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- Item2015-12-31 Effective public leadership to drive organisational change in the public health sector in order to improve service delivery : the case of the Western Cape Department of Health(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2015-04) Isaacs, Rafeeqah; Schwella, Lyzette; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. School of Public Leadership.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The goal of this research was to investigate effective leadership that drives organisational change in the public health sector to meet the changing environmental needs to improve service delivery within the Western Cape Department of Health. Organisational change in the public health sector must lead to improved public health service delivery. The role of leadership is to deal with incompetent personnel as they are the cause of problems regarding inadequate service delivery. Leadership must contribute to the main areas where competency development needs to take place. Healthcare 2030 requires transformational leadership from the ranks of managers and clinicians for collective and distributed leadership across all levels of organisations. The research methodology used in this study was a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. The methodology included an empirical investigation in the form of a literature review and a preliminary semi-structured interview as well as a nonempirical investigation. The empirical investigation was conducted by using semi-structured interviews as well as a survey questionnaire which was designed to gather information focussing on leader personality traits, task-related traits and understanding the organisation. This study specifically focussed on effective public leadership to drive organisational change in the health sector and to improve service delivery. The results provide support for a cohesive trait-behavioural model of leadership effectiveness. In general, leadership traits associated with task competence are related to task-oriented leadership behaviours, which improve performance-related leadership outcomes. Effective leadership in the public health sector that drives organisational change is based on the general personality traits of a leader, task-related traits and understanding the organisation. These are the elements that are important for effective public leadership to improve service delivery.
- ItemAccountability in the context of cooperative governance and local economic development (LED) in South African local government(Megatrend University, 2021) Kamara, Richard DouglasProvided the tensions and challenges found in different types of governance systems for developing clear objectives, effective policy implementation strategies, as well as monitoring and reporting mechanisms aimed at improving efficiency and sustainability of initiatives, this paper seeks to contribute to both theoretical and practical debates surrounding cooperative governance and LED. Whilst better policy outcomes that fit with local and differentiated needs among stakeholders may be one of the drivers for moving towards cooperative governance, there is a normative question of accountability. Does the common feature of flexible and adaptable arrangements in cooperative governance create accountability deficit, specifically promoting laissez-faire approach commonly associated with the implementation among role-players? This paper considers this question and the extent to which accountability may be ensured. To address these concerns data were collected from six municipalities in Western Cape, South Africa. A qualitative research design paradigm based on Interpretivists/Constructivists philosophy was employed. Data were collected through three data collection instruments, namely, document review, interviews and focus group discussions. This paper argues that employing Key Performance Indicators as commonly used in the public service to promote accountability is difficult to enforce specifically in collaborative endeavours where participatory is voluntary. The paper recommends some accountability promotion enhancers. This will assist in improving the understanding of the context that may inhibit or enable stakeholders in taking full advantage of collaborative-led developmental interventions to further peoples’ lives and to enhance their opportunities to partake in matters of development in their municipalities.
- ItemAcid mine drainage in the Gauteng province of South Africa : a phenomenological study on the degree of alignment between stakeholders concerning a sustainable solution to acid mine drainage(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2011-12) Ewart, Timothy Ian; Brent, Alan C.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. School of Public Leadership.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Ecosystems, and the very services and resources that they provide, are fundamental to our existence. Regardless, mankind shows scant regard for the biotic and abiotic components of the environment that serve as both sources and sinks for anthropocentric demands, practices and behaviours. Of these vital resources, perhaps the one that is most under threat is water which while crucial for growth and development around the globe, is rapidly becoming a scarce commodity. In South Africa - already a water-scarce country - this situation is further compounded by mining practices that are not only unsustainable, but also largely unregulated from an environmental perspective. Mining activities have resulted in the mass exposure of iron pyrite and heavy metals, both underground and on the surface. Upon exposure to weathering, the iron pyrite gives rise to sulphuric acid, which, in turn results in the mobilisation and concentration of toxic metals. Although this is a geological phenomenon, the increasing concentrations of toxic metals as a result of mining have exposed the Gauteng province to enormous environmental, social and economic risks. Concerning the risks, the research highlighted the following: - Although comprehensive research has been found relating to the physical attributes of acid mine drainage (AMD), very little is known of the health aspects associated with AMD. Of immediate concern is, the subsequent environmental and health implications stemming from the association between living organisms and heavy metals. - In the absence of such information, the credibility of current solutions is thus questionable. Of the solutions that have been proposed, most have been reductionist in approach and have only focused on dealing with the surface decant of contaminated water from predominately non-functioning mines. The health risks associated with radioactive and highly toxic waste have been down played or simply ignored (Albrecht, 2011). - The absence of a comprehensive solution also raises questions as to the assessment and decision-making process utilised to date by the Department of Water Affairs (DWA). - Both government and the private sector have allowed the AMD threat to amplify over the years. Their inaction has been facilitated by the poor enforcement of legislation and, clever manoeuvring by mining companies, in what can only be described as a mutually beneficial relationship between government and the mining industry. In stark contrast to the inaction of government and the private sector, environmental activists have been very vocal in calling for a solution to a number of the risks associated with AMD. This, together with the recent decant of AMD in the Western Basin, has culminated in a public outcry and prompted calls for a solution to the AMD threat. Government's response to this was a narrow and incomprehensive solution, which only served to further frustrate the different stakeholder groups. Where stakeholders have different themes as to the implications and thus solutions to the AMD threat on the Witwatersrand (as driven by the profiles of the different stakeholder groups), an appropriate solution will only be realised by adopting the following recommendations: - Government must show the necessary political will, to fully engage the threat of AMD and address their poor track record as regulator - their credibility has been skewed through their vested interests in the mining industry. - Having taken ownership of the AMD threat on the Witwatersrand, government must move to avert any immediate risks to human well-being. - Under governments' leadership, the capacity of all stakeholders must be addressed to facilitate a participatory trans-disciplinary review of the assessment mechanisms and facts, in order to reach a mutually acceptable solution(s) to the social and environmental impacts associated with mining activities - a solution that will ensure future environmental integrity, social development and economic growth.
