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The effects of supplementing alternative carbohydrate sources on production and fibre degradation of jersey cows grazing pasture.

Steyn, Lobke (2017-12)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2017.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Problems identified in the pasture-based dairy systems of the southern Cape of South Africa include lowered milk production during summer months, low milk solids during winter months, unsynchronised timing of pasture and concentrate feeding, lowered pasture degradability and pasture substitution. To counter act these problems and despite them, supplemental feeding is provided in the form of an energy rich concentrate, usually fed in the milking parlour. Historically, cereal grains form the largest part of the concentrate supplement and play an important role in determining the profitability of a dairy farm. The high starch content of cereal grains could have a limiting effect on microbial activity in the rumen due to lactic acid production, possibly resulting in low ruminal pH, which then impacts fibre degradation and has various negative production implications. Despite the problems associated with feeding starches it is still practised widely due to the high energy content, which promotes milk production. Other non-fibre carbohydrates, such as sugar and pectin (prevalent in various fruit wastes), have been shown to have a more positive effect on the rumen environment and are able to maintain production when substituted in total mixed ration systems. This study aimed to determine how effectively and to what degree alternative carbohydrate sources such as dried citrus pulp and dried apple pomace could be fed to Jersey cows grazing kikuyu pasture over-sown with ryegrass and what the possible production implications would be. The effect of dried citrus pulp and dried apple pomace on rumen metabolism and bacterial community dynamics was also investigated. The study consisted of three trials focused on the quality and application of dried citrus pulp and dried apple pomace. The first trial looked at the use of dried citrus pulp for cows grazing ryegrass pasture (Lolium multiforum var. Italicum, cv. Jeanne) and used 68 lactating Jersey cows (μ ± SD; 84.5 ± 43.8 days in milk, 20.4 ± 3.09 kg milk/day) allocated to one of four treatments in a complete randomised block design. Treatments were: No dried citrus pulp (NDCP)-0% replacement of ground maize, Low dried citrus pulp (LDCP)-33% replacement of ground maize, Medium dried citrus pulp (MDCP)-66% replacement of ground maize and High dried citrus pulp (HDCP)-100% replacement of ground maize. An additional six ruminally cannulated, lactating Jersey cows were randomly allocated to the NDCP and HDCP treatments in a two period cross-over design. It was found that milk yield decreased between 2.1 and 3.2 kg/day when ground maize was substituted by dried citrus pulp. Milk fat content did not differ between treatments; however, treatment had a quadratic effect on milk protein and lactose content, with the LDCP and MDCP treatments having the highest content for both. No change in the diurnal ruminal pH curves and no differences in the rate and extent of pasture dry matter and neutral detergent fibre degradability between treatments were observed. It was concluded that replacing ground maize with dried citrus pulp was possible, but the large decrease in milk production was problematic. Furthermore, the lack of response of rumen metabolism and milk fat solids and the extremely low CP and high Ca content of DCP posed limitations on the use of dried citrus pulp as a replacer for ground maize. The composition of dried apple pomace is similar to dried citrus pulp, except that it possibly has a higher fibre, starch and protein content and is lower in Ca. Due to the unique composition of dried apple pomace and its proximity to the region, it was considered next. The second trial looked