Browsing Doctoral Degrees (Social Work) by Title
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- ItemAssessment in child protection services: challenges faced by social workers(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2023-03) Ndonga, Moreblessing Memory; Strydom, Marianne; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Social Work.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Assessment is the first step in child protection service rendering after a case of possible child abuse and neglect is reported. This assessment is the basis upon which important decisions should be made regarding what actions to take to protect children from abuse and neglect. It is therefore an important part of the task of the social worker in child protection practice worldwide. In South Africa, the execution of assessment in child protection services is paramount in the realisation of the rights of children to care and protection as advocated for in international, regional, and domestic policies and legislation. Despite the importance of assessment in the delivery of child protection services, it remains an under-researched area of enquiry when it comes to daily challenges faced by social workers in executing assessments in child protection services with children and families in South Africa. Hence the goal of this study was to gain an understanding of the challenges that social workers experience in assessment practice in child protection services in the South African context. The rights-based perspective and ecological perspective were chosen as the theoretical frameworks for this study. This study employed a qualitative research approach. It was an exploratory and a descriptive study, within a purposive sample selection of 18 social workers and 5 social work supervisors employed in 3 designated NGOs in the Cape Town area. The primary research instrument utilised in this study was the semi-structured interview schedule, which was developed based on themes emerging from literature. Six themes were derived from the participant interviews by way of thematic analysis. These themes were then further divided into subthemes and categories. The study revealed that when social workers undertake assessments, they are faced with challenges relating to the implementation of tools and challenges in organisations, communities and families that they work in. Many of the challenges that social workers face in regards to the implementation of assessment tools are due to a lack of knowledge and understanding of assessment tools which is linked to a lack of formal and refresher training on the implementation of those tools. As a consequence of the lack of formal training, social work supervisors have been burdened to provide informal training to enable social workers in their organisations to implement assessment tools. It is clear from the study’s findings that there is a strong focus on the implementation of the actuarial-based risk assessment tool which is a standardised scoring tool and that there is a lack of implementation of the consensus-based assessment tool which is the assessment triangle adopted from the United Kingdom. The lack of utilisation of the consensus-based assessment tool seems to impact the ability of social workers to complete comprehensive assessments in relation to alleged child abuse and neglect cases. The findings in this study also revealed that there is a strong emphasis on the implementation of the Children’s Act 38 of 2005 and therefore, professional steps in assessment are not being implemented. This lack of implementation of steps in assessment has been linked to a lack of time due to high caseloads, shortage of organisational resources, shortage of resources, violence in communities, low educational levels in families, and a lack of experience and training of social workers in the implementation of assessment tools and procedures in child protection. Thus, it seems that current assessment practices, including strategies utilised in assessments, are possibly not tailored to the reality of the South African context and therefore pose further challenges to the execution of assessments. It can be concluded that the ability to execute comprehensive assessments will not improve without the improvement of community resources (facilities) and organisational resources (cars, computers, office space, funds and manpower). These resources are necessary to improve the delivery of social services, including the execution of assessments with children and families in order to protect the rights of children to care and protection. Apart from having to address the issue of resources, it is recommended that social workers be provided with sufficient training concerning the implementation of assessment tools and procedures in child protection. Finally, there could be also a need to revise and adapt the current assessment tools to suite the South African context.
- ItemAttachment in the stepfamily : a social work perspective(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2003-03) Corrie, Lesley; Green, S.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences. Dept. of Social Work.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Since demographers are predicting that by the year 2010 stepfamilies will be the most prevalent type of family in the USA, it is not surprising that stepfamily members in South Africa also constitute a significant proportion of the clients of therapists, counsellors and social workers. From a developmental approach the present study examined attachment in stepfamilies with children in middle childhood. The literature review was focused on research fmdings related to the issues examined in the study. Information was collected using multiple informants and multiple methods. These included interviews, questionnaires and checklists of attachment behaviour symptoms. Because differences in perspectives were expected, information was sought from parents and target children in order to obtain a broad view of family attachment. The research design was qualitative and quantitative in nature. The main fmdings revealed that, although stepfamily members considered their families to be attached, factors such as the stepparent-stepchild relationship, length of marriage and unrealistic expectations had a negative influence on attachment. Findings confirm that attachment to the parents remain the primary source of security and that the child's willingness to participate in the partnership, influence attachment. The results clearly demonstrate that the children did not necessarily hold similar perceptions of the attachment in the family as the parents. Attachment theory provided a framework for understanding the complexities in stepfamily relationships. A synopsis of social work intervention with stepfamilies was developed based on an extensive literature study. Structured techniques within the five forms of play were used to consciously replicate healthy parent-child relationships in order to facilitate attachment. A central feature of the interventions discussed, is the active participation of the parent with whom the child is expected to learn to form an attachment relationship.
- ItemDie belewenisse en sosio-emosionele behoeftes van familielede as primere VIGS-versorgers binne 'n ekologiese perspektief : 'n kwalitatiewe studie(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2014-12) Terblanche, Hester Helena; Green, Sulina; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Social Work.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Due to a lack of research, which, in turn, resulted in a shortage of applicable literature that focused on the experiences and socio-emotional needs of family members as carers of AIDS-patients, the researcher decided to undertake this research project. The aim of this was to investigate the experiences and socio-emotional needs of family members as AIDS care givers. To lead the research, the researcher made use of a qualitative research approach. Attention was also given to the description of HIV/AIDS, as well as the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS. The impact of HIV/AIDS was also given attention, and it was done from an ecological perspective. Within the qualitative research paradigm a phenomenological, explorative, descriptive and contextual research design was utilised. The boundaries for data collection were delineated to the George area. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with family members who acted as primary care givers of AIDS-patients who were recruited by means of purposive sampling and the snowball sampling technique. The data collected were analysed according to the steps for qualitative data analysis as proposed by Tesch (in Cresswell, 1994). To ensure the trustworthiness of the research findings, data verification was executed according to Guba’s model (in Krefting, 1991). The following twelve themes emanated from the process of data analysis: - Knowledge of the disease - Caring for people with AIDS - Risky behaviour - Other people’s reactions - Care givers’ feelings and reactions - Support that was received with the care giving - Effect of the care giving on the relationship between the care giver and the patient - Changes in the care givers’ life because of the care giving of AIDS patients - Experiences regarding the dying process - Needs regarding the caring of the patient - Services that are needed - Advice from the participants to other family members as AIDS care givers. The following recommendations were made based on the conclusions derived from the research findings: Information sessions by Social Workers in collaboration with the different clinics on certain days; a community based project to recruit volunteers to support family care givers on a regular basis; look at facilities, like old age homes and hospices, that can give respite for a week to three weeks; connect family care givers to support groups in the community; make use of the media to give information regarding HIV/AIDS to the broader community; a centralized food and clothes bank from which care givers can draw affordable food and clothes. An application for funding can be done at the Department of Social Development or the Department of Health. Another recommendation that is made is to investigate the possibility of a community based project that provides cleaning and washing services to family members as care givers, as well as the patients. This can even become a job creation project. Other recommendations are: to investigate an alternative form of transport that is wheelchair accessible and patient friendly; to train home based carers to help family members as AIDS care givers; to train home based carers to be of assistance with counseling of patients with regard to their medication; to train home based carers as AIDS care givers to help family members to reach out to other support services or groups; that care givers should be careful about expectations of other people and that they should be confident enough to verbalize their expectations; that Social Workers should investigate if the family member, as AIDS care giver, as well as the patient, gets the necessary support on all levels of the ecological perspective, and if not, he/she must look at ancillary sources and mobilize it to give support to the family care giver as well as to the patient; that professionals need to keep in mind the advice the participants was given to other family members as care givers when they are working with these families. A recommendation was also made to do a follow-up research on the same topic in the White, Indian and Black communities and especially that further emphasis should be placed on their needs, as participation by this population groups were scarce or could not be obtained at all.
