Browsing Doctoral Degrees (Ancient Studies) by Title
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- ItemAllusion as translation problem : Portuguese versions of second Isaiah as test case(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2014-12) Cherney, Kenneth A.; Van der Merwe, C. H. J.; Bosman, Hendrik; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Ancient Studies.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: An allusion in the source text poses a serious problem for a translator. A relevance-theoretic approach would define an “allusion” as the re-use of language from a prior text such that, by calling the prior text to mind, an implied reader is aided in his/her attempt to plausibly reconstruct the alluding author’s meaning. For this to happen, the reader’s “context” in the relevance-theoretic sense must include the source of the borrowed language. To explicate the connection for the reader, however, can thwart the pragmatic effects of an allusion, since these often require maintaining some “openness” in the text; hence the translator’s dilemma. Isaiah 40-55 (Deutero-Isaiah or DtI), a richly allusive text, furnishes an ideal test case for a descriptive translation study (DTS) focused on this source-text feature. This investigation of eleven Portuguese versions will attempt to determine whether and how the translators’ decisions with regard to DtI’s allusions might be accounted for. Source-oriented approaches to translating often tend toward lexical concordance; therefore, these approaches—in theory—should tend to preserve instances of vocabulary that is shared between an alluding- and an alluded-to text. Target-oriented approaches (e.g. “functional equivalence”) are more interested in contextual clarity than lexical concordance; these could then be expected to produce target texts that are less allusive. Increased sophistication in translation theory should result in more sophisticated approaches to allusion in translating. Collaborative and coordinated translation projects should produce more allusive target texts than those whose procedures are more piecemeal. The investigation reveals less correlation than expected between general source-orientedness and allusiveness in the target text. Target-oriented approaches—e.g., classical functional equivalence—do tend to produce less allusive target texts. In addition, there is a correlation between a translation project’s organization and the perspicuity of allusion in the target text, but it is mostly negative. That is, projects that do their work piecemeal produce unallusive versions, but more collaborative and coordinated projects still leave many inter-textual resonances inaudible. It appears that translations will preserve this source-text feature in a way that tends toward randomness unless the perspicuity of inter-textual allusions is articulated as a conscious value in translating. Above all, “allusion-friendly” translating will require target cultures that want more allusive Bibles. Translators, as “model readers” themselves, will need to recognize the presence and function of allusions in the source text and make the attempt to represent these in translation a priority.
- ItemAnalysing the frames of a bible: the case of the Setswana translations of the book of Ruth(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2014-04) Berman, Sidney K.; Van der Merwe, C. H. J.; Wendland, Ernst R.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences. Department of Ancient Studies.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study investigates how the contextual frames of reference (CFRs) of the three extant Setswana Bibles – Moffat, Wookey and BSSA (Bible Society of South Africa) – could have impacted on their renderings of the book of Ruth. The fact that the Bibles were translated within contexts that differed from those of the Hebrew text of Ruth gives rise to the assumption that some of such contexts or frames could have had problematic influences on decision making during translation. Differing frames were assumed to have led to differences (i.e., translation shifts) between the translations and the Hebrew text. Such frames were hypothesised to have emanated from socio-cultural, textual, communication-situational and organisational circumstances pertaining to the making of the Hebrew text and the translations. Since contextual frames of various kinds presumably converged on the Setswana target texts (TTs), this study proposes an integrated multidisciplinary approach to frame analysis, namely, the cognitive CFR model. The framework, which is embedded in biblical interpretation, merges insights from other disciplines including translation studies, cognitive semantics and cultural studies. The translators‟ decisions are evaluated using the heuristic perspective of “an exegetically justifiable rendering.” The study identified indeed countless shifts in the three Setswana translations which resulted from hypothetical socio-cultural, organisational, communicational and textual factors. Moffat‟s shifts revealed a predomination of organisational CFRs throughout the book of Ruth. The organisational CFR also stood out occasionally for Wookey as well. BSSA did not show a predomination of any class of CFRs but manifested the least problematic CFRs. As far as the negative influences of CFRs were concerned, BSSA was the least affected, followed by Wookey and lastly Moffat. The study reveals that it could sometimes be simple, but other times also be difficult or impossible, depending on the pertinent CFR, to provide an exegetically justifiable rendering of an ST unit. Yet, it can be concluded from this study that an awareness of CFRs during translation or analysis of translations can contribute towards the improvement of existing translations or the reduction of problematic shifts in new Bible translation projects.
