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Urban–rural and geographic differences in overweight and obesity in four sub-Saharan African adult populations : a multi-country cross-sectional study

dc.contributor.authorAjayi, IkeOluwapo O.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorAdebamowo, Clementen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorAdami, Hans-Oloven_ZA
dc.contributor.authorDalal, Shonaen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorDiamond, Megan B.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorBajunirwe, Francisen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorGuwatudde, Daviden_ZA
dc.contributor.authorNjelekela, Marinaen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorNankya-Mutyoba, Joanen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorChiwanga, Faraja S.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorVolmink, Jimmyen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorKalyesubula, Roberten_ZA
dc.contributor.authorLaurence, Carienen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorReid, Todd G.en_ZA
dc.contributor.authorDockery, Douglasen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorHemenway, Daviden_ZA
dc.contributor.authorSpiegelman, Donnaen_ZA
dc.contributor.authorHolmes, Michelle D.en_ZA
dc.date.accessioned2017-01-23T12:16:49Z
dc.date.available2017-01-23T12:16:49Z
dc.date.issued2016-10-28
dc.identifier.citationAjayi, I. O., et al. 2016. Urban–rural and geographic differences in overweight and obesity in four sub-Saharan African adult populations: a multi-country cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 16:1126, doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3789-z.
dc.identifier.issn1471-2458 (Online)
dc.identifier.otherdoi:10.1186/s12889-016-3789-z
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10019.1/100499
dc.descriptionCITATION: Ajayi, I. O., et al. 2016. Urban–rural and geographic differences in overweight and obesity in four sub-Saharan African adult populations: a multi-country cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 16:1126, doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3789-z.
dc.descriptionThe original publication is available at http://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com
dc.description.abstractENGLISH SUMMARY : Background: Overweight and obesity are on the rise in developing countries including sub-Saharan Africa. We undertook a four-country survey to show the collective burden of these health conditions as they occur currently in sub-Saharan Africa and to determine the differences between urban and rural populations and other socioeconomic factors. Methods: Participants were nurses in two hospitals in Nigeria (200), school teachers in South Africa (489) and Tanzania (229), and village residents in one peri-urban (297) and one rural location in Uganda (200) who completed a standardised questionnaire. Their height and weight were measured and body mass index calculated. Factor analysis procedure (Principal component) was used to generate a wealth index. Univariate and multivariate analyses with binary logistic regression models were conducted to examine the associations between potential correlates and the prevalence of overweight and obesity with 95 % confidence intervals. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obese (combined) was 46 %, 48 %, 68 %, 75 % and 85 % in rural Uganda, peri-urban Uganda, Nigeria, Tanzania and South Africa (SA), respectively. Rural Uganda, Peri- urban Uganda, Nigeria, Tanzania and SA had obesity prevalence of 10 %, 14 %, 31 %, 40 % and 54 %, respectively (p < 0.001). Overall, prevalence of overweight was 374 (31 %) and obesity, 414 (34 %). Female sex was a predictor of overweight and obesity (combined) in peri-urban Uganda [AOR = 8.01; 95 % CI: 4.02, 15.96) and obesity in rural Uganda [AOR = 11.22; 95%CI: 2.27, 55.40), peri-urban Uganda [AOR = 27.80; 95 % CI: 7.13, 108.41) and SA [AOR = 2. 17; 95 % CI: 1.19, 4.00). Increasing age was a predictor of BMI > =25 kg/m2 in Nigeria [Age > =45 - AOR = 9.11; 95 % CI: 1.72, 48.16] and SA [AOR = 6.22; 95 % CI: 2.75, 14.07], while marital status was predictor of BMI > =25 kg/m2 only in peri-urban Uganda. [Married - AOR = 4.49; 95 % CI: 1.74, 11.57]. Those in Nigeria [AOR = 2.56; 95 % CI: 1.45, 4.53], SA [AOR = 4.97; 95 % CI: 3.18, 7.78], and Tanzania [AOR = 2.68; 95 % CI: 1.60, 4.49] were more likely to have BMI > =25 kg/m2 compared with the rural and peri-urban sites. Conclusion: The high prevalence of overweight and obesity in these sub-Saharan African countries and the differentials in prevalence and risk factors further highlights the need for urgent focused intervention to stem this trend, especially among women, professionals and urban dwellers.
dc.description.urihttp://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-016-3789-z
dc.format.extent13 pages ; illustrations
dc.language.isoen_ZAen_ZA
dc.publisherBioMed Central
dc.subjectObesity -- Researchen_ZA
dc.subjectOverweight persons -- Nigeriaen_ZA
dc.subjectOverweight persons -- South Africaen_ZA
dc.subjectOverweight persons -- Tanzaniaen_ZA
dc.subjectOverweight persons -- Ugandaen_ZA
dc.titleUrban–rural and geographic differences in overweight and obesity in four sub-Saharan African adult populations : a multi-country cross-sectional studyen_ZA
dc.typeArticle
dc.date.updated2016-12-09T12:02:36Z
dc.description.versionPublisher's version
dc.rights.holderAuthor retains copyright


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