- ItemBeroepstres en streshantering by maatskaplike werkers wat betrokke is by intervensie met seksueel misbruikte kinders(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2011-03) Van Wyk, Carlien; Green, S.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Social Work.AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Maatskaplike werkers kry daagliks te doen met seksueel misbruikte kinders en daar word spesifiek deur wetgewing en beleidsdokumente voorsiening gemaak vir hierdie intervensie. Sommige maatskaplike werkers is in diens van 'n spesifieke organisasie wat van hulle verwag om aan 'n spesifieke groep kliënte dienste te lewer. Die fokus van hierdie studie is gerig op maatskaplike werkers wat betrokke is by intervensie met seksueel misbruikte kinders. Dienslewering geskied in 'n emosioneel hooggelaaide omgewing waar die moontlikheid van beroepstres groot is. Beroepstres kan veroorsaak word deur faktore in die interne omgewing (individu), die eksterne omgewing (werk/omgewing) of in die aard van die werk. Die doel van hierdie studie was om begrip te ontwikkel vir beroepstres en streshantering by maatskaplike werkers wat betrokke is by intervensie met seksueel misbruikte kinders. Die navorsingsvraag vir die studie lui soos volg: “Hoe word beroepstres ondervind en hanteer deur maatskaplike werkers wat betrokke is by intervensie met seksueel misbruikte kinders?” Hierdie navorsingsvraag is aangespreek deur kwalitatiewe navorsing te onderneem. Die studie kan geklassifiseer word as verkennende en beskrywende navorsing. Twee- en-twintig maatskaplike werkers, werksaam by vyf organisasies wat spesifiek fokus op intervensie met seksueel misbruikte kinders in die Kaapse Metropolitaanse Gebied, is deur middel van 'n doelgerigte, nie-waarskynlike steekproef geselekteer. 'n Profiel van deelnemers is saamgestel en semi-gestruktureerde een-tot-een onderhoude is benut om 'n gedetailleerde beeld te verkry van beroepstres en streshantering by maatskaplike werkers wat betrokke is by intervensie met seksueel misbruikte kinders. Hierdie onderhoude is aan die hand van 'n onderhoudskedule gevoer wat na aanleiding van die literatuurstudie saamgestel is. Die onderhoude is getranskribeer vir die doeleindes van data-analisering en aan die hand van Creswell (2009) se stappe geanaliseer. Sewe temas is geïdentifiseer, naamlik (1) perspektiewe op keuse van beroep, (2) dienslewering binne die konteks van 'n organisasie-struktuur, (3) oorsake van beroepstres, (4) manifestering van beroepstres, (5) implikasies van beroepstres, (6) voorkoming en hantering van beroepstres, en (7) ontwikkeling en groei van maatskaplike werkers. Hierdie temas is in subtemas en kategorieë verdeel en aan die hand van toepaslike narratiewe uit die onderhoude bespreek en met literatuur gekontroleer. Ten opsigte van elke tema is daar bepaalde gevolgtrekkings en aanbevelings gemaak. Daar is bevind dat maatskaplike werkers om verskeie redes in die veld van seksuele misbruik begin werk het, waarvan die meerderheid toevallig in hierdie veld begin werk het. Aangesien die intervensie in die konteks van 'n organisasie-struktuur plaasvind, is dit belangrik dat hierdie organisasies die verantwoordelikheid aanvaar vir werknemers se welstand, die nodige ondersteuning bied en hulpbronne/infrastruktuur voorsien. Daar is verder insig ontwikkel in watter faktore 'n oorsaak van beroepstres is, op watter wyses dit manifesteer en wat die implikasies daarvan vir die maatskaplike werker, gesin/huis/vriende en werkopset is. Daar is verskeie primêre, sekondêre en tersiêre strategieë wat benut kan word om beroepstres te voorkom of te hanteer. Dit blyk dat ondersteuning wat op verskeie vlakke aan die maatskaplike werkers gebied moet word, een van die belangrikste bevindinge in hierdie verband is. Laastens is die belang van ontwikkeling en groei van maatskaplike werkers in die veld van seksuele misbruik beklemtoon en verskeie wyses waarop dit kan geskied is geïdentifiseer. Aanbevelings is gemaak na aanleiding van die gevolgtrekkings van die studie. Die belangrikste aanbeveling is dat maatskaplike werkers wat betrokke is by intervensie met seksueel misbruikte kinders op verskeie wyses na hul eie welstand moet omsien. Daar moet verder ook ondersteuning ontvang word van die organisasie in wie se diens hulle is ten einde effektiewe betrokkenheid te verseker by intervensie met seksueel misbruikte kinders.
- ItemThe birth of a child with a congenital anomaly : some psychosocial implications for the family(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 1984-12) De Wet, Blanche; De Villiers, J. J.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Social Work.Please refer to full text.
