in trampoline (OR=33.76) and train for two to three hours daily (OR=57.99) were more likely to present with SUI. Conclusion The prevalence of SUI in the adolescent population varies greatly. Risk factors in adolescence are high-impact exercise, obesity, cystic fibrosis, neurological disturbances, childhood enuresis and constipation. More than a third of the adolescent gymnasts included in the primary study presented with SUI and/or GJH. While GJH was not associated with the development of SUI in this group of adolescent gymnasts, the potential involvement of connective tissue laxity in SUI should be explored in future studies. Older trampolinists, who train for two to three hours daily and have regular ligament or joint injuries, are more likely to develop SUI. This data can now be used by health care professionals and coaches to identify adolescent gymnasts at risk and refer appropriately.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Inleiding Urinêre inkontinensie raak vroue van alle ouderdomme, maar die teenwoordigheid tydens adolessensie word geassosieer met inkontinensie as ‘n volwassene. Alhoewel swangerskap en pariteit alom bekend is vir ‘n skadelike effek op die urogenitale stelsel, word dit nie gesien as risiko faktore in adolessente nie. Urinêre inkontinensie in Suid-Afrikaanse adolessente is nog onbekend en die betrokke risiko faktore moet ondersoek word. Die prevalensie van inkontinensie is kommerwekkend in jong atlete. Druklek is die algemeenste vorm van inkontinensie. Groot variasie in druklek prevalensie word in nullipareuse atlete gerapporteer. Hoë impak sport en in besondere gimnastiek en ballet het die hoogste prevalensie. Bindweefselsiektes word geassosieer met druklek in volwassenes en nullipareuse vrouens. Hipermobiliteit word as ‘n aanwins in gimnastiek en ballet beskou aangesien dit ekstra soepelheid verskaf, maar dit kan die muskuloskeletale systeem onder meer druk plaas en lei tot vroeë spier uitputting. Vroeë risiko faktore moet in adolessent gimnastiek populasie ondersoek word. Die doel van die tesis is om die prevalensie,intensiteit en risiko faktore van urinêre inkontinensie in 'n adolessente bevolking te beskryf en om te bepaal of algemene hipermobiliteit ‘n risiko faktor vir die ontwikkeling van druklek is in ‘n adolessent gimnastiek populasie. Metode Die literatuur oorsig sluit veelvuldige soek terme in om urinêre inkontinensie in adolessensie te ondersoek. Soekenjins sluit Google Scholar, Pubmed, CINAHL en Science Direct in. ‘n Analitiese deursnit ontwerp was gebruik om die prevalensie en risiko faktore in ‘n adolessent gimastiek populasie te beskryf. Vier en twintig gimnastiek klubs was lukraak gekies uit die vyf en vyftig gimnastiek klubs in die Kaapse Metropool. Die vroulike adolessente gimnaste, tussen die ouderdomme van 11 en 19 jaar, het vrywillig deelgeneem. Die deelnemers het 'n Inkontinensie Erns Index, 'n self saamgestelde vraelys en een praktiese laksheidsevaluasie voltooi. Resultate Die literatuur oorsig doen verslag oor die prevalensie van urinêre inkontinensie in bekkenvloer spier funksie in 'n nullipareusse sport bevolking. Die prevalensie van druklek in 'n nie-sport adolessente bevolking wissel van 7.2-22%. In 'n nullipareusse sport bevolking wissel die prevalensie grootliks (0%-80%) en word dit bepaal deur die sportsoort. Gimnastiek en ballet het die hoogste prevalensie van urinêre inkontinensie, maar die deelnemers is ook die soepelste. Hoë impak oefening, vetsug, sistiese fibrose, neurologiese versteurings, urinêre inkontinensie tydens kinderjare en hardlywigheid is onder andere as risiko faktore in adolessensie beskryf. Bindweefselsiektes, soos benigne hypermobiliteit sindroom, en 'n verminderde kollageen inhoud hou verband met druklek in volwasse en nullipareusse vrouens en dien as moontlike risiko faktore. Die bindweefsel laksiteit kan ook ‘n negatiewe invloed op die bekkenvloer spiere hê en urogenitale ondersteuning verswak. Algemene hipermobiliteit is 'n verskynsel in andersins normale kandidate, wat meer as die normale gewrigsomvang toelaat. Die hipotese dat bindweefsel laksheid dalk betrokke is by druklek was die aansporing vir die primêre studie. Die primêre studie ondersoek sewe gimnastiek klubs wat sewe en sestig vroulike gimnaste insluit. Die prevalensie van druklek was 35.82% (95% CI [24.74–48.53%]) en dranglek was 8.96% (95% CI [3.69–19.12%]). Die inkontinente gimnaste was ouer (p=0.02). Ras (p=0.50) en die liggaamsmassa index (LMI) (p=0.53) was nie geassosieer met druklek nie. Die gemiddelde aantal gimnastiek oefen dae, -ure, -jaar en vlakke het nie die teenwoordigheid van inkontinensie beïnvloed nie. Gimnaste wat deelneem aan trampolien is ag keer (OR 8 95% CI [1.91-33.60]) meer geneig om druklek te ontwikkel as ander gimnaste. Die meeste deelnemers ervaar druklek wanneer hulle spring (p≤0.001). Die inkontinensie erns indeks wat in hierdie studie gebruik word, is sensitief genoeg om te onderskei tussen inkontinent en kontinent (p≤0.001). Dit is ook sensitief genoeg om te onderskei in die erns van verskillende tipes inkontinensie [druklek (p<0.001), gemengde inkontinensie (p=0.002), en dranglek (p=0.026)]. Vyf en twintig (38.8%) gimnaste word geklassifiseer as hipermobiel volgens die Beighton telling met 'n af sny punt van 5/9 (GJH5). Die teenwoordigheid van hipermobiliteit (GHJ5) word nie geassosieer met ouderdom (p=0.227), LMI (p=0.274), ras (p=0.70) of verskillende tipes gimnastiek nie. Gereelde ligament beserings is drie keer meer algemeen (OR 3.09 95 % CI [1.11–8.56]) in GJH5 deelnemers as deelnemers wat nie hypermobile is nie. 'n Stapsgewyse agtertoe logistieke regressie (r2=0.554) demonstreer dat vroulike adolessent gimnaste met 'n geskiedenis van gereelde ligament verstuitings (OR=4.58), ouer is (OR=1.41), aan trampolien deelneem (OR=33.76) en vir twee tot drie ure daagliks oefen (OR=57.99) meer geneig is om druklek te he. Gevolgtrekking Daar is baie variasie in die prevalensie van druklek in die adolessent populasie. Risiko faktore in adolessensie is hoë impak oefeninge, vetsug, sistiese fibrose, neurologiese versteurings, lek van uriene tydens kinderjare en hardlywigheid. Meer as’n derde van die adolessent gimnaste in die primêre studie het druklek en/of algemene hipermobiliteit gehad. Algemene hipermobiliteit was nie geassosieer met druklek in hierdie groep gimnaste nie. Die effek wat bindweefsel laksheid op druklek het moet in toekomstige studies ondersoek word. Ouer gimnaste wat aan trampolien deelneem, vir 2-3 ure per dag oefen en gereelde ligament of gewrigsbesering het, is meer geneig tot druklek. Hierdie informasie kan benuttig word deur gesondheidswerkers en afrigters om sodoeende adolessent gimnaste, wat ‘n risiko het om druklek te ontwikkel, te identifiseer.

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