- ItemThe Apadana reliefs at Persepolis: An iconographic analysis with special emphasis on the identification and function of the gift-bearing delegations(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2021-12) Swart, Antoinette; Cornelius, Izak; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Ancient Studies.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: For many years, specific delegations on the façades of the Apadana at Persepolis posed an ongoing identification problem among scholars. Incongruities occurred in the identification of some of the groups – labelled Problem Groups in the current study. An attempt was made to try and solve the identification problem of specific delegations. It was necessary to look at the context in which these groups occurred, e.g., their physical world as well as their natural environment. The reliefs on the eastern façade of the Apadana was used in this study because they are still in a reasonably acceptable state. The combined iconographic analysis method (Panofsky/ Keel), as well as comparisons, were used to try and find a solution for the identification problem in the Problem Groups. After a detailed analysis and comparative research, the identification problem of the Problem Groups still evades answers except for one group. A totally different approach to the solving of the identification problem was suggested, and this deserves some attention from future scholars.
- ItemAphrahat's demonstrations : a conversation with the Jews of Mesopotamia(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2009-12) Lizorkin, Ilya; Cook, J.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Ancient Studies.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Various opinions on the nature of Aphrahat‟s interactions with the Jews have essentially revolved around either accepting or rejecting the claim that the Persian Sage had contact with (Rabbinic) Jews and/or may have been influenced by them. While some significant research went into determining the precise nature of these relationships, the issue was never settled. This dissertation contributes to this ongoing discussion by posing and attempting to answer two primary research questions: 1) Did Aphrahat encounter actual Jews during his own lifetime or did he Simply project/imagine them into his Demonstrations from reading the New Testament collection? If the first question is answered in the affirmative, the focus of the dissertation becomes the following question: 2) Were the Jews whom Aphrahat encountered Rabbinic/Para-Rabbinic or not? To provide answers to these questions the author uses a textual comparative methodology, juxtaposing texts from both sources and then seeking to analyze them in relation to each other. Every section that deals with such comparison is organized into three sub-sections: 1) agreement, 2) disagreement by omission; and 3) disagreement by confrontation (this pattern is consistently followed throughout the study). The author concludes that the answer to both of these questions can be given in the affirmative. First, Aphrahat did not imagine nor project the Jews in his Demonstrations from his reading of the New Testament, but he (and his community) encountered the Jews on the streets of Ancient Northern Mesopotamia. Second, Aphrahat (and his community, sometimes only via his community) indeed had interactions with Rabbinic (or more accurately Para-Rabbinic) Jews.
- ItemAspects of the translation technique of the Septuagint : the finite verb in the Septuagint of Deuteronomy(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 1992-12) Nieuwoudt, Bernard Andre; Cook, Johann; Claassen, Walter T.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences. Dept. of Ancient Studies.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Two major religions, Judaism and Christianity, use the ancient Hebrew Bible as Holy Scripture. These books were translated in the last three centuries before the common era. The oldest of these translations is the Septuagint, a Greek translation. Not only are the Hebrew and Greek texts that were involved in the original translation process missing, but precious little is known about the doctrine and translation methods of the translators of the Septuagint. Much can be learned about these crucial issues, however, if the translation technique followed by those ancient translators is studied by comparing the present Hebrew and Greek texts. A new method to determine and describe the translation technique of the Septuagint was proposed and tested in this dissertation. This method is based on the use of the Computer Assisted Tools for Septuagint Studies (CATSS) data base and statistical methods. The translation technique of the book Deuteronomy was described using different criteria, all of which measure the frequency of non-literal renderings. Three different groups of criteria were utilized, viz. the Tov criteria as proposed by E. Tov, criteria defined using the markers in the CATSS data base called the CATSS criteria, and grammatical criteria using the person of the verb. Each criterion was applied to the data base individually. The translation units were determined first, after which the translation technique found within the translation unit was described. The methodology implemented discriminates between significant and insignificant trends in translation technique. It became clear that the results of the different criteria indicate different translation units and different translation techniques for each of the criteria. Except for some criteria using the person of the verb, very little indication was found that the traditional translation units are supported by the data used in this study. In fact, it seems as if translation units should be determined before the translation technique is described. The translation technique should then be described according to the indicated units. Not all the Tov criteria could be utilized, but their results are in agreement to some extent. The CATSS criteria proved to be more difficult to implement than expected, but some of the criteria rendered excellent results. The person of the verb was discussed in detail using 12 different criteria. The results of the criteria utilizing the person of the verb are disappointing, and provide some scope for future research. The results rendered by this new approach are firm and easy to interpret. In addition, it is possible to utilize these results when dealing with specific text-critical problems.