- ItemDie bydrae van gevestigde maatskaplike diensorganisasies tot die kapasiteitsbou van informele gemeenskapsgebaseerde organisasies(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2015-12) Boshoff, Shanie; Engelbrecht, Lambert Karel; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Social Work.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Large-scale poverty and increasing needs prevail in South Africa. The National Department of Social Development has the constitutional mandate to provide sector-spesific national leadership in social development. Despite the Department of Social Development’s intention to restructure the social service delivery system from 1997 and although established social service organisations, as well as informal community-based organisations (CBOs), are regarded as being valuable resources of service delivery to communities at risk, all these organisations are threatened by serious challenges. Established social service organisations that provide and maintain a significant portion of the social welfare services in South Africa, are at present – despite their efficient management - engulfed in a grim battle for survival. CBOs which form an integral part of communities at risk are still excluded from State financing because they do not comply with the basic requirements of management. The Financing Policy (2012a) of the Department of Social Development indicates that the State aims to redirect its financing from established social service organisations to CBOs and to demand that established organisations build the capacity of CBOs in addition to their own direct service delivery to those at risk. An investigation into the capacity-building of CBOs within the South African context is therefore at the same time both relevant and important. The purpose of this study is to develop understanding for the contribution that established social service organisations in South Africa already make to the capacity-building of CBOs. The investigation not only provides information on the nature of this capacity-building, but also focuses attention on the many challenges experienced and the demands made of social service providers. Firstly, the approach that the State follows in respect of social service delivery and the re-structuring of the existing social service delivery system is investigated and contextualised. On the one hand, the nature of both established and informal social service providers as well as the critical role both fulfil in sustainable social development is examined. On the other hand, the approach that the South African government follows in social service delivery and the restructuring of the social service delivery system is critically explored. What became evident was that the South African government adopted the international theory of the social development approach as its underlying paradigm to construct its own developmentally oriented approach to social service delivery (including the capacity-building of CBOs). As social service delivery needs to be aligned with this approach, the social development approach is therefore being regarded as the appropriate approach within which to analyse the capacity building of CBOs. This study however also indicates that there is uncertainty with regard to the manner in which this approach should be implemented in practice. Secondly, the Department of Social Development’s policy concerning the capacity-building of CBOs by established social service organisations is analysed critically taking into account the following aspects: the State’s policy, the social development approach to the capacity-building of CBOs that is followed, and its application in practice. This analysis shows that the capacity-building of CBOs is directly linked to the social development approach followed in South Africa. It promotes citizen participation by establishing cost-effective and accessible resources in communities that enable people to improve the well-being of citizens and stimulates self-sustainability. Thirdly, the concept “capacity-building of CBOs” is contextualised by providing a theoretical framework for sustainable social development and organisational management and development. The appropriate theories and models of organisational capacity-building are described in this study based on a social development approach and existing models of institutional capacity-building are compared. The theoretical information is then empirically explored and analysed. Qualitative research was chosen as the approach to explore the contributions of established social service organisations to the capacity-building of CBOs in the social welfare sector and to establish the link with the social development approach as it is applied in South Africa. At the same time capacity-building of CBOs by established social service organisations is analysed and described. A case study was used as the research strategy by using NACOSS (National Coalition of Social Services) as a discussion forum of established social service providers in South Africa. A purposive non-probability sample selection was used to select participants. Nine NACOSS members indicated in a survey that they are already involved in the capacity-building of CBOs and they agreed to participate in the study. Data was collected on two levels. Firstly, interviews were conducted with two groupings of the established social service organisations on the basis of semi-structured interview schedules, namely with 8 chief executive officers and with 15 social workers who are already building CBOs’ capacities. After this, interviews were conducted with the 9 identified representatives of the CBOs whose capacities were being built by the participating service organisations. The original semi-structured interview schedule for CBOs had already been adjusted at the beginning of the survey to accommodate more general narratives from CBOs’ experiences of capacity-building as it appeared to be a more effective way to obtain the information from CBOs.
- ItemThe challenges experienced by unemployed youth graduates in Botswana: An ecological systems perspective(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2022-04) Sebidie, Godfrey; Strydom, Marianne; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Social Work.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Education has always been recognised as the means to achieve change, create new ideas, initiate new practices and move towards increasing prosperity. Thus, in many developing countries, tertiary education is increasingly important in facilitating a move into employment as part of an effort to increase prosperity. In Botswana, however, recent evidence suggests that graduates from the country’s tertiary institutions find it difficult to penetrate the labour market. Youth unemployment, especially graduate unemployment, has become a national concern in Botswana. It is normal for young graduates to expect to have a thriving career, yet, when these expectations are not met, unemployed graduates may face challenges in adapting to their situation. To deal with unemployment of youth graduates, the Botswana government established numerous youth intervention initiatives and programmes. However, past and current youth intervention programmes have been unable to mitigate unemployment, resulting in many youth graduates not being employed, some for as long as 10 years. Being unemployed has given rise to Botswana youth graduates having to face many challenges as their unemployed status has influenced their lives in various ways. It was established that, in Botswana, there was no general research or research from a social work perspective on the challenges that unemployed youth graduates were experiencing, which highlighted the possibility of a lack of appropriate services available to unemployed youth graduates. The ecological systems perspective was utilised to illustrate how various factors were interacting on the different systems of the ecological systems theory, as well as how these factors were affecting unemployed youth graduates. The ecological systems perspective was applied as it indicates how people encounter different environments throughout their lives that may influence their behaviour in different ways. A qualitative research approach together with exploratory and descriptive research designs were used to explore the challenges experienced by unemployed youth graduates in Botswana from an ecological systems perspective. Data was gathered through purposive and snowball sampling from the Unemployment Movement of Botswana and programme officers within the Ministry of Youth Empowerment Sport and Culture Development (MYESCD). Individual face-to-face, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were executed as data collection instruments. The research project took place in two phases. The first phase involved twenty unemployed youth graduates and the second phase entailed having two focus group discussions with eight programme officers from the MYESCD who had been working with unemployed youth graduates in the second phase. In total 28 participants took part in the study. Seven themes were then extracted from the participant interviews by way of thematic analysis. These themes were then further divided into subthemes and categories. It was found that unemployed youth graduates were experiencing challenges on the micro-, meso- and macro-levels of the ecological perspective. These challenges included psychological issues, for example, loss of self-esteem, sleeping disorders, depression and harbouring thoughts of suicide, physical challenges such as heart problems, headaches, and high blood pressure, as well as financial challenges such as not being able to provide for their loved ones, and being dependent on extended families. It was found that social work services were needed for unemployed youth graduates in order to promote their human dignity and rights. It is recommended that the Botswana government evaluate existing youth intervention government initiatives and programmes to determine the effectiveness thereof. It is also recommended that the government of Botswana should review the National Youth Policy of 2010 in order to adapt it to include and address current challenges experienced by unemployed youth graduates. Finally, it is recommended that needs assessment should be done to come up with programmes that are relevant and applicable to unemployed youth graduates of Botswana and that are not implemented one-size-fits all programmes.
- ItemA critical assessment of the experiences and perceptions of the couple in an unconsummated marriage(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2005-12) Robinson, Tanya Marie; Green, Sulina; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Social Work.It is generally accepted that the inability to consummate a marriage causes couples great distress, and can finally lead to divorce. Limited research has been done on the unconsummated marriage in South Africa. International studies have pointed out that the unconsummated marriage is a reality and a prevalent problem. While medical and therapeutic intervention is available, many people still suffer in silence and feel embarrassed about their condition. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the emotional and psycho-social experiences and perceptions of the couple in an unconsummated marriage. In order to achieve this goal, the objectives of the study were to explore the experiences of the couple in an unconsummated marriage in order to obtain the couple’s perception of their marriage; to present a literature overview on the subject of marriage within the context of the family life cycle; to describe the nature and causes of an unconsummated marriage; to critically describe approaches and models that may be used for the assessment of an unconsummated marriage; and to reflect on the implications of the emotional and psycho-social experiences and perceptions of the couple in an unconsummated marriage within a postmodern systemic framework. The purpose of the literature study was to provide a context for the research study. The researcher conducted an extensive literature review in order to establish and refine the research subject and to guide the empirical study. An exploratory study was executed and the purposive non-probability sampling method utilised. The sample for this study was obtained from Intercare Medical Centre, Johannesburg and The Square Medical Centre, Umhlanga between April 2004 and November 2004. Ten couples that have not consummated their marriage were included in the sample. An interview schedule with open-ended questions was used to conduct joint interviews with the couples. The empirical study enabled the researcher to draw certain conclusions. The main conclusion was that males and females in an unconsummated marriage experience and perceive control-related problems; negative feelings towards their own and their partner’s body; a fear of engaging in an intimate relationship and other phobias; a feeling of sin and moral dilemma; feelings of guilt and shame; the manifestation of depression and apathetic attitudes; personal distress and psychological problems; a feeling of serious regret and sadness; self-blame, self-destructive behaviour, mutilation and suicidal thoughts and episodes; and lastly, a lack of information on how to be sexually intimate with a partner. A number of recommendations flowed from the findings. The main recommendation was that healthcare professionals such as social workers should be better educated about the phenomenon of the unconsummated marriage in order to make a correct diagnosis and deliver high quality medical and therapeutic intervention.
- ItemThe development of participatory management in supervision : an evaluative study(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 1996) Booley, M. Sharhidd (Mogommad Sharhidd); Cronje, Johannes I.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences. Dept. of Social work.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The study is focussed on the evaluation of the development of participatory management in supervision. The motivation for the study was, firstly, the increasing transformation of supervision to a more managerial form whereby social workers are guided in the fulfilment of their professional obligations; secondly, that social workers and supervisors expressed an increasing desire and wi 11 ingness to share the responsibi 1 i ty of managing direct practice through participation. The research was conducted within the conceptual framework of developmental research. The investigation of the existing state of supervision was undertaken by means of a literature study, as well as a quantitative-and qualitative survey among supervisors and their supervisees. This survey was also used to evaluate how developments in the theory and practice of participatory management was being brought into supervision. The probability that participatory management would continue to be implemented and developed in practice is high, since it is bedded in a scientifically-sound conceptual basis derived from authoritative literature and empirical support. Practising supervisors and supervisees can continue to apply participatory management in the ongoing reformation and restructuring of their management of direct practice. It could also contribute towards the improved quality of direct practice. The implementation of participatory management should go'beyond organisational limits. It should extend to the profession's accountability to the wider client system, which should be made aware of changes in the approach to direct practice management in the form of greater participation between seniors and subordinates. It is regarded as essential that participatory management approaches be subjected to tests to determine their efficacy, validity, and reliability as practice methods in supervision. Follow-up evaluation would help in the further development of participatory management in supervision. Further research with regard to participatory management is necessary with the view to maintaining its features in conformity with contemporary trends in the continuous reconceptualisation of management theory and practices.
- ItemDie drinkpatroon van Kleurling-plaaswerkers in Wes-Kaapland : die taak van gemeenskapswerk(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 1981-12) Kotze, Gerrit Jacobus; De Villiers, Jan J.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences. Dept. of Social Work.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: No abstract available
- ItemEmpowerment services for sexually abused children offered by non-profit organisations in the Western Cape(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2019-04) Cornelissen-Nordien, Tasneemah; Green, Sulina; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Social Work.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global pandemic which attains constant media attention. The scourge of child sexual abuse is ever-growing and resources to address the issues related to CSA are diminishing; this, despite South Africa being a forerunner in the development of policy and legislation to protect children against such abuse. The ecological perspective was used as the theoretical framework for this study. The research question for the study was: “What is the nature of empowerment services rendered by non-profit organisations (NPOs) in the Western Cape?” Therefore, the goal of the study which is to contribute to an improved understanding of the nature of empowerment services rendered by non-profit organisations to sexually abused children was achieved. Appropriate recommendations could thus be made in keeping with current policy and legislative frameworks related to child sexual abuse. A qualitative research approach was applied, using an exploratory and descriptive design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 participants, who are service providers at NPOs that render services in the field of child sexual abuse. Service providers working at NPOs in the Western Cape were selected through purposive non-probability sampling. Data analysis was guided by the eight step approach offered by Tesch (1990) in Creswell (2014). Significant findings of the study were that service providers employed by NPOs have difficulty translating policy and legislation into direct service provision; as service provision is often hampered due to lack of adequate funding and resources. It became increasingly evident that substantial collaboration is required between NPOs and government in order to address the scourge of child sexual abuse. Even more significant findings are the apparent increase in peer related child sexual abuse and the lack of referrals of victims of child trafficking to service providers.
- ItemEssential management competencies of principals at early childhood development centres(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2021-12) Ronaasen, Jessica; Engelbrecht, Lambert Karel; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Social Work.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Early childhood development (ECD) has gained much momentum since the headline policy, the National Integrated Early Childhood Development Policy 2015 (Republic of South Africa [RSA], 2015), was ratified with the mandate to a deliver a comprehensive package of services to children from birth to six years old. ECD centres are not only hubs of education for young children, but also function as small businesses in the communities which they serve. Business skills, leadership, and governance are concepts which are intertwined and necessary for effective management by a principal of an ECD centre. Management competencies are centred upon core leadership values, which are embedded in the supervision and monitoring processes of social workers or ECD managers. A learning organisation approach (LOA), which is recommended in this study for ECD centres, maintains that people can learn the necessary skills and knowledge to function in a managerial role. This study presents empirical findings that showcase the essential management competencies of an ECD principal based on Engelbrecht’s (2014) conceptual framework of management skills, functions, and tasks, which depicts the interaction and complexity of a management role in any given organisation. A fairly ambitious timeframe is mentioned in the ECD Policy (RSA, 2015) that by 2030, all practitioners and principals working with ECD services should have adequate knowledge, skills, infrastructure, and materials to support a comprehensive package of early learning services within an ECD centre. Using a qualitative research approach, this study aimed to gain an understanding of the essential management attributes of ECD principals managing ECD centres in South Africa. A collective case study design was utilised to gain the reflections and lessons learnt from ECD principals and social work managers working in the ECD sector, by conducting semi-structured, telephonic interviews. Non-probability, purposive, and snowball sampling were used to recruit participants. Thematic content analysis was completed by reviewing the data in the transcripts of each interview with the intention of identify managerial competencies in the ECD sector as South Africa’s Department of Social Development (DSD) and the Department of Basic Education DoBE) move forward into a future of possibilities for collaborative learning and development. This study highlights the importance of business planning, mentorship, financial and ECD principal management tasks, the quality of ECD principal management, principal management training programmes, and further policy developments targeting the promotion of ECD principals’ professional development. Conclusions and recommendations towards government departments, non-government organisations (NGOs), and ECD principals themselves are offered to provide practice-relevant evidence for intervention moving forward. Key recommendations include incorporating a learning organisation approach to the support and training of ECD principals and the centres they manage, what the management competencies of ECD principals should be, and the optimal mechanisms needed to support the growth of this role in their organisations.
- ItemEssential management tasks executed by social workers in the Directorate of Developmental Social Welfare Services in Namibia : an ecological systems perspectives(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2020-03) Muinjangue, Esther Utjiua; Engelbrecht, Lambert Karel; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Social Work.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Management in social work is an area of growing scholarly interest but it is seldom understood in the context of developmental social welfare services. Management is mostly associated with the fields of business and marketing. Moreover, there is little evidence about the managerial tasks executed by social workers in their day to day activities and why some of these managerial tasks are essential in social welfare service delivery. The literature that exists in management tasks is primarily derived from business and management in general which is a different field from that of managing social services. The body of knowledge that exists on management focuses primarily on business management and not on management tasks of social workers at different levels in organisations. Furthermore, the execution of these tasks is also influenced by the organisational environment in which social workers operate. Additionally, social workers are no longer working in isolation but they see themselves more and more as part of multi-disciplinary teams. Contemporary social workers are professionals who manage their work to ensure quality service to their service users. With constant change in the needs and demands of communities served by social workers, research and more research on management in social work and especially on management tasks needs to keep abreast in order to highlight essential management tasks executed by social workers as it directly impacts the services offered by social workers. The study explored and described some essential management tasks executed by social workers at the frontline and middle levels of management in the Directorate of Developmental Social Welfare Services (DDSWS) in the Ministry of Health and Social Services (MOHSS) in Namibia. The study was based on a qualitative study with 20 frontline social workers and 7 middle level managers as participants. The empirical study and the findings were analysed in line with the data categories as identified in some essential management tasks, namely: workload management, time management, information management, risk management, change and transformation management, supervisory management, programme and project management and monitoring and evaluation (M & E). Subthemes and categories were identified from the empirical data in line with the practice and narratives of the research participants. The findings indicate that social workers at frontline and middle levels of management executed management tasks. The study further revealed that although social workers are functioning in different divisions and at different levels, they seem to have adopted an integrated approach to management tasks. Specific recommendations, based on an ecological systems perspective are offered in the current study, which may be applicable to diverse organisational contexts. This was done by synthesising some essential management tasks from literature and how they are implemented in practice by social workers in the Directorate. Recommendations were made along the literature categories, with specific recommendations under reach category. Mostly, the main recommendations were linked to the need to provide in-service training to social workers on management in social work in order to create more awareness on their managerial tasks and for them to be more appreciative of their roles. Other recommendations were in terms of the working environment and the centralisation of the fragmented social welfare services.
- ItemEssential management tasks performed by volunteers on management committees of non-profit organisations(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2017-12) Mashale, Termica Rethabile; Engelbrecht, Lambert Karel; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Social Work.ENGLISCH ABSTRACT: Non-profit management, in the social services, is an area of growing scholarly interest but is seldom understood in the context of development. The evidence that exists in management tasks and governance is derived from corporate governance and management which differs significantly from that of managing social services. Furthermore, the voluntary nature of the management committees of social services organisations means the transactional relationship that an employer and employee have does not exist. Thus, volunteers are morally and statutorily bound to the organisation but can withhold their services and time without suffering any punitive measures. The body of knowledge that exists on volunteers is primary focussed on the volunteers who intrinsically want to work at the coalface of operations to the neglect of the volunteers who serve on the management committees of social service organisations. Moreover, with the changing world, the face of volunteerism is fast changing shape and operating across boarders in search of purpose, adventure and desire to see the world. With the face of volunteerism changing, research needs to keep abreast as it directly impacts the services offer by social services and non-profits. South African policies and legislation, ill define the role and responsibilities of volunteers on management committees of non-profit organisations (NPOs) and further confound issues in advocating for developmental social services and capacity building, yet do not adequately define it in practice for small to large non-profits. The social work profession, particularly as practised in the non-profit sector, tremendously impacts and is best positioned to support both beneficiaries and management of NPOs. Therefore, a keener understanding of volunteers and their role as governors on the management committees of non-profits is key in unlocking the capacity that volunteers bring to organisations in order to bolster the human resources of an organisation. The study explored and described the essential management tasks as performed by volunteers on the management committees of social service non-profit organisations in the Western Cape. This was done by synthesising the essential management tasks from literature and how they are implemented in practice by volunteers in NPOs. By deductively synthesising the essential management tasks, the researcher was able to define the scope and boundaries of the Stellenbosch University research, offer meaningful definitions and models for which the governance work by volunteers could be explored and understood. The empirical study and the findings were analysed in line with the data categories as identified in the essential management tasks, namely: strategic planning, human resources management, financial management, transformation/change management, project management, fundraising, formation, communications and systems management, monitoring and evaluation, and public relations and stakeholder management. Subthemes were identified from the empirical data in accordance with the practice and narratives of the research participants. The findings indicate that volunteers prioritise management tasks based on organisational reputational risk to donors, depending on capacity within the management committee and do not adopt an integrated approach to management tasks. The volunteers’ roles on management committees require more formalisation, clarification on the various levels of management and the accountability that is bestowed on volunteers at the echelons of power within NPOs. Additionally, volunteers need education on their roles and responsibilities so they can carry out their governance of NPOs. Recommendations were made along the literature categories, with specific recommendations under reach category. Generally, the main recommendations are the need to educate volunteers on their roles and responsibilities and the statutory requirements thereof, educate staff on the role of volunteers and training of volunteers on the integration of management tasks so that organisations are viewed in their integrated holistic sense rather than fragmented parts that do not make a whole.
- ItemEssential professional competencies of social work supervisors an a non-profit welfare organisation(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2017-03) Parker, Lorien; Engelbrecht, Lambert; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Social Work.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Social work supervisors who possess essential professional competencies will have a positive influence on their supervisee, the organisation, and the end service user. They bring about professional growth and change, which encourages the development and maturity of the social worker, resulting in optimum practice. These are key responsibilities of the supervisor, who should be competent to offer supervision at a level that is beneficial to the ecosystem of supervision within the organisation. According to South African policy documents, social work supervisors should be competent to fulfil the expectations and requirements of their position. This implies that supervisors are equipped for their position as social work supervisors, and that they possess the skills, knowledge and experience that are critical for social work supervisors. However, the literature reveals that supervisors are not well prepared for their position, they do not receive training prior to their appointment, and there is no focus on the identification or development of their competencies. There are no policy documents or research papers that explore the essential professional competencies of supervisors. This aspect is critical to examine further, as there is an identified need in South African policy documents to increase the retention and quality of services of social workers, and competent supervisors can contribute significantly to solving this problem. A competent supervisor will lead to a competent supervisee, thus benefitting the organisation and the service user. This study explored and described the essential professional competencies of social work supervisors in a non-profit welfare organisation. This was done by examining which competencies are deemed essential for supervisors, and how they are implemented or experienced. By exploring a conceptual framework for supervisors in South Africa and considering a model and definition of competence within the context, the development and importance of professional competencies could be better understood and explored. An instrumental case study design was deemed the most appropriate design for the research, as it provided a clear context for the research topic to be explored. The study further assumed an exploratory and descriptive research design in order to provide a detailed description of the phenomenon being studied, namely the essential professional competencies of social work supervisors. A qualitative approach was used in the study in order to explore the topic at hand, as it was complementary to the explorative and descriptive research design. Data was gathered Stellenbosch University https://scholar.sun.ac.za by means of a semi-structured interview schedule, which was administered during individual face-to-face or telephonic interviews. This allowed for data to be gathered that provided a rich description of the research topic. The design of the semi-structured interview schedule was based on the information obtained from the literature review chapters. The findings from the empirical investigation reveal that the two main categories in which supervisors should be competent are foundational and functional competencies. Foundational competencies include four subthemes, namely that supervisors should be competent in: emotional intelligence; anti-discriminatory supervisory practices; professional relationships; and ethical practices and legal knowledge. The functional competencies focused on three main subthemes, namely that supervisors should be competent in: balancing the three supervision functions (administration, education and support); implementing the supervision process; and possessing specific managerial competencies for the non-profit organisation (NPO) sector. The findings indicate that supervisors are not fully equipped for their position, and that they require training and equipping in order to understand and implement the competencies that are essential for their practice. Furthermore, the findings show that supervisors have a high workload, they are responsible for a large number of staff, and their supervisory responsibilities are often over-shadowed by structural issues. Supervisors in South Africa need to be competent in balancing their supervision responsibilities alongside the middle management responsibilities that they are expected to bear. Recommendations were made on four of the systems involved in supervision. Specific recommendations were made for each theme, subtheme and category. The general recommendations focus on: supervisors prioritising their competencies and creating opportunities to practise them and improve in them; organisations needing to emphasise the importance of professional competencies, specify them in supervisors’ job descriptions and encourage opportunities for competencies to be learnt and practised; training institutions needing to offer more training in foundational and functional competencies, on both an undergraduate and postgraduate level; and finally, ethical and legal bodies needing to incorporate competencies into policy documents and to facilitate national development programmes to operationalise foundational and functional competencies.
- ItemExperiences of adults with acquired physical disabilities of social work support in a South African context(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2020-12) Muller-Kluits, Noreth; Slabbert, Ilze; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Social Work.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Almost every person will experience a form of impairment or disability at some point in their lives. Different types of impairment could occur at any given moment. In a New York University Hospital study with persons who acquired paraplegia, a four-stage process similar to the stages of grief identified by Kübler-Ross was identified for person with disabilities coming to terms with their disability, these being shock, denial, anger and depression. This correlation could assist in understanding the adjustments persons who acquire a disability later in life must make as they ‘grieve’ the life prior to the disability onset. It is further argued that the social worker’s task is to help people with disabilities through these adjustment phases. Taking this into account, the research question for this study was identified after a reviewing of previous research done on similar topics. The COVID-19 pandemic also influenced the research design and approach. Accordingly, this study stemmed from the research question: What are the experiences of adults with acquired physical disabilities with regards to social work support (especially in assisting them after they acquired the physical disability)? A combination of descriptive and exploratory research was implemented to answer this research question. The research study made use of a qualitative approach with some quantitative elements in terms of the identifying particulars of participants. Qualitative research is seen as a valuable social work approach. It is helpful in researching social problems and vulnerable populations. Further it allows for the social work profession to learn from those they serve. Both of these aspects were true for this study as the qualitative research was done in part with a vulnerable service user group (adults with an acquired physical disability) regarding their experiences of social work services. This information derived from the perspectives of these participants can be utilised to plan future social work services to this group. Within this research approach both deductive and inductive reasoning were used. The literature review in this research study took place over three chapters aligned with the first three objectives of the study. During the literature review similar studies were explored and discussed, although, there were no studies available with the same researchable variables as this study. Despite this limitation, the literature review provided valuable insight on similar topics. Due to the impact and restrictions of the COVID-19 pandemic, the three methods that were decided on for this research study, once it was restructured to be done remotely, included cell phone calls, WhatsApp or Zoom. The research project took place with two Cohorts. The first Cohort included nineteen adults with acquired physical disabilities and the second five social workers who had experience working with persons with disabilities. While most participants were identified through purposive sampling some were included through snowball sampling. One participant from Cohort One also shared a story they had written on acquiring a disability which they offered to be used for the study. Another participant from Cohort Two did both a questionnaire interview (through e-mail) and an interview by means of Zoom. This essentially provided 26 sources with 24 participants. From the literature review and the empirical data collected six themes were developed. These themes include: biological experiences of adults with an acquired physical disability according to the biopsychosocial and ICF model, psychological experiences of adults with an acquired disability, support services used by adults with an acquired disability according to the ecological perspective, support needs of adults with an acquired disability according to the ecological perspective, cultural experiences of adults with an acquired disability within their community as well as social work support services to persons with acquired physical disabilities aligned with policies in South Africa. The themes were further divided into sub-themes and categories. The study provided conclusions and recommendations in the last chapter based on the findings of the empirical study. It was found that the participating organisation, provided services aligned with policies and the roles of the social worker. An overall bottom-up approach was suggested in service delivery and planning to adults with an acquired physical disability in terms of social work services. A few limitations to the study were discussed and recommendations for future studies made.
- ItemThe experiences of low-income female survivors of domestic violence(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2010-12) Slabbert, Ilze; Green, Sulina; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Science. Dept. of Social Work.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Domestic violence crosses all boundaries and is regarded as a universal challenge affecting women of all spheres of life. Domestic violence is seen as a serious social problem in South Africa. It is regarded by many researchers as a leading cause of female injury. Domestic violence can be described as an act by a member of a family against another member with intent to do physical injury, psychological or emotional harm, or an assault or a threat that reasonably places that member in fear of imminent physical injury or emotional harm. It has major consequences, not only for the abused woman, but also for her children and society at large. Many low-income women cannot escape their abusive circumstances due to a lack of resources. Despite the fact that they cannot leave their situation, many women display certain strengths, helping them to deal with their difficult situation. These women can be viewed as heroic, assertive and persistent. They are not victims, but active survivors. The social work profession could benefit from greater insight into the strengths and coping mechanisms of low-income female survivors of domestic violence. The goal of the study is to gain an understanding of low-income female survivors’ experience of domestic violence, focusing on their environmental resources (including family, friends and community) and on their coping mechanisms (inner resources/strengths). To achieve this goal, the objectives are: to present a theoretical overview of the nature and extent of domestic violence; to describe the environmental resources (such as family, friends and community) of low-income abused women from the ecological perspective; to explore the coping mechanisms (inner resources) of these women in terms of the principles of the strengths perspective; and to analyse and interpret the data obtained from the study. The research utilises an exploratory and descriptive design. The research question is, “What are the experience (environmental resources) and coping mechanisms (inner resources) of lowincome female survivors of domestic violence?” This question was addressed by means of qualitative research. Twenty participants took part in the study. Purposive and snowball sampling were used to select the participants. They were interviewed by the researcher, and the data obtained from the interviews were organised into themes. Five themes namely, the experience of domestic violence, low-income, resources, coping mechanisms and statutory intervention were identified. These themes were further divided into sub-themes and categories. Conclusions derived from the data included: domestic violence is a phenomenon that cuts across all racial, marital status or age boundaries; some low-income female survivors of domestic violence experience their situation as stressful; low-income is one of the determining factors preventing some abused women to leave their situation; resources play a significant part in the lives of some low-income abused women; certain strengths from some low-income battered women help them cope; and some abused low-income women do not find an Interim Protection Order (IPO) or the police to be helpful. The recommendations are that social workers should assess primary, secondary and tertiary intervention in dealing with domestic violence; the ecological and strengths perspectives combined would be helpful in assessing resources and coping mechanisms in low-income abused women and collaboration between social workers, the court and the police could help low-income abused women to use statutory services effectively.
- Item'n Gevallestudie van interaktiewe leer en onderrig in maatskaplike werk by die Hugenote Kollege, Wellington(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2008-12) Von Schlicht, Helena; Green, Sulina; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Social Work.The policy statements of South Africa stipulate that students of social work have to be led in an interactive way during teaching and learning in order to prepare them for their career, but also to attain the outcomes of the current tertiary education system of South Africa. These outcomes have, among others, the purpose of empowering students to develop into critical thinkers. During the mentioned teaching and learning process students are given the opportunity of bringing their own diverse frames of reference and experiences to the learning situation and share with one another. Because different inputs are accommodated in the teaching- and learning process, students get the opportunity to appreciate their own diversity, that of their fellow students, as well as the diversity of society. Students can consciously reflect on this and so doing understand theory better and eventually integrate it. Lecturers in social work are not necessarily prepared and equipped to teach effectively within the mentioned context. Although teaching and learning in social work is unique, the effectiveness of the process of teaching and learning depends on the implementation of a suitable teaching style by the lecturer, as well as the fitting of this style to the particular learning style of the students by which empowering teaching and learning is facilitated. In this research, the Huguenot College, Wellington was used as a case study to critically study the application of interactive teaching and learning. A combined qualitative and quantitative research method was used to involve the final year students in social work in an exploratory study. Eight principal themes, including the traditional Christian character of the Huguenot College and the preferred method of study of the students were researched. Significant findings of this study indicate that: • The students in social work at the Huguenot College are of the opinion that the Christian character of this institute should be preserved to play a role in teaching and learning and that the appropriate accommodation of the diverse spiritual needs of the students augments the effectiveness of the teaching and learning process. • The students in social work at the Huguenot College prefer to study according to a combination of the Assimilative Study Method (observe-and-think) and the Convergent Study Method (think-and-do). These two learning styles correspond with the expectations of the outcomes based education system, according to which, among others, students are expected to be critical thinkers in effective teaching and learning. • Lecturers in social work impair the effective handling of diversity during teaching and learning because class discussions on sensitive issues are ignored and the lecturers do not demonstrate adequate knowledge and understanding of the differences among students in a diverse context. In conclusion the recommendations of this study are given as guidelines for lecturers in social work in order to optimize interactive teaching and learning. The most important recommendations resulting from this study indicate that: • The most relevant and appropriate way in which the Christian character of the Huguenot College can be accommodated has to be examined and implemented and the Christian church communities have to become involved in an appropriate way as co-role players in the teaching and learning of prospective social workers. • The course of the historic events at the Huguenot College must be utilized to stimulate the critical thinking process of the students. • Lecturers in social work must make a concerted effort to increase interactive teaching and learning in social work by, for example, fitting the unique learning styles of the students to appropriate teaching styles in a creative way with the view to optimizing the teaching and learning process.
