The elaboration, modification and empirical testing of the Spies burnout structural model

Kotze, Chloe (2018-03)

Thesis (MCom)--Stellenbosch University, 2018.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY : The service industry, specifically call centres are known to be one of the fastest growing industries globally. Organisations are constantly trying to gain from, or utilise these call centres, as it allows them to be cost effective and improve customer service. While call centres are offering products at an essentially low cost, little emphasis is being placed on the negative physical and mental effects experienced by employees of call centres. Call centre jobs are usually characterised by routine work (low complexity), low control and burdening demands. The incessant and prolonged nature of these demands and subsequent consequences typically creates cumulative job stress leading to burnout (emotional exhaustion). The dysfunctional consequences relating to burnout have therefore been well documented in that call centre work has a harmful impact on employees. In light of the aforementioned it is of great importance to gain insight into factors relating to burnout. The impact could be mitigated by deepening the understanding of the variables that determine burnout in employees within the service industry. Furthermore, the manner in which burnout develops is influenced by certain organisational and individual variables. These variables were regarded as resources, not only influencing burnout but also playing a role in the process in which burnout may occur. For the purpose of this study, the Job Demands-Resource (JD-R) model (focusing on job resources) and the Conservation of Resources (COR) theory (in terms of developing a resource canvas and explaining the significance of these resources) was utilised. It was presented as a theoretical framework to explain and make predictions about employee burnout in terms of the job resources that can aid to buffer the effects of job demands (i.e. emotional labour) on the strain experienced (i.e. burnout). Consequently, the resources (both individual and organisational) included in this study were: Supervisor Support, Psychological Safety and Emotional Intelligence as a coping regulator. This study focused on the modification and elaboration of the Spies (2006) burnout structural model, by expanding the model with the inclusion of additional variables to better understand the development of burnout. The model was expanded to gain a better understanding of the complexity underlying burnout and the determinants thereof culminating into a Spies-Kotzé burnout model. This study made use of an ex post facto design to test the relationships between the various constructs. A non-probability convenience sample of n = 203 call centre representatives (CCRs), employed in a call centre in the Western Cape, completed a composite questionnaire. The Emotional Labour Scale (ELS) (Brotheridge & Lee, 2003), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) (Maslach, Schaufeli & Leiter, 2001), Perceived Organisational Support Scale (POSS) (Eisenberger et al., 2001), Psychological Safety Scale (Edmondson, 1999) and two subscales of the Genos EI Inventory namely Emotional Management of Others (EMO) and Emotional Self- Control (ESC) (Gignac, 2010) were administered. The psychometric properties of the aforementioned measuring instruments were examined by means of item analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The structural model was tested using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to determine the effectiveness with which the model explained unique variance in burnout. The five interaction effects within the model was tested by means of moderated multiple regression. Strong support emerged that Psychological Safety and Surface Acting predicted Emotional Exhaustion. The results further revealed that Psychological Safety is a significant predictor of Supervisor Support. The casual ordering/sequencing of the process model of burnout revealed that sufficient evidence emerged that Emotional Exhaustion predicted Depersonalisation and in turn, Depersonalisation emerged to be a predictor of reduced feelings of Personal Accomplishment. Furthermore, Supervisor Support was found to negatively influence Emotional Labour (defined as the effort, planning and control needed to display organisationally desired emotions during constant interpersonal interactions). Regrettably no support was found for the relationships of Deep Acting influencing Emotional Exhaustion and Emotional Labour as a predictor of Emotional Exhaustion. The moderated regression results revealed only one significant moderating effect; Supervisor Support moderated the relationship between Emotional Labour and Emotional Exhaustion. The study provided some insights into the relevant factors that effect burnout. The results also provided further explanation of the complex nomological net of variables and their interrelationships, which influence the variance of burnout among CCRs.