- ItemAugustine's Contra Fortunatum : perspectives from critical discourse analysis and argumentation theory(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2014-03) Coombes, Michael James; Kotze, Annemare; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences . Dept. of Ancient Studies.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Augustine of Hippo remains one of the most prominent and influential figures in the world of Catholicism, famous for his many writings and sermons on Catholic Christianity as well as his ardent defence of it. His debate with Fortunatus, a member of the Manichaean faith presented Augustine with one of his defining moments as a member of the Catholic clergy. This is because Augustine had only been a presbyter in the Church at Hippo for a few months when this debate took place and therefore had much at stake against his wily opponent. To make matters even more complicated for Augustine, he himself had been a Manichee for at least nine years and knew Fortunatus as a skilled debater. But rhetoric, or the art of persuasion, was a field in which Augustine excelled, having both a natural proclivity for speaking as well as the formal education behind it. Chapter one begins with an introduction to the debate, the primary characters, and the religions involved. Chapter two continues with an exposition of Augustine and his association with Manichaeism and then goes on to describe Augustine‟s anti-Manichaean works. From this point, chapter two continues with a section on Manichaeism, its spread, its myth and its practice. From this contextual basis, chapter three deals with the methodology of Critical Discourse Analysis and the three most important characters in the form of Halliday, Fairclough and van Dijk. This chapter is followed by another chapter on theory: Argumentation Theory. Chapter four includes subsections on van Eemeren and his methodologies of Pragma-Dialectics and Strategic Maneuvering. The analysis chapters of this dissertation begin with chapter five which deals with concepts from Critical Discourse Analysis and Argumentation Theory. This chapter includes subsections on categories of enquiry, followed by a section on a number of recurring devices, namely: answering questions, changing the topic and quoting scripture. A Critical Discourse Analysis section follows with subsections that include difference, evaluation and knowledge as a common ground component of contexts. This in turn is followed by sections on Argumentation Theory and Strategic Maneuvering, which include subsections on economy, efficacy and coherence; realism and wellfoundedness; logical reasoning process and pragmatic inferences; reasonableness versus effectiveness; the rhetorical perspective; discussion strategies; dialectical aims versus rhetorical aims and deceptive manoeuvring. The final analysis chapter, the Contra Fortunatum in context, includes subsections on the opening of the debate, the structure of the debate and the topics of discussion. Within this last section subsections on the Nebridian conundrum, the origin of evil, and free will occur. The next subsection dicusses topics not mentioned in the debate: the Manichaean myth, Mani and the previous friendship between Fortunatus and Augustine. Following this there are sections on Manichaeism presenting itself as a form of Christianity, the debaters talking past each other and the issues of audience composition and power relations between the various role players. Chapter seven takes a concluding look at the issue of who should be designated the winner of the debate.
- ItemAugustine’s use of Romans in the conversion narratives of the Confessions(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2009-12) Jordaan, Donovan; Kotze, Annemare; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Ancient Studies.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of the quotations of Paul’s Epistle to the Romans in the conversion narratives in Augustine’s Confessions. The Confessions is an account of Augustine’s conversion to Catholic Christianity. Within the Confessions there are many conversion narratives which form part of a greater narrative that culminates in Augustine’s final conversion in Book 8 of the Confessions. Within these conversion narratives, Augustine often quotes from Romans. In the first chapter, I discuss the use of Rom. 10:14‐15 in the opening paragraph of the Confessions, particularly Augustine’s sensitivity to the diatribe style. The opening paragraph is also significant within the context of the conversion narratives, as it features Augustine in his converted state and effectively represents the goal towards which the conversion narratives will strive. My second chapter deals with the “aversion” narrative in Conf. 5.3.5 and the use of Rom. 1:21‐25. Much attention is given to Augustine’s allusion to apologetic works, particularly the Wisdom of Solomon, which Rom. 1:21‐25 emulates. Chapter three is concerned with the significance of Rom. 1:21‐25 in the intellectual conversion of Augustine. While Augustine reuses a quotation in Conf. 7.9.13‐15, I focus on the unique use of this quotation and its specific significance to the intellectual conversion. The fourth chapter deals with the scriptural conversion and Augustine’s use of Rom. 7:22‐25. In the final chapter, I discuss the use of the references to Romans in Book 8 which Augustine has already quoted earlier in the Confessions. I then show how these quotations affect the interpretation of the spiritual conversion at the end of Book 8.