- ItemThe activist planning, transformation and complexity nexus : implications for the Atlantis Revitalisation Framework of 2012(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2020-03) Manguwo, Liveson; Muller, J. I.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. School of Public Leadership.ENGLISH SUMMARY : This case study explores a collaborative planning process that led to the formulation of the Atlantis Revitalisation Framework (ARF) of 2012. The study is based on a thematic content review and analysis of secondary data in the public sphere, personal notes and reflections that were collected during and after the policy framework was established. Atlantis was established in 1975 to accommodate the coloured community 45 km outside the City of Cape Town (CoCT) in line with apartheid planning policy of racial segregation. After losing state subsidies, the socioeconomic plight of Atlantis deteriorated markedly between 1994 and 2009 resulting in job losses and high unemployment. This economic decline triggered negative social issues, such as poverty, food insecurity, crime, gang activities, drug abuse and domestic violence. Multi-stakeholder agencies in Atlantis collectively initiated a rescue strategy to address the economic downturn that worsened during the 2008/9 Global Economic Recession. To clearly understand the nuances, actions, events and decisions that led to the establishment of the ARF, the study explores the potentially ‘transformative’ insights from complexity theory and activist modes of planning with a bias towards human-rights-based planning. These insights are then applied as lenses in the analysis of the ARF case study. To establish the ‘nexus’ meaning interconnectedness between activist planning, transformation and complexity, the study looks at the history of positivist planning systems and maps out the justifications and conditions used in its pervasive legitimation thereof. Using complexity theory as a lens, the study reviews the constraints and wicked problems that planning faces. It explores the intricate links tying open planning sub-systems into large networks that interact dynamically, often along non-linear routes. It also highlights the challenge of wicked problems and the global sustainable development poly-crisis. It demonstrates the difficulty of predicting future events; of dealing with vested interests and conflicts of values; of managing the complex interrelationships and interaction of decisions made at different scales, in different policy spheres, and at different points in time. These challenges expose the inability of traditional planning approaches to adequately respond to the growing needs and lived experiences of expanding urban populations, particularly those in the Global South, and specifically those that are marginalised and excluded. Using the concept of ‘transformation’, which entails greater sensitivity towards complexity, contextual reality and indeterminacy in the pursuit of quality engagements that are legitimate, epistemologically empowering, inclusive, transparent, and geared towards relationship building, the study proposes a rethink of planning practices in the Global South and in South Africa specifically. It argues that such a rethink requires a shift in the institutional and governance arrangements of the state and civil society. Using the transformative insights gleaned from activist modes of planning, the study outlines evaluative criteria that was used in the analysis of the Atlantis case study. The evaluative criteria revealed what the planning issues were, including their historical links to segregatory planning policies of the apartheid regime. It identified the geographic isolation of Atlantis as a negative factor inhibiting its ability to function in sync with the CoCT’s regional economy. These complex issues prompted an activist reaction from multiple local stakeholders. Through the Atlantis Socio-Economic (ASED) task team, they collectively initiated an adversarial planning process, highlighting the development of new institutional and governance configurations which challenged existing power relations and interests. Though not entirely transformative and critically reflective, the activist planning approach employed by ASED was forward-looking and adaptive. It involved multiple actors which transformed the existing governance systems and frameworks. A new governance regime called the Atlantis Stakeholder Assembly (ASA) was created as a vehicle through which planning issues were discussed. The ASA the newly established Inter-governmental Steering Committee (CoCT, Provincial Government of Western Cape (PGWC) and the National Government produced the final ARF. This policy framework led to the implementation of the Atlantis business rescue strategy, the establishment of the Green industrial hub, job training and reskilling of the local workforce, and access to industrial land being expedited. However, when the politically charged ASED task team was disbanded and replaced by the ASA some of the incentives for transformation, as pushed for by the activists, were diminished. The ASA lacked agency, political muscle and influence and it also lacked legislative recognition, as it had no decisive power to set the substantive agenda, timing, and debates regarding the developmental issues in Atlantis. This transition reversed the seemingly transformative governance reform championed by ASED that had the potential to ensure democratic accountability. The move allowed the technical stuff from the CoCT and PGWC to dominate the planning process and give direction to the ASA within the economic and political constraints of the CoCT.