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Die diens industrie, en spesifiek inbelsentrums, is wêreldwyd bekend as een van die vinnigste groeiende industrieë. Organisasies is voortdurend besig om gebruik te maak van hierdie inbelsentrums, want dit stel hulle in staat om koste-effektief te wees om doelwitte te bereik, asook om beter kliëntediens te lewer. Terwyl inbelsentrums produkte teen ‘n baie lae koste aanbied, word min klem geplaas op negatiewe fisiese en geestelike gevolge wat ervaar word deur inbelsentrumagente. Inbelsentrum werk word gewoonlik gekenmerk deur roetine werk (lae kompleksiteit), lae beheer en hoë werksvereistes. Die aanhoudende en langdurige aard van hierdie vereistes en die daaropvolgende gevolge skep tipies kumulatiewe werkstres wat lei tot uitbranding (Emosionele Uitputting). Die disfunksionele gevolge wat verband hou met uitbranding is dus goed gedokumenteer aangaande inbelsentrum werk en dat dit 'n skadelike uitwerking op inbelsentrumagente het. In die lig van die bogenoemde is dit van groot belang om insig te verkry in faktore wat verband hou met uitbranding. Die impak kan verminder word deur die begrip te verdiep van die veranderlikes wat uitbranding in inbelsentrumagente binne die diens industrie bepaal. Die manier waarop uitbranding ontwikkel, word beïnvloed deur sekere organisatoriese en individuele veranderlikes. Hierdie veranderlikes word beskou as hulpbronne, wat nie net uitbranding beïnvloed nie, maar ook ‘n rol speel in die proses waardeur uitbranding voorkom kan word. Vir die doel van hierdie studie was die “Job Demands-Resources (JD-R)” model (met die fokus op werkshulpbronne) en die “Conservation of Resources” (COR) teorie (in terme van die ontwikkeling van hulpbronne en die verduideliking van die betekenis van hierdie hulpbronne) gebruik. Dit was aangebied as ‘n teoretiese raamwerk om te verduidelik en voorspellings te maak oor werknemer uitbranding in terme van werkshulpbronne wat die effek van werkseise (Emosionele Arbeid) op uitbranding, kan verminder. Gevolglik is die hulpbronne (beide individuele en organisatoriese) in hierdie studie ingesluit soos volg: Toesighouer Ondersteuning, Sielkundige Veiligheid en Emosionele Intelligensie as ‘n emosionele aanpassingstrategieë. Die huidige studie het dit ten doel gehad om uit te brei op die werk van Spies (2006) se uitbranding strukturele model, met die insluiting van addisionele veranderlikes om die ontwikkeling van uitbranding beter te verstaan. Die model is uitgebrei om ‘n beter begrip van die kompleksiteit wat onderliggend aan uitbranding is te kry, en die determinante hoogtepunt daarvan, in n Spies-Kotzé uitbranding model. Hierdie studie het gebruik gemaak van ‘n ex post facto ontwerp om die verhoudings tussen die verskillende konstrukte te toets. ‘n Nie-ewekansige steekproef van 203 inbelsentrumagente van ‘n oproepsentrum in die Wes-Kaap het die saamgestelde vraelys voltooi. Die Emosionele Arbeid Skaal (Emotional Labour Scale) (Brotheridge & Lee, 2003), die Maslach Uitbrandingsvraelys (Maslach Burnout Inventory) (Maslach et al., 2001), die waargenome Organisatoriese Ondersteuning Skaal (Perceived Organizational Scale) (Eisenberger et al., 2001), Sielkundige Veiligheid skaal (Psychological Safety Scale) (Edmondson, 1999) en twee subskale van die Genos Emosionele Intelligensie skaal naamlik Emosionele Bestuur van Ander (Emotional Management of Others) en Emosionele Selfbeheersing (Emotional Self-Control) (Gignac, 2010), is afgeneem. Die psigometriese eienskappe van die bogenoemde meetinstrumente is ondersoek deur middel van item-analise en bevestigende faktorontleding. Die strukturele model was getoets met behulp van strukturele vergelykingsmodellering om die effektiwiteit te beplaal waarmee die model unieke variansie in uitbranding verklaar. Die vyf interaksie effekte in die model was getoets met gemodereerde regressie-analise. Die resultate van die studie het aangedui dat Sielkundige Veiligheid en Diep Toneelspel Emosionele Uitputting voorspel. Die bevindinge het verder aangedui dat Sielkundige Veiligheid 'n belangrike voorspeller van Toesighouer Ondersteuning is. Die volgorde van die prosesmodel van uitbranding wys daarop dat daar voldoende bewyse is dat Emosionele Uitputting Depersonalisasie voorspel en op sy beurt, Depersonalisasie na vore kom om n voorspeller van verminderde gevoel van Persoonlike Bekwaamheid te wees. Verder het Toesighouer Ondersteuning 'n negatiewe invloed op Emosionele Arbeid gehad (gedefinieer as die moeite, beplanning en beheer wat nodig is om organisatories gewenste emosies te vertoon tydens konstante interpersoonlike interaksies). Ongelukkig was daar geen ondersteuning gevind vir die verwantskappe tussen Diep Toneelspel en Emosionele Uitputting, sowel as Emosionele Arbeid en Emosionele Uitputting nie. Volgens die resultate van die gemodereerde regressie was daar net een beduidende interaksie effek: Toesighouer Ondersteuning het die verwantskap tussen Emosionele Arbeid en Emosionele Uitputting gemodereer. Die navorsingsresultate bied insig in die tersaaklike faktore wat gebruik kan word om uitbranding te bepaal. Die resultate verskaf 'n waarskynlike verduideliking van die komplekse netwerk van veranderlikes en hul onderlinge verwantskappe, wat die variansie van uitbranding onder inbelsentrumagente beïnvloed.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/103561
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