Colonic perineurioma (benign fibroblastic polyp) : case report and review of the literature
CITATION: Van Wyk, A. C., Van Zyl, H. & Rigby, J. 2018. Colonic perineurioma (benign fibroblastic polyp) : case report and review of the literature. Diagnostic Pathology, 13:16, doi:10.1186/s13000-018-0694-z.
Publication of this article was funded by the Stellenbosch University Open Access Fund.
Background: Colorectal perineuriomas are uncommon benign mucosal-based proliferations of mesenchymal cells that express perineurial markers, often associated with colonic crypts displaying a serrated/hyperplastic architecture. The vast majority of cases arise distal to the splenic flexure and have been described as sessile polyps. Using molecular analysis, BRAF mutations have been demonstrated in the serrated crypt epithelium. We report a new case of perineurioma presenting as a pedunculated polyp in the transverse colon, with prominent hemosiderin deposits in the uninvolved lamina propria that separated the perineurial proliferation from the surface epithelium, a previously unreported histological finding. By using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated the presence of BRAF V600E mutated protein in the serrated crypt epithelium. In addition, a review of the literature on colorectal perineurioma is provided. Case presentation: A 5 mm pedunculated polyp was removed from the transverse colon of a 42 year old man who presented with epigastric pain, weight loss and rectal bleeding. A proliferation of uniform plump spindled cells expanded the lamina propria and separated serrated colonic crypts. The epithelial component closely resembled microvesicular hyperplastic polyp. Immunohistochemical stains for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and collagen IV were positive in the stromal proliferation. A mutation-specific monoclonal antibody directed against BRAF V600E showed positive cytoplasmic staining in the serrated crypt epithelium but not in the perineurial proliferation. Conspicuous hemosiderin deposition was seen in the inflamed lamina propria between the perineurial proliferation and the surface epithelium. Conclusion: Although the majority of colorectal perineuriomas occur in the sigmoid colon and rectum and are described as sessile polyps, colorectal perineurioma can present as a pedunculated polyp proximal to the splenic flexure as described in this case. Conspicuous hemosiderin deposition can be seen in the superficial lamina propria. BRAF mutations are limited to the serrated crypt epithelium.