- ItemAddressing community energy challenges with utility-scale renewables : a case study of Hopefield Wind Farm(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2019-04) Swartz, Kyle; Swilling, Mark; Wlokas, Holle Linnea; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. School of Public Leadership.ENGLISH SUMMARY : This thesis documents how a utility-scale renewable energy project has addressed community energy challenges through the development of a wind farm as part of South Africa’s Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme (REIPPPP). The implementation of the REIPPPP in South Africa has been designed for the procurement to secure additional renewable energy capacity and makes allowance for local beneficiation to the country. The procurement framework mandates successful independent power producers (IPPs) to spend a percentage of annual income in local communities found within a 50-kilometre radius of a renewable energy project site. It prescribes that this percentage of annual income be used on socio-economic development (SED) and enterprise development (ED) in surrounding communities that are commonly implemented through the practice of community development. Despite well-intended community beneficiation stemming from the programme, early reports have highlighted several challenges that IPPs experience in integrating social and economic development as part of their core business operations. Challenges range from a lack of guidance from the government regarding the practice of social and economic development to poor engagement with communities over upliftment projects accrued to them. These challenges hamper the potentially transformative social and economic development considerations of the REIPPPP. This masters research study showcases how the SED and ED funds, stemming from the Hopefield Wind Farm (owned by Umoya Energy) and arising as a result of its participation within the REIPPPP, have addressed community energy challenges experienced in the beneficiary town of Hopefield. Presented as a narrative analysis, the case study showcases the particular leadership style Umoya Energy undertook in its community engagement process. This resulted in positive outcomes for the community in the form of a strategic project that responds to the energy challenges faced in the beneficiary community, while at the same time addressing other common challenges faced, such as unemployment.
- ItemAdministrative aspects of parks and recreational facilities at the local government level with particular reference to the Durban municipality : a theoretical and practical perspective(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 1992-03) Bayat, Mohamed Saheed; Gildenhuys, J. S. H.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. School of Public Leadership.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The provision and administration of parks and recreational facilities at the local government level was investigated. The status of parks and recreational facilities in overseas countries was described and compared with the situation in South Africa. After defining the concepts of play, recreation and leisure it was suggested that recreation is a basic human need throughout the life cycle. As such, the provision of parks and recreation facilities by local authorities is more than just a service. Since it concerns the basic social welfare of the community, it is also a moral obligation.
- ItemAdministrative reforms required for the successful implementation of the National Development Plan(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2020-03) Orlandi, Nelia; Rabie, Babette; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. School of Public Leadership.ENGLISH SUMMARY : Challenges with the successful implementation of policies, strategies and plans have been identified as reasons for South Africa not reducing poverty, unemployment and inequality. The aim of this study is to identify the obstacles that prevent successful policy implementation in South Africa. The focus is specifically to identify the possible constraints that could prevent the successful implementation of the South African National Development Plan (NDP), vision 2030. Policy implementation has been identified in the literature as one of the key elements of public administration. Over time, public administration went through a series of reforms, specifically to search for effective ways to make government work better and more cost effectively. Apart from the role of performance measurement in government’s effectiveness, the focus of reforms shifted to performance-based management as a whole. To ensure effective and efficient service delivery it is important to establish the key factors influencing the success of policy implementation. The study of policy implementation is grounded in the disciplines of public sector management and policy science. It comprises well-defined linear steps within a broader economic, political and social environment that, if taken care of, should lead to a sound policy process being put in place. All government activities must reflect and align to the objectives of government policies. The challenge, however, is to implement the mechanisms properly to reap the benefits of efficiency and effectiveness and to be able to evaluate success or failure. This research proposes a model to evaluate the success or failure of the implementation of the policy process. A model was developed, based on the key public sector reforms, mechanisms and key factors that influence successful policy implementation. The proposed model builds on previous models and frameworks and considers content, causality, context, capacity and control as critical elements influencing policy implementation. It is structured to assist policy implementation analysts to assess policy implementation over the entire policy process. The practical application of the model was tested on the South African NDP. The application of the model to the NDP identified slow progress, challenges with the design and mechanisms as blockages for the implementation of the NDP. Slow progress on the implementation of the NDP necessitated a more detailed analysis of the mechanisms introduced for the implementation of the NDP. Throughout the analysis, the complexity of the mechanism has been identified as a challenge for the successful implementation of the NDP. A revised operating model is therefore recommended for the implementation of the NDP. This revised model provides a simplified mechanism that fully integrates the NDP priorities into the standard processes of government. The proposed mechanism replaces the complex medium-term strategic framework (in its current format) and programme of action reporting process with a more integrated system. The adoption of a more refined framework, based on the proposed operating model for the development of the next five-year implementation plan of the NDP, should eliminate some of the blockages caused by the content and causality elements of the current NDP implementation plans. Despite the recommendation for a revised mechanism, a range of recommendations, based on the findings from the analyses on the current mechanism, have been made. The recommendations start with the development of well described performance indicators and targets. The next set of recommendations relates to the adoption of a more refined model for the implementation plans for the NDP and, therefore, the better integration of the NDP into the existing activities of departments in all spheres of government. Although many of the NDP initiatives relate to existing activities that can be accommodated in the existing budget programme structures of government, the review of all budget programme structures, to provide for the relevant resources and capacity, is recommended. This recommendation refers to all levels of government to ensure the correct classification of budget programmes to accommodate the NDP outcomes and activities to which funds must be directed. A further recommendation includes the consideration of combining other forms of budgeting selectively within the programme performance management system adopted by the South African government. To improve the relationship between planning and budgeting, government should also consider the review of the institutional arrangements of the planning, budgeting and monitoring and evaluation components. This is not just in terms of the NDP/long-term planning, but also in respect of medium- and short-term planning, reporting and monitoring. The last set of recommendations emphasises the role of communication and control when services are decentralised or, in the case of South Africa, the use of public entities. The main recommendations include: The identification of key relevant stakeholders as opposed to using multiple actors responsible for the implementation of national outcomes. Giving greater responsibility to programme managers linked to a public entity and at the same time holding them accountable for the monitoring of the strategic and financial management of public entities. Holding programme managers responsible for communicating and the monitoring of the requirements of public entities (that provide services on behalf of government) in terms of the implementation of the national outcomes.
