Complexity in task-based language teaching and learning of isiXhosa as a second language in primary schools

Minas, Edith Christina (2017-12)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2017.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to investigate complexity in isiXhosa task-based second language (L2) learning and teaching in the Eastern Cape and South African primary school intermediate phase context in order to identify the specific learning needs of young beginner second language learners in the school instructional context. The study explores the use of communicative tasks for young beginner second language teaching. It aims at providing a sound theoretical foundation of language learning principles supporting task-based teaching for young learners. Cognitive and social perspectives on language learning within second language acquisition and related disciplinary fields presenting distinct approaches and foci in investigating second language learning and teaching are regarded, integrated and consolidated, informing a more comprehensive view of the dynamic processes and varying factors involved. Second language learning is assumed to be a non-linear, cumulative, ever-developing process relying on learner engagement with quantity and quality input, authentic meaning-orientated output and feedback on language production facilitating language development. Supporting task-based language teaching where tasks form the units of analysis for lesson design and syllabus design, the study identifies core complexity features in task design, task-based interaction, task-based assessment and task sequencing, allowing teachers and syllabus designers to adjust pedagogic task complexity on a cline matching young beginner L2 learners’ learning needs. Robinson’s Cognition Hypothesis provides a rationale for categorizing, grading and sequencing pedagogic tasks for second language acquisition. Young beginner L2 learners’ age and existing language knowledge are considered critical factors in determining learning needs contributing to task difficulty. Additionally, the study examines linguistic complexity and linguistic difficulty, analysing example target tasks for young beginner isiXhosa L2 learners in primary school intermediate phase, motivating task-based focus on form methodology representing various degrees of explicitness facilitating noticing and learner L2 development. In order to identify the specific learning needs of young beginner isiXhosa L2 learners in primary school intermediate phase context, an affordances theory in an interdisciplinary investigation, analysing theoretical perspectives on the instructional task, individual learner factors, the context of learning and components of language development, is presented. It is argued that task-based L2 teaching contextualizes the task process in terms of local learning needs affording learner awareness and engagement with the target language needed for language development. It is further argued that a primary concern in task-based second language teaching is task design, allowing for learner participation through motivating task contents and graded task complexity relating to learner readiness in terms of individual learner factors, affording the development of implicit and explicit language knowledge.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die doel van hierdie studie is om kompleksiteit in isiXhosa taakgebasseerde tweedetaalleer en -onderrig, in die Oos-Kaap en Suid-Afrikaanse laerskool intermediȇre fase, te ondersoek ten einde die spesifieke behoeftes van jong beginnerleerders vir tweedetaalverwerwing in die skoolonderrigkonteks te identifiseer. Die studie ondersoek die gebruik van kommunikasie-take in tweedetaalonderrig van jong beginnerleerders. Dit stel ten doel die daarstelling van ‘n deeglike teoretiese begronding van beginsels van tweedetaalverwerwing wat ‘n taakgebasseerde benadering in tweedetaalonderrig van jong leerders steun. ‘n Meer omvattende beskouing van die komplekse prosesse en groot aantal faktore betrokke in tweedetaalverwerwing word bewerkstellig deur die inagneming, integrasie en oordeelkundige skifting van kognitiewe and sosiale perspektiewe in tweedetaalverwerwing en verwante wetenskapsdissiplines wat uiteenlopende benaderings en fokusse in tweedetaalleer en -onderrig navorsing verteenwoordig. Tweedetaalverwerwing word beskou as ‘n ongelykmatige, kumulatiewe en voortdurend-ontwikkelende proses, wat afhanklik is van leerders se aandagskenking tydens blootstelling aan kwantiteit and kwaliteit taalgebruik, betekenis-geörienteerde kommunikasie en taalproduksieterugvoer wat gemik is op taalontwikkeling. In ondersteuning van taakgebasseerde tweedetaalonderrig, waar take die basiese boublokke vir lesontwerp en sillabusontwerp is, identifiseer hierdie studie die kern bestandele van kompleksiteit in taakontwerp, taakgebasseerde interaksie, taakgebasseerde assessering en taakopeenvolging, om sodoende onderwysers en sillabusontwerpers in staat te stel om pedagogiese take aan te pas op ‘n kompleksiteitskaal met betrekking tot jong beginnerleerders se tweedetaalleerbehoeftes. Robinson se Kognisie Hipotese omvat die grondbeginsel van taakkompleksiteit vir die kategorisering, gradering en opeenvolging van pedagogiese take vir tweedetaalverwerwing in hierdie studie. Die jong beginnertaalleerder se ouderdom en bestaande taalkennis word as kritiese faktore van taakmoeilikheid beskou en word gemotiveer vir die bepaling van tweedetaalleerbehoeftes. Boonop ondersoek die studie taalkompleksiteit en taalmoeilikheid as twee verdere kategorieë vir die bepaling van tweedetaalleerbehoeftes en motiveer hiervolgens verskillende grade van eksplisiewe fokus-op-vorm metodologie. Teikentake vir jong beginnerleerders van isiXhosa tweedetaalleer in die laerskool intermediȇre fase word taalkundig geanaliseer om taalstrukture te identifiseer en leertake wat bewuswording en tweedetaalontwikkeling bevorder word gemotiveer en beskryf. Ten einde die spesifieke leerbehoeftes van jong beginnerleerders van isiXhosa tweedetaalleer in die laerskool intermediȇre fase te identifiseer word die Beskikbaarhede (‘Affordances’) teorie toegepas binne ‘n interdissiplinȇre ondersoek wat die teoretiese perspektiewe oor onderrigtake, individuele leerderfaktore, die leerkonteks en die komponente van taalontwikkeling analiseer. Daar word geredeneer dat taakgebasseerde tweedetaalonderrig betrek plaaslike leerbehoeftes in die leerproses en sodoende bemoontlik leerderbewuswording en betekenisvolle omgang met die teikentaal wat noodksaaklik is vir taalontwikkeling. Daar word verder geredeneer dat taakontwerp is die hoofbelang in taakgebasseerde tweedetaalonderrig wat die ontwikkeling van implisiewe en eksplisiewe taalkennis ten doel stel. Ten laasste word ‘n taakontwerp voorgestel wat die leerbehoeftes van jong beginnerleerders van isiXhosa tweedetaalleer in die laerskool intermediȇre fase aanspreek in terme van motiverende taakinhoude en aanpasbare taakkompleksiteit met betrekking tot leerdergereedheid, wat bepaal word deur individuele leerderfaktore, en sodoende leerderdeelname en -betokkenheid aanmoedig.

Isishwankathelo ngesiXhosa: Injongo yesi sifundo kukuphonononga ubuntsonkotha kumsebenzi osekelwe kwisiXhosa njengolwimi lwesibini lokufunda nokufundisa eMpuma Koloni naseMzantsi Afrika kwisikolo samabanga aphantsi kumxholo wenqanam langaphakathi ukuze kuchongwe iimfuno ezithile zabafundi abasaqalayo bolwimi lwesibini kumxholo womgaqo wokufundisa esikolweni. Isifundo siphonononga ukusetyenziswa kwemisebenzi yonxibelelwano yabasaqalayo kulwimi lwesibini lokufundisa. Sijolise ekuvezeni iziseko ezingundoqo zethiyori yemithetho-siseko yokufunda ulwimi exhasa ukufundiswa komsebenzi osekelwe abafundi abaselula. Iimbono ngenzululwazi yengqondo neyasekuhlaleni ekufundweni kolwimi njengolwimi lwesibini neminye imiba echaphazelekayo ekuvezeni iindlela ezahlukileyo zokuphononongwa ukufundwa kolwimi lwesibini nokufundisa, ziyqwalaselwa zisetyenziswe, zicacisa indlela ephangaleleyo ebandakanya iinkqubo ezahlukileyo nezitshintshayo. Ukufundwa kolwimi lwesibini kuthatyathwa njengento engenakulinganiswa, eyongezekelayo, esoloko iqhubekeka exhomekeke ekuzibandakanyekeni komfundi ngomthamo nokubaluleka kwegalelo, okujoliswe kwintsingiselo yeziphumo nengxelo ekuvezweni nakwinkqubela yolwimi. Ukuxhaswa ukufundiswa kolwimi olusekelwe kumsebenzi apho imisebenzi ingamasuntswana ohlalutyo lwesifundo nokwenziwa kwesilabhasi, isifundo sichonga izinto zobuntsonkotha obungundoqo ekwenzeni umsebenzi, unxibelelwano olusekelwe kumsebenzi, indlela yokuhlela esekelwe kumsebenzi nasekudweliseni umsebenzi, ivumela ootisthala kunye nabenzi besilabhasi ukuba balungise ubuntsonkotha bemisebenzi yokufundisa kwindawo edibanisa iimfuno zomfundi wolwimi lwesibini oselula. I-hypothesis yengqondo kaRobinson inika umthetho-siseko wokwahlula nokuhlela ngokobuntsonkotha nokulandelelana kwemisebenzi yokufundiswa kolwimi lwesibini. Ubudala babafundi abancinane bolwimi lwesibini kunye nolwazi olukhoyo lolwimi kuthatyathwa njengezona zinto zingundoqo ekufumaniseni iimfuno zokufunda ezinegalelo kubunzima bomsebenzi. Ukongeza isifundo siphonononga ubuntsonkotha benzululwazi yolwimi kunye nobunzima bayo, ukuhlalutya imisebenzi yabafundi bolwimi lwesibini abaselula kwisikolo samabanga aphantsi kwinqanam elingaphakathi, ukukhuthaza okujioliswe kwisiseko somsebenzi ukubonisa umgaqo wamaqondo ahlukileyo ngokucacileyo nakwinkqubela yomfundi wolwimi lwesibini. Ukuze kuchongwe iimfuno ezithile zokufunda zabafundi abaselula abafunda isiXhosa njengolwimi lwesibini kwisikolo samabanga aphantsi kumxholo wenqanam elingaphakathi, ingcingane yokuba nakho kuphononongo lwangaphakathi, kuhlalutywa iimbono zethiyori kumsebenzi wokufundisa, imiba yomfundi ngamnye, kuboniswa ngemixholo yokufunda kunye nezinto zenkqubela yolwimi. Kuxoxwa okokuba ukusekwa komsebenzi wokufundisa ulwimi lwesibini kubekwa emxholweni inkqubo yomsebenzi ngokuphathelele kwindlela yeemfuno zasekuhlaleni, nto leyo ethi inike umfundi ithuba lokuba azi aze azibandakanye nolwimi olufunekayo ekujoliswe kulo kulungiselelwa inkqubela yolwimi. Iyaxoxwa kananjalo into yokuba oyena ndoqo ekusekweni komsebenzi wokufundisa ulwimi njengolwimi lwesibini kukwenziwa komsebenzi, kuvunyelwe ukuba umfundi athabathe inxaxheba ngokuthi akhuthazwe kwimixholo yomsebenzi nakumsebenzi ohlelwe ngokobuntsokotha nokulunga komfundi ngokuphathelele kwiimfuno zomfundi ngamnye, nto ke leyo ebangela inkqubela engacacanga necacileyo yolwazi lolwimi.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/102696
This item appears in the following collections: