Measuring rural household food security in the Nkonkobe local municipality, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

Matebeni, Fezeka (2018-03)

Thesis (MCom)--Stellenbosch University, 2018.

Thesis

ENGLISH SUMMARY : Although South Africa is considered to be food secure at the country level, large numbers of households within the country remain food insecure (De Cock et al., 2013). Food inaccessibility in many rural areas of South Africa has manifested itself in many formats, *-but has positioned poor households to struggle to meet their basic household requirements and be more vulnerable to food insecurity. Details of such food insecurity, however, may differ (De Cock et al., 2013; D’Haese et al., 2013). The objective of this study was to measure and interpret the food security status of particular rural settings by examining households in the Sheshegu, Dyamala, Gqumashe and Roxeni villages of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Data was collected from 60 households using a survey questionnaire as the main instrument. The study utilised both a qualitative and quantitative approach. To obtain a representative picture of the food security status in this environment, the study used different food indicators, such as the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), the Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS), Months of Adequate Household Food Provisioning (MAHFP) and Food Expenditure. Comparisons with a similar study in rural Limpopo Province of South Africa was also conducted. The results show that more than half of the interviewed rural households were food insecure. Thirty-one (51.7%) households were found to be severely food insecure, followed by 14 (23.3%) households that were moderately food insecure. Eight (13.3%) rural households were food secure, and seven (11.7%) were mildly food insecure. Household food security in rural areas is a significant matter, as it is necessary to have appropriate access to healthy foods to lead an active life. When comparing the Limpopo study conducted by D’Haese in 2013 and the selected villages of the Eastern Cape, the results show different findings in terms of the average household size and age of household heads. The majority of household heads interviewed in the Eastern Cape were female, at 55%, with 45% males, whereas in Limpopo males were dominating, at 60.5%, with 39.5% females. The results also show similarities between the study areas, such as having a lack of or low education, the high rate of food-insecure households (more than 50% of households were food insecure), and dependence on grants as their source of income. These studies illustrate that more than half of the household heads owned livestock, although this was not for food security purposes. Recommendations are made on actions to enhance and reduce the vulnerability of households to food insecurity in the Eastern Cape. Challenges such as improved gender equity, focus in the education system, labour market policy, natural resources management, infrastructural development, health awareness, lack of purchasing power/increase in household incomes and community support need to be addressed to improve the food security status of rural households.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Alhoewel Suid-Afrika as voedselseker op nasionale vlak beskou word, bly ’n groot aantal huishoudings in die land voedselonseker (De Cock et al., 2013). Die ontoeganklikheid van voedsel in baie landelike gebiede van Suid-Afrika word in verskeie formate geopenbaar, maar het arm huishoudings só geposisioneer dat hulle sukkel om aan hul basiese huishoudelike vereistes te voldoen en meer vatbaar is vir voedselonsekerheid. Die besonderhede van sodanige voedselonsekerheid kan egter verskil (De Cock et al., 2013; D’Haese et al., 2013). Die doel van hierdie studie was om die voedselsekerheidstatus van spesifieke landelike liggings te meet en te interpreteer deur huishoudings in die Sheshegu-, Dyamala-, Gqumashe- en Roxeni-dorpe in die Oos-Kaap provinsie van Suid-Afrika te ondersoek. ʼn Vergelyking met ʼn soortgelyke studie in landelike Limpopo is ook gedoen. Data is van 60 huishoudings versamel deur gebruik te maak van ’n opname-vraelys as hoofinstrument. Die studie het beide kwalitatiewe en kwantitatiewe benaderings gebruik. Om ’n verteenwoordigende beeld van die voedselsekerheidstatus in hierdie omgewing te verkry, het die studie voedselaanwysers soos die Huishoudelike Voedselonsekerheid Toegangskaal (Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, HFIAS), die Huishoudelike Dieetdiversiteitstelling (Household Dietary Diversity Score, HDDS), Maande van Voldoende Huishoudelike Voedselvoorsiening (Months of Adequate Household Food Provisioning, MAHFP) ) en Voedseluitgawes gebruik. Die resultate toon dat meer as die helfte van die ondervraagde landelike huishoudings voedselonseker was. ’n Totaal van 31 (51.7%) huishoudings was swaar voedselonseker, gevolg deur 14 (23.3%) wat matig voedselonseker was. Agt (13.3%) landelike huishoudings was voedselseker en sewe (11.7%) was matig voedselonseker. Huishoudelike voedselsekerheid in landelike gebiede is ’n belangrike saak, aangesien dit nodig is om toepaslike toegang tot gesonde voedsel te hê om ’n aktiewe lewe te kan lei. ’n Vergelyking van die resultate van D’Haese se Limpopo-studie van 2013 en die geselekteerde dorpe in die Oos-Kaap toon verskillende bevindinge in terme van die gemiddelde huishoudelike grootte en ouderdom van die hoofde van die huishoudings. Die meeste huishoudingshoofde wat in die Oos-Kaap ondervra is, was vrouens, teen 55%, met 45% mans, terwyl mans in Limpopo 60.5% gedomineer het, met 39.5% vroue. Die resultate toon ook ooreenkomste tussen die studiegebiede, soos gebrek aan of lae onderwys, die hoë koers van voedselonseker huishoudings (meer as 50% van huishoudings was voedselonseker) en afhanklikheid van toelaes as hul bron van inkomste. Hierdie studies wys dat meer as die helfte van die huishoudingshoofde vee besit het, hoewel nie vir voedselsekerheidsdoeleindes nie. Aanbevelings word gemaak oor aksies om die kwesbaarheid van huishoudings vir voedselonsekerheid in die Oos-Kaap te verbeter en te verminder. Uitdagings soos geslagsgelykheid, die onderwysstelsel, arbeidsmarkbeleid, natuurlike hulpbronbestuur, infrastruktuurontwikkeling, gesondheidsbewustheid, gebrek aan koopkrag/toename in huishoudelike inkomste en gemeenskapsondersteuning moet aangespreek word om die voedselsekerheidstatus van landelike huishoudings te verbeter.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/103497
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