- ItemAdministrative support for community participation in the IDP : a case study of the Oostenberg Municipality(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2000-12) Erasmus, Vernon William Hendry; Van Baalen, Johan; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. Dept. of School of Public Leadership.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study explains community participation in the Integrated Development Planning (lDP) process and indicates that administrative support in the Oostenberg Municipality is not conducive for the facilitation of effective participation in this process. This resulted in poor attendance of the 1997/98 cycle of the IDP meetings. Certain improvements in this regard to the 1998/99 cycle did not show any significant difference. This situation did not allow the Oostenberg Municipality to achieve the objective of meaningful input from the community in the IDP policy process. It resulted in the budget not reflecting the priority needs of community specifically. Data in the study was obtained by means of a questionnaire. Information derived at supports the researcher's hypothesis that administrative support is not conducive to effective participation. The study yielded various reasons for non-participation, inter-alia that: the community was uninformed about the IDP, preventing people from access to information and effective participation; II> community participation was undertaken by various directorates on a fragmented basis while no official plan for implementing participation in a coordinated fashion existed; the Oostenberg Municipality relied only on community meetings as a method of participation. The illiteracy factor in the Oostenberg community however, made this an ineffective method; and the community do not value their participation because of the perception that the municipality and it's officials do not regard the community input in a serious light. Based on these findings, criteria for supporting effective community participation processes were developed. Practical recommendations which can be used to overcome the problems of participation in the context of the study were formulated. The principle recommendations derived at in this study are the following: ~ participation should be institutionalised by making one directorate responsible for it; ~ incorporating a participation policy into the organisation; ~ introducing alternative participation mechanisms, techniques and structures for the IDP; ~ the establishment of better communication systems and processes for the IDP; and, ~ the use of developmental-orientated officials and councillors (by providing them with ongoing training and development). If officials and councillors become developmentorientated they will eventually value community participation.
- ItemAdopting the Public Accounts Committee Model for financial oversight in South African municipalities - a case study of the Public Accounts Committee in the City of Cape Town(University of Stellenbosch, 2011-03) Botes, Cobus; Woods, Gavin; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. School of Public Leadership.Since its inception in 1861 when the first public accounts committee was established in the United Kingdom, this oversight mechanism has developed into a model for non-executive financial oversight and accountability at the national and provincial levels of government throughout the Commonwealth and beyond. A few municipalities in South Africa have also established public accounts committees, but they are a few isolated cases. The hesitance on the part of South African municipalities to establish a good governance mechanism with a proven track record is a cause of concern, especially in view of the poor financial management that prevails throughout the local sphere of government. In this case study of the public accounts committee established in the City of Cape Town in 2006, the researcher explores the feasibility of the implementation of the public accounts committee model within the local government sphere in South Africa. Twenty internationally recognised public accounts committee practices were identified and used to probe the selected case to gain in-depth knowledge of the extent to which the committee adheres to these recognised practices. Where the committee deviated from accepted practices, the reasons for the deviation and its impact on the effectiveness of the committee were analysed. Finally, the key lessons learnt from the experience of the public accounts committee in the City of Cape Town are used in order to make two sets of recommendations: Firstly, recommendations on how the public accounts committee of the City of Cape Town can become more effective than it currently is – recommendations which are also relevant to any municipality wishing to establish a public accounts committee. The second set of recommendations is addressed to the national authorities in charge of finance and local government, as the challenge of establishing improved governance systems in local government is of national importance, and it is within the power of these authorities to remove a few key obstacles in the way of establishing municipal public accounts committees.
- ItemAdopting “Results-based management policy innovation : a tool for strategy planning and execution” : a case study of the United Nations human settlements programme(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2016-12) Olupot, Geoffrey; Rabie, Babette; Cloete, Fanie; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. School of Public Leadership.AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING : Geen opsomming beskikbaar.
- ItemAdressing the impact of structural fragmentation on aspects of the management and conservation of cultural heritage(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2009-12) Sibayi, Dumisani; Muller, J. J.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. School of Public Management and Planning.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The birth of democracy in South Africa launched a paradigm shift in the public sector aligning it with the new political ideology. To meet this objective, state organs had to be radically transformed to embrace this new political ideology so as to extend and enhance service delivery to all South Africans. The democratisation of state organs led to the transformation of public institutions both statutory and non-statutory. The urgency to transform strategic state institutions whose mandate was to provide basic and primary needs like health, housing and social services, led to the neglect of other like sport, culture, and the natural environment. The transformation of some of the latter institutions was attended to only after a couple of years after the democratisation. This led to flaws in these legislative development processes which resulted in the creation of different institutions by various laws. This was the root cause of fragmentation. The provisions of these Acts are in some areas ambiguous and contradictory. The consequences are duplications and overlaps in the implementation processes. Heritage institutions have different regulatory frameworks and management systems – regulations, policies, guidelines and procedures. Furthermore, complex internal management systems expedite fragmentation of this sector. This institutional fragmentation has enormous impact on heritage conservation and management. There is limited cooperation and collaboration between heritage institutions. This study will outline how theories, strategies and instruments from the new public management approach, can be utilised to address these challenges.
