Lexical-semantic and morpho-syntactic properties of English loanwords in Sukuma

Luhende, Paul Joseph (2018-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2018.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study investigates the lexical-semantic and morpho-syntactic properties of English loanwords in Sukuma in the domains of the Determiner Phrase DP, Inflectional Phrase IP and Verb Phrase VP. The primary data of English loanwords in Sukuma were collected through audio-recordings of spoken language in discourse-pragmatic contexts, and through the method of introspection, in addition to consultation of available published sources. The researcher consulted Sukuma native speakers in the provision of additional loanword data and for confirming the data collected. The data on English loanwords in Sukuma collected, were analysed and examined invoking the broad framework of generative syntax, as postulated by Chomsky in the Government and binding theory (Chomsky, 1981a; Carnie, 2006; 2013) and Principle and Parameter Theory, with specific focus on Abney’s syntactic Determiner Phrase (DP) hypothesis, as proposed by Abney (1987). In the framework employed in this study, the generative syntax theory is complemented by perspectives from language typology as postulated by Greenberg (1963) and further developed by Croft, (2003) and Haspelmath, (2009), in the investigation of the argument structure properties of verbs. The findings of the study demonstrate that English loanwords in Sukuma exhibit lexical-semantic and morpho-syntactic properties similar to inherent (i.e. native) Sukuma words. In the DP domain, English loan nouns are modified to conform to the Sukuma nominal morphology. Each English loan noun, for example, is assigned to the Sukuma noun class system, exemplifying a noun class prefix. Furthermore, various inherent Sukuma nominal affixes are evidenced to occur with English loan nouns, similarly to inherent Sukuma nouns. The findings of the study give evidence that some of the English loan nouns in Sukuma undergo semantic broadening, semantic narrowing, or semantic shift, and that borrowed compound nouns are lexicalized in Sukuma. In regard to the IP and VP domains, the findings of the study give evidence that English loan verbs are modified for integration into the complex agglutinative Sukuma verbal morphology. For example, English loan verbs inflect for the three tense forms and they occur with various Sukuma verbal derivational suffixes, such as the applicative and causative, hence exhibiting the same morpho-syntactic properties similar so inherent Sukuma verbs. The findings of the study, however, demonstrate that some English loan verbs do not exhibit properties similar to inherent Sukuma verbs. It is argued that some English verbs are not accommodated fully in the Sukuma verbal system, possibly due to the typological difference between Sukuma and English. The resistant English verbs in regard to the integration in the Sukuma verbal morphology include verbs denoting human activities, such as eating, swallowing and crying. It is proposed in this study that English verbs borrowed in Sukuma, in most cases, are associated with the development of science and technology, and innovation, thus, they express new concepts and entities which did not previously occur in the lexicon of Sukuma.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie studie ondersoek die leksikaal-semantiese en morfo-sintaktiese eienskappe van Engelse leenwoorde in Sukuma in die domein van die Bepalerfrase (‘Determiner Phrase’), DP, die Infleksiefrase, IP, en die werkwoord frase, VP. Die primêre data van leenwoorde in Sukuma is versamel met behulp van oudio-opnames van gesproke taal in diskoers-pragmatiese konteks, asook deur die metode van introspeksie, die navorser synde ‘n eerstetaalspreker van Sukuma, naas die ondersoek van beskikbare gepubliseerde bronne. Die navorser het verskeie Sukuma eerstetaalsprekers gekonsulteer rakende die voorsiening van bykomende data oor Engelse leenwoorde in Sukuma, en vir die bevestiging van die data wat versamel is. Die data oor Engelse leenwoorde in Sukuma is ondersoek en ontleed binne die breë raamwerk van generatiewe sintaksis, soos gepostuleer deur Chomsky in die GB (‘Government and Binding’) teorie (Chomsky 1981a, Carnie 2006, 2013) en P&P (‘Principles and Parameters’) teorie, met spesifieke fokus op Abney se beskouings oor die Bepalerfrase (‘Determiner Phrase), DP hipotese soos gepostuleer deur Abney (1987). In die raamwerk aangewend vir die studie, word die teorie van generatiewe sintaksis gekomplementeer deur perspektiewe vanuit taaltipologie, soos gepostuleer deur Greenberg (1963), en verder ontwikkel deur Croft (2003) en Haspelmath (2009) in die ondersoek van die argumentstruktuur van werkwoorde. Die bevindings van die studie demonstreer dat Engelse leenwoorde in Sukuma leksikaal-semantiese en morfosintaktiese eienskappe vertoon wat soortgelyk is aan inherente Sukuma woorde. In die DP domein, word Engelse leenwoorde gemodifiseer ten einde te konformeer met Sukuma nominale morfologie. Elke Engelse leennaamwoord word toegeken in die Sukuma naamwoordklassisteem, met die naamwoordklasprefiks. Voorts, word bewys gegee dat verskeie Sukuma nominale affikse met Engelse leen-naamwoorde verskyn, soortgelyk aan inherente Sukuma naamwoorde. Die bevidings van die studie toon dat sommige Engelse leennaamwoorde in Sukuma semantiese verbreding, semantiese vernouing of semantiese skuif ondergaan. Voorts word leen-naamwoorde wat saamgestelde naamwoorde is, geleksikaliseer. Met betrekking tot die IP en VP domeine, gee die studie evidensie dat Engelse werkwoorde in Sukuma gemodifiseer word vir integrasie in die komplekse agglutinerende Sukuma werkwoord morfologie. Engelse leenwerkwoorde vertoon die infleksie van drie tydsvorme, en verskyn met verskillende Sukuma werkwoordelike afleidingsmorfeme, soos die applikatief en die kousatief, en vertoon dus morfo-sintaktiese soortgelyk aan inherente Sukuma werkwoorde. Die bevindinge van die studie demonstreer voorts dat sommige Engelse leenwerkwoorde nie die eienskappe vertoon van inherente Sukuma werkwoorde nie. Daar word geargumenteer dat sommige Engelse leenwerkwoorde nie ten volle ge-akkommodeer word in die Sukuma werkwoordsisteem nie, moontlik weens die tipologiese verskil tussen Sukuma en Engels. Die weerstandige Engelse leenwerkwoorde met betrekking tot die integrasie in die Sukuma werkwoordmorfologie, sluit in werkwoorde wat menslike aktiwiteite uitdruk soos eet, sluk en huil. Daar word voorgestel in die studie dat Engelse leenwoorde in Sukuma, in die meeste gevalle, geassosieer word met die ontwikkeling van wetenskap en tegnologie en innovasie, en dus druk hulle nuwe konsepte en entiteite uit wat nie voorheen in die Sukuma leksikon verskyn het nie.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/103487
This item appears in the following collections: