Symmetry symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder : clinical and genetic correlates
CITATION: Lochner, C., et al. 2016. Symmetry symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder : clinical and genetic correlates. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 38(1):17–23, doi:10.1590/1516-4446-2014-1619.
Objective: In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), symmetry-related symptoms may be important. Although clinical correlates of symmetry-related symptoms have been identified in OCD, few data exist on genetic associations. Animal studies indicate involvement of dopamine in symmetry-related behavior, suggesting this may be relevant to analogous symptoms in OCD. Alterations in dopamine may also reflect environmental influences. However, the association of symmetry-related symptomatology, early adversity, and polymorphisms in dopaminergic genes has not been investigated in OCD. Methods: Clinical information and polymorphisms in key dopaminergic genes were compared between OCD patients with primary symmetry symptoms and those without. Results: OCD patients with primary symmetry symptoms comprised 46.6% (n=210) of the sample (n=451), and were older (p < 0.01), had longer illness duration (p < 0.01), higher OCD severity scores (p = 0.01), and greater comorbidity (p < 0.01) than those without. In Caucasians (n=343), genotype frequency differed significantly between groups for ANKK1 rs1800497, with more OCD patients with symmetry symptoms being homozygous for the A2 (CC) genotype (χ2 = 7.296; p = 0.026). Conclusion: Symmetry symptoms have some distinct clinical features and may represent a marker of severity in OCD. However, clinical associations, in combination with the association found with the ANKK1 rs1800497 A2 variant, suggest that primary symmetry symptoms may represent a distinctive clinical and psychobiological profile.