- ItemBa'al and Seth : an investigation into the relationship of two gods, with reference to their iconography (ca. 1500 – 1000 BCE)(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2013-12) Cox, Michael James; Cornelius, I.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Ancient Studies.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Although the traditional viewpoint of the Ancient Egyptian civilisation is one of isolation and self containment, in fact Egypt and Syro-Palestine had a long history of contact and interaction before the Late Bronze Age, albeit somewhat tenuous and ad hoc. The commencement of the New Kingdom in Egypt heralded a more vigorous period of exchange. This was largely due to the Egyptian policy of increased commercial activity and military campaigns in Syro-Palestine as well as the rising strength of the Asiatic peoples. At the personal level there was always a trend of Asiatics moving into Egypt in search of a better life, which opened the door for the Hyksos rule at the end of the Middle Bronze Age. This foreign rule was an affront on the dignity of the Egyptians. Thus, following numerous military campaigns much of Syro-Palestine was incorporated into the wider Egyptian political entity. In counterpoint to the situation in Egypt, Syro-Palestine was very far from isolated, situated in the open cultural landscape of Syria and Mesopotamia it was the very hub of the Ancient Near East. Inevitably there was considerable interaction, and throughout history, as even today, Syro-Palestine is a crossroads and melting pot of different peoples. At the forefront of any exchange were religious ideas, religious traditions were introduced and foreign gods were spread far and wide. The international nature of the gods seems to have been a characteristic of the Ancient Near East. In this scenario were the Egyptian god Seth and his counterpart the Syro-Palestinian god Baaal, each with a complex story, wherein the iconographical and textual evidence of the gods show much commonality. The association of Seth with Baaal in Egypt is clear, the name of Baaal being written with the Seth-animal determinative, whereas Syro-Palestine has the Mami stele from Ugarit. Major events shook the Ancient Near East ca. 1500-1000 BCE, Egypt reached its apogee and ruled the East; providing the most likely answer regarding the presence and worship of Seth in Syro-Palestine. Certainly Seth was present and worshipped, naturally the massive numbers of Egyptian military and diplomatic personnel required facilities for this practice. Since the earlier Hyksos rulers accepted and worshipped Seth this predicates on a continuum into the period in question. To summarize: Seth equals Baaal and Baaal equals Seth.
- ItemBeer as a signifier of social status in ancient Egypt with special emphasis on the New Kingdom period (ca. 1550-1069 BC) : the place of beer in Egyptian society compared to wine(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2015-03) Klop, Damian; Cornelius, I.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Ancient Studies.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Some academics are of the generalist opinion that ancient Egyptian beer was only consumed by the lower classes because of its low social status. This is based on the generalization that individuals only consume alcoholic beverages matching the status of their social class. Therefore the lower classes consumed beer while the upper classes consumed an alcoholic beverage of higher status, i.e. wine. However, other academics are of the universalist opinion that Egyptian beer was universally consumed by all Egyptian social classes irrespective of the status of beer. This study aims to test the validity of these opposing academic opinions and also strives to understand how statements of status in Egyptian society were devised, and what they were conveying. This was achieved by determining the status of Egyptian beer and wine and then comparing them to the respective status of beer and wine drinkers in the New Kingdom period (c. 1550-1069) according to the factors of production, consumption, health, economic exchange & distribution, and religion. Use is made of an anthropological approach which allows the researcher to limit social bias and understand ancient Egyptian society on its own terms. Results of this study indicate that Egyptian beer had a much lower status than Egyptian wine and all social classes consumed beer while only the upper classes consumed wine. The generalist opinion, therefore, is falsified and the universalist opinion validated. The results also indicate that the upper classes justified their beer consumption by producing, consuming and exchanging an elite beer of higher status in a manner reminiscent of wine so that it compared more favourably with the status of their social classes. This study, therefore, not only settles an old academic dispute but also provides new insight into Egyptian beer.
