Evaluating land use conflicts at the borders of Etosha National Park, Namibia : A social-ecological approach

Mannetti, Lelani (2017-03)

Thesis (PhD)--Stellenbosch University, 2017.

Thesis

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Protected areas and their surrounding landscapes are becoming increasingly integrated. A more general awareness is emerging of the relevance of these integrated areas to nature conservation and to human well-being. In Namibia, areas dedicated to conservation are expanding due to the proliferation of conservancies and game reserves. This entails integrating land use practices variably dedicated to wildlife management and the inclusion of resident communities in the protected area decision-making process. The interface between natural and social systems in protected area governance is poorly understood, however. In applying a social-ecological systems framework to the understanding of rangelands surrounding the Etosha National Park (ENP) in Namibia, I try to better understand this interface. I first explored the factors that have contributed to community conservation success in the country. An expansion of Namibia’s protected area network will require changes in land use practices by the surrounding private and communal properties. Stakeholder analysis was used to identify and categorise stakeholder groups, and to both quantitatively and qualitatively assess their importance in the decision-making process. Twelve stakeholder groups were identified, and categorised relative to each other according to scores of position, interest and power. Together, these attributes provided an indication of the most important stakeholders (i.e. those most likely to affect or be affected by an expanded protected area network) and the various roles they potentially play in protected area planning and natural resource governance in the study area. Here, livestock farmers, although interested in the concept of being integrated into the protected area network, mostly opposed protected area expansion on both private property and communal land. To gain insight into the social-ecological interface of the study area, I assessed management challenges (i.e. issues affecting decision-making) and land use conflicts (i.e. disaccord between stakeholder groups due to divergent values), associated with being located adjacent to a protected area. Using grounded theory, I found that management challenges were related to primary land use, while conflicts significantly depended on land tenure. Production, wildlife and human conflicts were experienced, and these were driven by the lack of grazing, water and maintenance of the ENP fence. Management of integrated landscapes requires an understanding of the institutional context. I therefore assessed the institutional aspects of an integrated conservation landscape around ENP. Current policies associated with land and natural resource management were studied, guided by the literature on common pool resource governance. A wide variety of issues were incorporated, including ecological and stakeholder attributes, rules-in-use and the patterns of interactions between these. Six distinct resource management systems were identified, each variably focused on wildlife as a resource and each regulated by different institutions that shape the behaviour of stakeholders. Patterns of interaction exist between the various policies regulating management systems, which together condition access to and use of land. Potential outcomes of interacting policies include a Bill that is still in draft format, potentially hindered by the land tenure system and reluctance on behalf of the state to fully devolve rights over resources to land owners and resident communities.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Beskermde gebiede en hul omliggende landskap begin toenemend om teïntegreer. Groter bewustheid is opkomende van die toepaslikheid van hierdie geïntegreerde gebiede vir natuurbewaring en menslike welsyn. Namibiese gebiede toegewy aan bewaring het, as gevolg van die verspreiding van bewaringsgebiede en wildreservate, uitgebrei. Dit behels die integrasie van grondgebruik praktyke wat wisselvallig toegewy is aan wildbestuur, so wel as die insluiting van boere en natuurlike hulpbron gebruikers in die beskermde-gebied se besluitnemingsproses. Die verhouding tussen natuurlike en sosiale stelsels in die bestuur van beskermde gebiede word egter swak verstaan. Dus word 'n sosiaal-ekologiese stelsel raamwerk toegepas om die weiveld rondom die Etosha Nasionale Park (ENP) in Namibië te verstaan. Eerstens, word die faktore wat bygedra het tot die suksesvolle gemeenskapsgebaseerde bewaring in die land ondersoek. Die uitbreiding van Namibië se beskermde gebiede sal veranderinge in grondgebruik praktyke deur die omliggende private en gemeenskaplike eienskappe vereis. Belanghebbendes analise (of stakeholder analysis) is gebruik om belangegroepe te identifiseer en te kategoriseer, en beide kwantitatief en kwalitatief te beoordeel wat hul belangrikheid in die besluitnemingsproses is. Twaalf belangegroepe is geïdentifiseer, en gekategoriseer relatief tot mekaar volgens tellings van posisie, belangstelling en mag. Bygevoeg, verskaf hierdie eienskappe 'n aanduiding van die belangrikste rolspelers (bv diegene wat die meeste beïnvloed of geraak word deur 'n uitgebreide beskermde gebied) en die verskillende rolle wat hulle potensieel speel in beskermde gebied beplanning en natuurlike hulpbron bestuur in die studie area. Veeboere, alhoewel hulle belangstel in die konsep van meer beskermde gebiede rondom die ENP, is meestal gekant teen die uitbreiding daarvan op beide private eiendomme en kommunale grond. Om insig te verkry in die sosiaal-ekologiese koppelvlak van die studie area, het ek bestuur uitdagings beoordeel (bv kwessies wat besluitneming beïnvloed) en grondgebruik konflikte (dws disakkord tussen belangegroepe te danke aan uiteenlopende waardes). Ek het gegronde teorie gebruik en het gevind dat bestuur uitdagings verband hou met die primêre grondgebruik, terwyl konflikte aansienlik van grondbesit afhang. Produksie, wild en menslike konflikte word ervaar, en dié was gedryf deur die gebrek aan weiding, water en instandhouding van die ENP heining. Bestuur van 'n geïntegreerde landskap vereis 'n begrip van die institusionele konteks. Dus beoordeel ek die institusionele aspekte van 'n geïntegreerde bewaring landskap rondom ENP. Huidige beleid wat verband hou met grond en natuurlike hulpbronbestuur is bestudeer, gelei deur die literatuur oor gemeenskaplike hulpbronne bestuur. 'n Wye verskeidenheid van kwessies is opgeneem, insluitend ekologiese en belanghebbende eienskappe, reëls-in-gebruik en die patrone van interaksie tussen hierdie. Ses verskillende hulpbronbestuur stelsels is geïdentifiseer, elk wisselvallig gefokus op wild, as 'n hulpbron en elke een is gereguleer deur verskillende instansies wat die gedrag van belanghebbendes vorm. Patrone van interaksie tussen die verskillende beleide reguleer bestuurstelsels. Altesaam beheer die beleide die toegang tot, en gebruik van grond. Potensiële uitkomste van die interaksies tussen beleide sluit in 'n wetsontwerp wat nog in konsepvorm formaat is. Dit word verhinder deur die land se grondbesitstelsel en onwilligheid namens die staat om regte oor natuurlike hulpbronne ten volle aan eienaars en gemeenskappe oortehandig.

Please refer to this item in SUNScholar by using the following persistent URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/101370
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