- ItemAdvancing resilience assessments : the social dimensions of electricity supply in South Africa(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2019-04) Van der Merwe, Susara Elizabeth; Biggs, Reinette, 1979-; Preiser, Rika; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. School of Public Leadership.ENGLISH SUMMARY : Electricity supply serves as a lifeline, is foundational to the effective functioning of modern society, and powers multiple layers of other critical infrastructure systems. In South Africa, Eskom, the national state-owned electrical utility, generates 95% of the country’s electricity, making the South African economy highly dependent on the utility. Eskom has been caught up in socio-political, technical and financial challenges, including corruption and state capture allegations. Futhermore, owing to supply deficits, Eskom had to resort to national load-shedding from 2007 to 2008 and from 2014 to 2015. Withdrawal of labour and acts of sabotage by employees during a national strike again necessitated load-shedding between June and August 2018. Eskom is described as the biggest risk to the South African economy, by investment bank Goldman Sachs in 2017, as well as the International Monetary Fund at the end of 2018. Resilience is a systems-level outcome that emerges as a result of dynamics within complex adaptive systems. An essential service, such as electricity, is resilient if the complex adaptive socio-technical system, from which it is produced, has the capacity to sustain delivery of the core service amidst disruption and ongoing change. A fundamental departure point for this study is the realisation that a resilient technical infrastructure is not enough to ensure the supply of essential services is resilient. The dynamics of the embedded social component is often overlooked, but contributes both inherent strength and vulnerability to the functioning of the socio-technical system that delivers the essential service. This dissertation uses the implications of complexity thinking and resilience thinking to investigate approaches to assess and build the resilience of the embedded social resources required to ensure resilient essential service delivery. The specific objectives of the study were to: develop a conceptual framework for assessing resilience of essential services; pilot two methods for assessing and building resilience (through a principle-based formative assessment approach and a narrative-based sensemaking approach); and to describe the SenseMaker® methodology, as it is increasingly utilized in academic research. These objectives were addressed through four research papers around which the dissertation is structured: The first paper develops a framework to conceptualise domains of resilience that distinguish between social and technical resilience investments, on the one hand, and between specified and general resilience, on the other. Specified resilience deals with resilience of particular system components to defined threats, whereas general resilience is a generic capacity to adapt and transform amidst unpredictable threats and unforeseen risks. Investments in all four of these domains are required in complex adaptive socio-technical systems to ensure resilient essential services. The paper also distinguishes between summative and formative resilience assessments. The first involves assessments of resilience whose primary aim is to report to a third party what is in place. The second entails assessments for resilience whose primary aim is to establish, through engagement with relevant stakeholders, what resilience is required and agree collectively on how to build it. The second paper develops and pilots a formative resilience assessment approach, using an appreciative inquiry facilitation approach to assess how the seven generic resilience building principles from the field of socio-ecological systems can be utilised to enhance general social resilience within socio-technical systems. Six participatory workshops were conducted that produced assessments situated in the collective experiences and perspectives of the participants. The study operationalised the seven resilience building principles into an assessment process that can be rapidly and repeatedly conducted to involve several members of a community. The study found participants identified opportunities to enhance resilience based on the principles of resilience governance towards adaptive and transformative resilience capabilities. The third paper provides a detailed description of the SenseMaker® method used to perform the sensemaking-based resilience assessment in paper four. Originally developed as a decision-making tool for corporate businesses, SenseMaker® is now increasingly used by researchers, but has not been well documented in the academic literature. This paper describes the SenseMaker® method, how it can be used, and its significance and shortcomings in research settings. The fourth paper develops and pilots a narrative-based sensemaking approach for assessing the strength of social resilience competencies and the relative combinations of specified and general social resilience resources that people draw on in the face of disruption. The approach was piloted in a national emergency exercise conducted in Eskom, which simulated sudden cascading failure across interdependent systems and functions. The study found that employees drew more on specified than general resilience resources. Results were interpreted relative to the quality of cognitive, connective and purposive sensemaking that participants displayed in response to the simulated failure. The key contribution of this dissertation is that it provides conceptual clarity regarding the different domains of resilience that need to be considered in socio-technical systems. Moreover, the study develops and pilots two methods for assessing social resilience. The first assessment approach is formative and uses the seven principles; and, the second is summative, using the narrative-based sensemaking approach. The importance of sensemaking capacities in social resilience is emphasized, and methodological clarity on the use of the SenseMaker method in research settings is provided. The findings from this study advance conceptual and methodological aspects of resilience assessments, in particular assessments of the social dimension of socio-technical systems. This study is especially significant as it was performed in a technical organization with an engineering driven culture, but focused on social aspects that affects systems-level resilience. These insights may also have relevance in advancing the assessment of social dimensions of resilience in social-ecological systems. On a practical note, the findings may assist a wide range of actors seeking to assess and build the resilience of essential service delivery in socio-technical systems.
- ItemAffirmative action at local government level(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 1997) Brown, Michelle; Meyer, I. H.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. School of Public Leadership.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This work takes the South African Constitution and compares it to the Constitutions of Australia and Canada. It then reviews the affirmative action laws, with special reference to pertaining to women of those countries. The assumption is made that the Constitution seems to be modelled on the Constitutions of Australia and Canada, especially the discrimination clauses. It follows that the South African ,model will parallel or closely resemble the affirmative action laws of both countries. Subsequently, if these laws are compatible with those of the Cape Town City Council, what plans are envisaged by this Local Authority to improve the position of women within their employ; taking both the incumbent and prospective employees.
- ItemAfrican entrepreneurship : an exploration of innovation hubs as development institutions(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2022-04) Nkontwana, Phumlani Stanley; Burger, A. P. Johan; van Breda, John; Rabie, Babette; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. School of Public Leadership.ENGLISH SUMMARY: Innovation hubs have emerged as key hybrid entrepreneurship spaces where certain important institutional arrangements are made. Yet their development impact has arguably remained elusive. To explore underlying issues, this research aimed to answer the main question: How can hubs across Africa be reconfigured in ways that translate entrepreneurship into development? This investigation took an institutional approach to answering the research question. This was grounded on the argument that while evolutionary economic theory was an important contribution in crystallising the role of entrepreneurship in the formal economy, it reduced entrepreneurship to a micro-economic phenomenon by overly focusing on the individual entrepreneur and understating the mediating factors of institutional arrangements and the political economy. By implication, this necessitated a redescription of entrepreneurship in line with a macro-economic development perspective. Drawing from the new conceptual redescription of entrepreneurship and literature reviewed, it was argued that hubs have the potential to be effective at supporting entrepreneurship that leads to development, but only if they employ an ecological approach. An ecological approach was argued to be more useful for African entrepreneurship because it meant acknowledging the importance of creating a dynamic ecology of support among hubs. The choice of methodology was, by extension, based on its ability to embrace the relational and macro-economic perspectives of entrepreneurship. Thus, the study used an emergent transformative transdisciplinary research methodology involving five research design phases: co-design, stakeholder engagements, co-production of new knowledge, dissemination of results; and inspiring action. To complement the methodology, the study followed a narrative-based research method called SenseMaker®, which enabled the data collection of 100 stories across Ghana, Kenya and Rwanda. To answer the research question, the investigation organised respondent data into factual knowledge of their current realities (systems knowledge), areas of possible levers that may signal strategic areas of intervening (transformation knowledge) and ideal results local respondents reported they want (target knowledge). The analysis execution of the qualitative dataset used to derive empirical findings, employed two but complementary statistical techniques namely thematic analysis and non-linear causality diagram. One of the key empirical findings suggested hubs are potentially a key institutional vehicle that assembles resources such as talent, ideas and capital. Concurrently, the study highlighted an ongoing dominant perspective that while government is experienced as either absent or punitive, and private sector continues to be experienced as the lead force in coordinating ecosystem activities that drive entrepreneurship momentum and maturity; successful African entrepreneurs are essentially minority foreigners or diaspora with international education, past corporate experiences or upper-middle-class family backgrounds. By providing a new theoretical redescription of entrepreneurship from a development perspective and a practical example of employing methodological agility in an empirical investigation, the study contributed an original narrative account of stakeholder’s experiences evidencing the growing emerging view that even though the mainstream discourse in entrepreneurship is mainly about driving momentum and maturity across different ecosystems, locals and indigenous entrepreneurs do not have a sense of control or human agency to shape the directionality of African entrepreneurship toward development outcomes they want.
- ItemAgro-ecological and Conservation Agriculture principles to assist large-scale dryland sugarcane farmers in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands South region to improve soil quality(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2016-03) Gibson, William Adriaan; Haysom, Gareth; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. School of Public Leadership.ENGLISH SUMMARY: Average sugarcane yields over the past four decades in some regions of the South African sugarcane industry have reached a plateau or are declining. One of the reasons for sugarcane yield decline is soil degradation. The aim of this research was to ascertain if Agro-ecological and Conservation Agriculture principles could assist large-scale dryland sugarcane farmers to improve soil quality. The research questions were designed to determine the perspectives of researchers and the targeted group of sugarcane farmers’ on soil quality and how they engaged with the topic. A further objective was to ascertain what sugarcane farming practices were recommended and implemented to improve soil quality and whether they conformed to Agro-ecological or Conservation Agriculture practices. A third objective was to investigate whether Agro-ecological and Conservation Agriculture practices could contribute towards the development of a management system to help sugarcane farmers improve soil quality. An extensive literature review was undertaken. The main topics researched were soil degradation, soil quality, sugarcane yield decline, Agro-ecology and Conservation Agriculture. Four case studies were conducted in the Midlands South sugarcane region. Four preselected large-scale dryland sugarcane farmers were interviewed on-farm using a semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire. These sugarcane farmers had already implemented various sugarcane farming practices to improve soil quality. The questionnaire was designed to capture the farmers’ practices, perspectives and soil quality improvement needs. All the interviewed farmers wished to improve their soil quality. They requested more information on the topics of soil degradation, soil quality improvement practices and requested practical soil health monitoring tests. The farmers mainly implemented farming practices that practically fitted their farm system and did not require large capital outlays. Whilst a large volume of research has been conducted on sugarcane soil quality, no literature was found directly associating Agro-ecological or Conservation Agriculture farming systems with sugarcane soil management in South Africa. Many potential sugarcane farming practices that improve soil quality were documented. Those practices that conformed to Agro-ecological and / or Conservation Agriculture principles were identified. A key principle of Agro-ecology is that ecological relationships and beneficial interactions must be promoted within the farming system. A key principle of Conservation Agriculture is that it will only work optimally if all the technical aspects are implemented simultaneously. The proposal is made to adopt site specific farming practices that have multiple soil quality benefits and are synergistic or complementary to existing practices. Three key aspects of Agro-ecology and Conservation Agriculture that may improve sugarcane soil quality were identified from the research. Soil organic matter should be conserved and enhanced, biodiversity should be promoted and ecosystems should be protected and enhanced. It is proposed that when farmers decide which soil quality improvement farming practices to implement they should consider the impact these will have on the above three factors. A sustainable soil quality management system, based on Agro-ecological and Conservation principles to improve sugarcane soil properties is proposed. Practical research will need to be conducted to test this hypothesis.
- ItemAlgorithmic decision-making and the law(Department for E-Governance and Administration, Danube University Krems, 2020) Brand, DirkThe Fourth Industrial Revolution is reshaping the world we know dramatically and is characterised by a close interaction between the biological, digital and physical spheres. Digital technologies are impacting all facets of our lives and create a series of new opportunities but also various challenges. The Fourth Industrial Revolution does not follow a linear development trajectory, but due to the diverse nature and rapid pace of technological developments, could rather be compared to a series of networks with multiple connecting points. This has caused the development of the law which deals with these concerns to generally be slow and unable to match the pace and scope of technological developments. In the context of public law there are many questions and challenges relating to individual rights, for example the right to privacy, and the role and responsibilities of government relating to policy development and regulation dealing with the Fourth Industrial Revolution. The concept of a Rechtsstaat could arguably provide an appropriate legal framework for shaping the ethical framework, normative standards and a value-based governance model for the Fourth Industrial Revolution, including for algorithmic decision-making. The public law concept of accountability should be contextualised in order to apply it to algorithmic decision-making. In the data-driven economy of the 21st century the pace and scope of technological developments that impact humanity requires the development of appropriate legal frameworks to reflect and accommodate the needs of society, in particular relating to the recognition of fundamental human rights. It is concluded that a broad set of ethical and legal principles, which can guide the development of international and national legal frameworks to regulate algorithmic decision-making, is needed.
- ItemAlternative service delivery strategies : the use of collaborative partnerships(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2019-04) Kernelle, Nicole; Burger, Johan; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. School of Public Leadership.ENGLISH SUMMARY: Collaborative partnerships, such as public-private partnerships (PPPs), outsourcing, public-voluntary sector partnerships (PVSPs), and shared services are all partnerships that are implemented to enable improvement in service delivery. Local government is the sphere that is the closest to communities in terms of service provision. It is their responsibility to provide services that are efficient, effective, economical, and sustainable; however, municipalities in the Republic of South Africa (RSA) face numerous challenges in a complex environment. The challenges are mainly attributed to a lack of finance and capacity. A prominent and viable option for local government is therefore to engage in collaborative partnerships to fill the resource gap dominating the public sector in the RSA. The aim of the study is therefore to explore collaborative partnerships in terms of service delivery, assess their viability, as well as explore constraints. As such, it follows a highly qualitative approach and provides an explorative discussion of service delivery and especially collaborative partnerships in South African municipalities. It presents findings on the status and viability of collaborative partnerships, as well as the pros and cons of each selected collaborative partnership. The study commences by providing an overview of the study and a brief background of the local government environment and the need for the study. It provides the bases for the two key themes present throughout the study, namely, service delivery and collaborative partnerships. The literature review and the legal framework are divided into these two themes, displaying the shift within the public sector that is forcing innovative and alternative mechanisms to optimally use public sector resources. The South African policy and legislative framework respond to the needs of its communities and the external forces driving the country to transform service delivery mechanisms. The researcher explores collaborative partnerships in the sphere of local government and explores the environment by conducting expert interviews. In culmination, the explorative study provides findings on the viability and status of collaborative partnerships. It contributes to and aims to improve the conditions and challenges in the local government environment as the study provides an in-depth understanding of current realities.