at the use of dried apple pomace for cows grazing kikuyu pasture. Seventy two lactating Jersey cows were blocked according to milk yield (mean ± SD; 16.1 ± 2.11 kg), days in milk (114 ± 46.2 d) and lactation number (3.8 ± 1.45) and randomly allocated to one of four treatments. Treatments were: 0% dried apple pomace inclusion (AP 0), 25% dried apple pomace inclusion (AP 25), 50% dried apple pomace inclusion (AP 50) and 75% dried apple pomace inclusion (AP 75). An additional eight ruminally cannulated, lactating cows were used and were subjected to a four period crossover design with a 14 day adaptation period between treatments. Although milk yield was not affected by the inclusion level of DAP, there was a linear decrease in 4% fat corrected milk (FCM) and fat yield as the level of dried apple pomace inclusion in the diet increased. Cows receiving the AP 0 concentrate supplement yielded 0.9 and 1.2 kg more 4% FCM than cows on both the AP 50 and AP 75 concentrate supplements (P <0.001), respectively. Treatment had no effect on milk composition, except for the lactose content, which was lower for cows receiving the AP 0 concentrate supplement (P <0.001). Mean rumen pH was lower for cows receiving the AP 75 concentrate supplement (P <0.001); however, treatment did not affect the volatile fatty acids (VFA) profile or pasture DM and NDF degradability. Here the use of dried apple pomace seemed viable; however, the lack of milk solids response and no improvement of the rumen environment were unfortunate. Due to the high fibre nature of kikuyu pasture the rumen environment is naturally under less stress when cows are grazing these summer pastures, as compared to winter pastures such as ryegrass that are more easily digestible and have lower physically effective NDF (peNDF) or rumen buffering capacity. This trial was then essentially repeated on ryegrass pasture to determine whether the high fibre content of the dried apple pomace would be more effective in maintaining and possibly improving the rumen environment under more stressed conditions. In this third trial, 76 lactating Jersey cows were blocked according to milk yield (mean ± SE; 18.4 ± 0.01 kg), days in milk (97.2 ± 0.27 d) and lactation number (3.79 ± 0.04) and randomly allocated to one of four treatments. Treatments were: NDAP-0% dried apple pomace and 75% ground maize; LDAP-25% dried apple pomace and 50% ground maize; MDAP-50% dried apple pomace and 25% ground maize; HDAP-75% dried apple pomace and 0% ground maize. Additionally, four ruminally cannulated cows were used to monitor treatment effect on rumen activity and health. Milk yield and 4% FCM yield were lower for cows in treatment HDAP than for cows in treatments NDAP and LDAP, differences ranging between 1.7 and 2.3 kg 4% FCM/day. The milk protein yield remained unchanged between treatments, whereas milk protein content was lowest for cows in treatments NDAP and MDAP, showing a cubic trend (P = 0.005). Treatment had no effect on rumen metabolism parameters. In this trial it was determined that dried apple pomace could sustain milk production on ryegrass pasture; however, milk solids could possibly be negatively impacted. In addition to the production and rumen metabolism studies, a ruminal bacterial community dynamics study was also undertaken. Rumen fluid samples were collected for further study from cannulated cows in the second and third trials. It was interesting to note that the composition of the bacterial community was affected by a change in diet, even though that was not always reflected in the rumen metabolism (pH, VFA concentration and pasture degradation). The detailed description of the ruminal bacterial community will be of great value for future research regarding the nutrition of dairy cows grazing pasture and was the first of its kind. In conclusion, this research has provided insight into the use of fruit waste as a feed for dairy cows in pasture-based systems in a South African context. There are various limitations regarding the application thereof, but both dried citrus pulp and dried apple pomace are feed sources with potential as a ruminant feed and should not be over-looked by farmers and feed processors alike.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Probleme wat in die weidingsgebaseerde suiwelstelsels van die Suid-Kaap van Suid-Afrika voorkom, sluit in die verminderde melkproduksie gedurende die somermaande, lae melkstowwe gedurende die wintermaande, gesinkroniseerde tydsberekening van weiding en kragvoervoeding, verlaagde weiding afbreekbaarheid en weiding vervanging. Om nie net hierdie probleme aan te spreek nie, maar ook ongeag daarvan, word aanvullende voeding verskaf in die vorm van 'n energieryke kragvoer wat gewoonlik in die melkstal gevoer word. Histories maak grane die grootste deel van die kragvoeraanvulling uit en speel 'n belangrike rol in die bepaling van die winsgewendheid van 'n melkplaas. Die hoë styselinhoud van grane het 'n beperkende effek op mikrobiese aktiwiteit in die rumen as gevolg van melksuurproduksie, wat moontlik tot lae rumen pH lei, wat dan veselverteerbaarheid beïnvloed en verskeie negatiewe produksie-implikasies het. Ten spyte van die probleme wat verband hou met die voeding van stysels, word dit steeds wyd beoefen weens die hoë energie-inhoud wat melkproduksie bevorder. Ander nie-vesel koolhidrate, soos suiker en pektien (voorkomend by ʼn verskeidenheid van vrugte afval), het in vorige navorsing getoon dat dit 'n positiewer effek op die rumen-omgewing het en in staat is om produksie te handhaaf wanneer dit in totale gemengde rantsoene vervang word. Hierdie studie was daarop gemik om te bepaal hoe doeltreffend en tot watter mate alternatiewe koolhidraatbronne (soos gedroogte sitruspulp en gedroogde appelpulp) aan Jerseykoeie op kikoejoeweiding, oorgesaai met raaigras, gevoer kan word. Die invloed van gedroogde sitruspulp en gedroogde appelpulp op rumenmetabolisme en bakteriese gemeenskapsamestelling is ook ondersoek. Die studie het bestaan uit drie proewe wat fokus op die gehalte en gebruik van gedroogde sitrus- en appelpulp. Die eerste proef het gekonsentreer op die gebruik van gedroogde sitruspulp vir koeie wat op raaigras wei. Hiervoor is 68 lakterende Jerseykoeie (μ ± SD, 84,5 ± 43,8 dae in melk, 20,4 ± 3,09 kg/dag) in vier behandelings gebruik waar mielies in die kragvoeraanvulling inkrementeel met gedroogte sitruspulp vervang is. Behandelings was: Geen gedroogde sitruspulp (NDCP) - 0% vervanging, Lae gedroogde sitruspulp (LDCP) - 33% vervanging, Medium gedroogde sitruspulp (MDCP) - 66% vervanging en Hoë gedroogte sitruspulp (HDCP) - 100% vervanging . 'n Bykomende ses gekannuleerde Jerseykoeie is ewekansig aan die NDCP en HDCP behandelings toegeken. Daar is bevind dat melkopbrengs tussen 2.1 en 3.2 kg/dag afgeneem het toe mielies met gedroogde sitruspulp vervang is. Melkvet-inhoud het nie tussen behandelings verskil nie. Behandeling het egter 'n kwadratiese effek op melkproteïen en laktose-inhoud gehad, met die LDCP en MDCP behandelings wat die hoogste inhoud gehad het. Geen verskille is tussen behandelings vir diurnale rumen pH en weidingsverteerbaarheid waargeneem nie. Daar is bevind dat die vervanging van mielies met gedroogde sitruspulp haalbaar was, maar dat die groot afname in melkproduksie problematies was. Verder het die gebrek aan reaksie ten opsigte van rumenmetabolisme en melkvet, asook die lae RP waarde en hoë Ca waarde beperkings op die gebruik van gedroogde sitruspulp as 'n vervanger vir mielies geplaas. Die samestelling van gedroogde appelpulp is soortgelyk aan dié van gedroogde sitruspulp, behalwe dat dit moontlik 'n hoër vesel-, stysel- en proteïeninhoud het en laer in Ca is. As gevolg van die unieke samestelling van appelpulp, asook die voorkoms daarvan binne die omliggende streek, is dit in die volgende proewe evalueer. Die tweede proef het gefokus op die gebruik van gedroogde appelpulp vir koeie wat op kikoejoeweiding aangehou word. Twee-en-sewentig lakterende Jerseykoeie is volgens melkopbrengs, dae in melk en laktasienommer geblok en ewekansig aan een van vier behandelings toegeken waar mielies in die kragvoeraanvuling inkrementeel met gedroogte appelpulp vervang is. Behandelings was: 0% gedroogde appelpulp insluiting (AP 0), 25% gedroogde appelpulp insluiting (AP 25), 50% gedroogde appelpulp insluiting (AP 50) en 75% gedroogde appelpulp insluiting (AP 75). 'n Bykomende agt rumengekannuleerde koeie is ingesluit. Die behandelings het geen invloed op melkopbrengs gehad nie. Daar was egter 'n lineêre afname in 4% FCM en vet-opbrengs met ʼn toename in gedroogde appelpulp insluiting in die kragvoeraanvulling. Koeie wat die AP 0 kragvoer gekry het, het 0.9 en 1.2 kg meer 4% FCM per koei opgelewer as die koeie wat AP 50 en AP 75 kragvoeraanvullings ontvang het (P <0.001). Die behandelings het geen invloed op melksamestelling gehad nie, behalwe vir die laktose-inhoud wat laer was vir koeie wat die AP 0 kragvoer (P <0.001) ontvang het. Gemiddelde rumen pH was laer vir koeie wat die AP 75 kragvoer (P <0.001) ontvang het. Die behandelings het egter nie die vlugtige vetsuurprofiel of weidingverteerbaarheid beïnvloed nie. Hier was die gebruik van gedroogde appelpulp moontlik, maar die gebrek aan 'n reaksie op melksamestelling en die verbetering van die rumenomgewing was egter onverwags. As gevolg van die relatief hoë veselinhoud van kikoejoeweiding, is die rumenomgewing onder minder stres wanneer koeie hierdie tipe somerweiding bewei in vergelyking met winterweiding, soos raaigras, wat makliker verteerbaar is. Hierdie proef is herhaal op raaigrasweiding om vas te stel of die hoë veselinhoud van die gedroogde appelpulp meer doeltreffend sou wees om die rumenomgewing onder meer stremmende omstandighede te verbeter. In die derde proef is 76 lakterende Jerseykoeie volgens melkopbrengs, dae in melk en laktasienommer geblok en ewekansig aan een van vier behandelings toegeken. Behandelings was: NDAP - 0% gedroogde appelpulp en 75% mielies, LDAP - 25% gedroogde appelpulp en 50% mielies, MDAP - 50% gedroogde appelpulp en 25% mielies en HDAP - 75% gedroogde appelpulp en 0% mielies. Vier rumengekannuleerde koeie is ook ingesluit om die behandelingseffek op rumenaktiwiteit en -gesondheid te monitor. Die 4% FCM was tussen 1.7 en 2.3 kg/dag laer vir koeie in behandeling HDAP as vir koeie in behandelings NDAP en LDAP. Die melkproteïeneopbrengs het onveranderd gebly tussen behandelings, terwyl die melkproteïeninhoud die laagste was vir koeie in behandelings NDAP en MDAP. Laasgenoemde het 'n kubieke tendens getoon (P = 0.005). Die behandelings het geen invloed op rumenmetabolisme parameters gehad nie. In hierdie proef is vasgestel dat gedroogde appelpulp melkproduksie op raaigrasweiding kan onderhou, hoewel melkvastestowwe moontlik negatief beïnvloed kan word. Afgesien van die melkproduksie en rumenmetabolisme studies is 'n rumen bakteriese samestellingstudie ook onderneem. Rumenvloeistofmonsters is in die tweede en derde proewe van gekannuleerde koeie versamel om die populasiesamestelling na te gaan. Dit was opvallend dat die samestelling van die bakteriese gemeenskap beïnvloed is deur 'n verandering in dieet, hoewel dit nie altyd in die rumenmetabolisme (pH, vlugtige vetsuurkonsentrasie en weidingsverteerbaarheid) weerspieël is nie. Hierdie was die eerste studies van sy soort en die gedetailleerde beskrywing van die rumen bakteriese gemeenskap sal van groot waarde wees vir toekomstige navorsing aangaande die voeding van melkkoeie op weiding. Ten slotte het hierdie navorsing insig verskaf in die gebruik van vrugteafval as byvoeding vir melkkoeie in weiding-gebaseerde stelsels in 'n Suid-Afrikaanse konteks. Daar is verskeie beperkings ten opsigte van die toepassing daarvan, maar beide gedroogde sitruspulp en gedroogde appelpulp is voerbronne met potensiaal in herkouervoeding en moet nie deur boere en voermaatskappye oorgesien word nie.

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