- ItemThe implementation of changed policies pertaining to child and youth care : views and experiences of team members(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2009-12) Rossouw, Lynette; Green, Sulina; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Social Work.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The changes in child and youth care policies over the last fifteen years have had profound consequences for the staff at Youth Care and Education Centres (hereafter referred to as YCECs). These changes included systemic changes, philosophical changes, and changes in the way services are rendered to children and youth in their care. It was thus expected of team members to not only change their behaviours but to also make mind shifts. The mandates were that they move from working in silos (educators, residential educators and support team) to working in teams; from rendering generic services to developing individualised plans for children and youth; from following a medical (deficit) approach in service delivery to following a strength based- and developmental approach. Whereas a punitive approach to discipline was followed in the past staff members now have to follow a restorative approach. In addition, the emphasis on children’s rights, in general, and the abolishment of corporal punishment, in particular, brought about changes in the nature of the adultchild relationship. It was required of the team members to learn to use alternatives to this form of punishment. The study explored how the members of the institutional level teams at the four YCECs in the Western Cape were experiencing the implementation of changed child and youth policies. A combined quantitative and qualitative research methodology was followed in obtaining the data from the residential educators, as well as the educators and the support team members comprising of psychologists, school social workers, occupational therapists, and school nurses. The points of departure were the organisational learning model and the phases of team development. Findings derived from the empirical study were that the difference between the way the participants embraced and implemented changed policies and legislation had much to do with the guidance that the principal and senior management provided for them. Where the principal set the tone and conveyed the message that the implementation of the policies were not negotiable and gave staff members the opportunity to thoroughly discuss these changes, they eventually shared the underlying principles of the changed policies. Where the principal provided direction, support and encouragement for the implementation of the changed policies the participants felt secure and empowered. Where this support was not present participants felt uncertain and to some extent let down. When a shared vision was articulated to them the participants were able to align their personal visions thereto, which further led to a greater understanding of their roles within the team. Where participants, however, were not clear on the shared vision they seemed to struggle with role division and status and power issues. When team members were left to their own devices a measure of personal mastery still took place due to the commitment of individuals but team learning was either limited or virtually nonexistent. Systems thinking remained a challenge due to the forming of subgroups within the YCEC and the limited or nonexistent services rendered by external social workers to the families of the children and youth. The most important recommendations resulting from the study indicate that provision must be made for frameworks for the implementation of changes in policy and guidelines for team processes. To ensure that new staff is informed about the policies that guide their services an orientation programme must be in place. Training for principals in effective introduction and implementation of change should also be provided. To ascertain what the staff complement should be to effectively implement changes in the policies, a work-study and a fast track pilot project should be conducted. From this, job descriptions should be developed that make provision for the incumbent’s role within the team. Consideration should also be given to the incentive system that currently only makes provision for individual performance and could hamper teamwork.
- ItemImplementation of the supervision framework for the social work profession in South Africa by a designated child protection organisation(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2022-04) Khosa, Priscalia; Engelbrecht, Lambert Karel; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Social WorkENGLISH ABSTRACT: Supervision plays a significant role in social work because social work practice depends largely upon the organisation’s administrative structure, which includes supervisors to continue training new social workers and provide ongoing professional guidance. Despite the predominance of supervision within the social work profession, and the weight placed upon its role and function by policymakers, practitioners, and organisation managers alike, it remains an under-researched area of enquiry when it comes to evidence-informed supervision policies. In South Africa, the Supervision Framework for the Social Work Profession seeks to conceptualise, contextualise, and provide norms and standards that guide the execution of supervision in the country. However, since its inception in 2012, no study has been conducted on how the Supervision Framework is implemented in various organisations. Hence, the aim of this study was to gain an understanding of the stories of social workers in a designated child protection organisation regarding the implementation of the Supervision Framework. Given the knowledge gap and limited voices of social workers, a constructionist theoretical approach guided this study to explore the perspectives and stories of social workers and their supervisors on how the Supervision Framework is implemented in their organisation. This study employed a qualitative research approach. A case study research design that was exploratory and descriptive in nature was adopted in this study. Semi-structured telephonic interviews were conducted with 28 participants employed in a designated child protection organisation in the Western Cape of South Africa. Twenty social workers and 8 supervisors within the organisation were selected through purposive non-probability sampling. Data were analysed through thematic content analysis using ATLAS.ti qualitative data analysis software for coding and management of data. The findings of the study indicate that the case study of the child protection organisation may be regarded as a best practice example of the implementation of the Supervision Framework based on the linear stories of supervisors and frontline social workers. However, what is novel about this study is that it brings together previous findings, theory, policy, and legislation about the implementation of the Supervision Framework in a child protection organisation by further analysing the subtext stories of participants in line with the constructionist approach. Thus, although the organisation under study has thrived in developing a supervision policy and implementing the policy in line with the stipulations of the Supervision Framework, there remains challenges related to the dominance of the administrative function of supervision within the organisation and, in some instances, lack of emotional support. The key recommendation based on the study’s findings is that clinical supervision can be salvaged by introducing innovative ways of conducting supervision, such as peer supervision, to develop a community of supervision practice; by adopting an external supervision model to place the primary focus of supervision on clinical dimensions instead of administrative tasks; and by investigating the potential of online supervision in promoting the accessibility of supervisors.