Tuberculosis and pneumonia in HIV-infected children : an overview

Rabie, Helena ; Goussard, Pierre (2016-11-24)

CITATION: Rabie, H. & Goussard, P. 2016. Tuberculosis and pneumonia in HIV-infected children : an overview. Pneumonia, 8:19, doi:10.1186/s41479-016-0021-y.

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ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Pneumonia remains the most common cause of hospitalization and the most important cause of death in young children. In high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-burden settings, HIV-infected children carry a high burden of lower respiratory tract infection from common respiratory viruses, bacteria and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In addition, Pneumocystis jirovecii and cytomegalovirus are important opportunistic pathogens. As the vertical transmission risk of HIV decreases and access to antiretroviral therapy increases, the epidemiology of these infections is changing, but HIV-infected infants and children still carry a disproportionate burden of these infections. There is also increasing recognition of the impact of in utero exposure to HIV on the general health of exposed but uninfected infants. The reasons for this increased risk are not limited to socioeconomic status or adverse environmental conditions—there is emerging evidence that these HIV-exposed but uninfected infants may have particular immune deficits that could increase their vulnerability to respiratory pathogens. We discuss the impact of tuberculosis and other lower respiratory tract infections on the health of HIV-infected infants and children.

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