- ItemAlternative sources of finance for sustainable development in South Africa with specific reference to carbon trading(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2011-03) Du Preez, David H.; Brent, Alan C.; Fakier, Saliem; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. School of Public Leadership.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The world has been engaged in a global ‘development project’ since the late 1940s. This process gained new momentum with the end of colonialism and the emergence of newly independent countries, all of them plagued with high levels of poverty. Traditional models of economic growth based on industrialization and import-substitution did not deliver the expected results to reduce poverty, especially in Africa. New ways of engaging with development emerged; in particular the basic needs approach in the 1970s and later the human development approach. Independently a new environmental movement surfaced in the 1960s, responding to the rallying call of global environmental destruction as a result of economic activities. For the first time a global language on the limitations nature presents to development emerged. The ‘movement’ received particular traction with the emergence of global climate disruption as the single largest global environmental issue. ‘Human needs’, represented by the anthropocentrists, and ‘environmental limitations’, represented by environmentalists were merged in an uncomfortable union to give birth to the notion of sustainable development. Yet, as a result of a large variety of perspectives, no agreement has been reached on what sustainable development means or should achieve. There is agreement though that developmental needs and environmental challenges are both urgent. An important unanswered question is how the world will pay for sustainable development interventions. Some interesting ideas on alternative sources of development finance has been around for a while, yet has not found practical application. Carbon finance, an innovative new source of funding, is an exception. This exploratory research was conducted by reviewing existing relevant literature using the inductive logic technique. It was initiated as a result of specific experiences leading the researcher to some general ‘truths’. The findings revealed that carbon markets, which are primarily focussed on reducing carbon emissions and which in itself makes a positive contribution to sustainability, has over the last few years successfully leveraged billions of dollars for investment in sustainable development projects globally. Some of these have the added advantage of co-benefits for the poor. Its role is set to expand as a source of development finance. South Africa has the potential to earn large amounts from carbon trading, assisting the country to move to a more sustainable development trajectory. The findings concluded that realising this potential will require a more focussed approach, especially from the South African Government.
- ItemAn analysis of the urban renewal programme of the City of Cape Town : a study of Mitchell's Plain(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2006-12) Mac Kay, Johny; Theron, Francois; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. School of Public Leadership.ENGLISH SUMMARY : The local sphere of government in South Africa, whether it be local municipalities, district or metropolitan, has been given a distinct role to fulfil in the reconstruction and development planning for its citizens in its jurisdiction. This developmental task, which requires the establishment of sustainable infrastructure, the promotion of socioeconomic development and the building of a moral society, could be accelerated through the effective implementation of an urban renewal programme. Urban Renewal Programmes (URP) requires successful development planning methods, with inclusivity at its heart. The assumption is that the adoption of a comprehensive strategy of development planning, ecological design for community building, and a strong and committed leadership with a participatory approach, could largely be a contributing factor in ensuring long-term sustainability of the URP. Urban renewal seeks to address social exclusion in order to alleviate poverty, thereby reducing unemployment, and advancing spatial and economic integration in the urban core (City of Cape Town, 2004c; Department of Provincial and Local Government, November 2001, March 2004; Hindson and Associates, 2003; South African Cities Network, 2003a, 2003b). This case study, which analyses urban renewal of the City of Cape Town in Mitchell's Plain, was conducted from October 2004 until October 2005, in order to determine whether the community's living conditions were improved through the introduction of the URP. The empirical method used was participant observation at the Mitchell's Plain Sub-council Meetings, Urban Renewal Steering Committee Meetings, Urban Renewal Plenary Meetings for the Mitchell's Plain communities; Mayoral Listening Campaign Meetings on Integrated Development Planning (IDP) in Mitchell's Plain; Meetings of the Mitchell's Plain Development Forum (MPDF) and semi-structured interviews with officials of the City of Cape Town involved in urban renewal in Mitchell's Plain, as well as Councillors deployed to the Mitchell's Plain Sub-council and community members in Mitchell's Plain including the committee members of the MPDF. The study reveals that the City of Cape Town's urban renewal programme in Mitchell's Plain, since its inception in 2001, has been poorly managed and the prospects for its sustainability are limited. The findings of the research conducted through a SWOT-analysis show that the City has strived in its utmost to improve the living conditions of the poor in Mitchell's Plain although this effort is short-term. This indicates that speedy and urgent measures are needed to achieve the desired goals through an urban renewal programme. This thesis argues that a well-managed and successful implementation of the urban renewal programme can improve the lives of the Mitchell's Plain community.
- ItemAn examination of ethanol Gelfuel as a sustainable alternative to fossil fuel use in informal settlements(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2007-12) Jackson, Neil Steven; Austin, G.; Swilling, Mark; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences. School of Public Leadership.ENGLISH SUMMARY : Socio economic factors ansmg from a combination of a legacy of apartheid, rapid urbanization and dramatic levels of poverty force many South Africans living in shack environments to make energy choices that are often unsafe and unsustainable. This study sets out to establish why this is the case and then to determine the viability of an alternative energy carrier, an ethanol based gel fuel. The aim was to ascertain through a set of indicators the levels of sustainability of the product both under lab conditions and then through a pilot study in the Joe Slovo Informal settlement in Cape Town. Hundreds of thousands of Informal settlement dwellers rely on paraffin to meet daily energy requirements and suffer dramatic fires, child poisonings and the noxious fumes that come from burning a fossil fuel in closed cramped environments. Although this work examines in great depth the reasons behind paraffin choice specifically within the Western Cape it also provides a commentary on other energy carriers used throughout the country. The purpose of both the pilot and lab study were to present the empirical evidence backed by a social commentary largely justified by the available literature into the need for providing more sustainable energy choices particularly for the poor. Critical to the intentions of the outcomes of the document was to ascertain and measure the sustainability of ethanol Gelfuel and its potential future utilization. This assessment examines the economic, social and environmental parameters of the product under current conditions and then sets out to establish what conditions and criteria are required for its future distribution. Although the evidence regarding a definitive answer on the future of gel fuel in South African environments could not comprehensively be established through a single work such as this, it is hoped that this thesis and other limited material on the subject act as inspiration towards future research in this field.