- ItemDie betekenissfeer van die leksikale morfeem /-y-r-'-/ in die profetiese boeke van die Ou Testament(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 1971) Deist, Ferdinand Etienne; Fensham, F. C.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Ancient Studies.
- ItemBible translation and relevance theory : the translation of Titus(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2000-12) Smith, Kevin Gary; Thom, J. C.; Van der Merwe, C. H. J.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences. Dept. of Ancient Studies .ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Relevance theory has seriously challenged the theoretical soundness of formal and functional equivalence as Bible translation methods. In Translation and relevance: Cognition and context, Gutt (1991) argued that relevance theory provides translators with the best available framework for understanding and practicing translation. In his effort to provide a comprehensive account of translation, he proposed two new approaches to translation: direct translation and indirect translation. He did not, however, develop direct and indirect translation into well-defined approaches to translation. This study explores the viability of direct and indirect translation as approaches to Bible translation. First, by applying insights drawn from relevance theory, it spells out the theoretical and practical implications of these approaches in an attempt to develop them into well-defined translation methods. The explication of the two new approaches shows how and why relevance theoretic approaches to translation differ from formal and functional equivalence. In addition to describing the general approach of direct and indirect translation, it also demonstrates how each approach handles specific translation issues such as figurative language, implicit information, ambiguity, and gender-biased language. Then, by using them to translate the epistle to Titus, the study tests the practical effectiveness of each new approach. This lengthy application yields many examples of how relevance theory provides translators with valuable guidance for making difficult translation decisions. It emphasises the need for translators to take measures to bridge the contextual gap between the source context and the receptor context, illustrating how this can be done by providing footnotes in a direct translation or by explicating implicit information in an indirect translation. The study closes with a brief assessment of the two new approaches and some suggestions for further research. The conclusions show both the value and the limitations of the results of this study.
- ItemBiblical Hebrew lexicology and cognitive semantics : a study of lexemes of affection(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2011-03) Bosman, Tiana; Van der Merwe, C. H. J.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Ancient Studies.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this study the conceptualization of love or affecion in the Old Testament is investigated. The most prototypical Biblical Hebrew lexeme for affection, namely אהב , forms the focus of the study. It is hypothesized that the analysis of אהב in terms of its valency and the conceptual frames associated with each of its valency patterns will contribute to a more informative lexicographical description of אהב . Since אהב forms part of a much larger semantic field of lexemes that can convey the attitude of affection, it is neccessary to study these lexemes as well. While the first chapter introduces the topic under investigation, i.e. a study of lexemes of affection, the second chapter aims at demarcating the list of lexemes of affection that needs to be considered. This list amounts to fifteen lexemes in total; fourteen of which can belong to the domain of affection, and one antonym. In Chapter 3 the methodology of the current study is explained. The researcher advocates a Cognitive Linguistic approach. Renier de Blois employed Cognitive Linguistics for his model which is aimed towards compiling the Semantic Dictionary of Biblical Hebrew. While his model is used as starting point in the present study, some more areas of Cognitive Linguistics are identified that could assist us to refine the model of De Blois. These areas include prototype theory, semantic potential, the notion of radial networks, as well as conceptual frames. Chapter 4 consists of a detailed study of אהב in all its occurrences in the Old Testament, while the remainder of the lexemes of affection as well as its antonym are studied in Chapter 5. In the concluding chapter, Chapter 6, an exposition of the findings is given. This thesis ends with a concise summary of אהב in which all conceptual frames and scripture references where the אהב appear are given. This is followed by a schematic presentation of the lexemes of affection as they occur in relation to the prototypical sense(s) of אהב.
- ItemA Biblical Hebrew lexicon for translators based on recent developments in theoretical lexicography(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2008-03) Imbayarwo, Taurai; Van der Merwe, C. H. J.; Gouws, R. H.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Ancient Studies.Two main problems that confront existing Biblical Hebrew (BH) dictionaries can be identified. Firstly, there is a lack of adequate semantic models for the analysis and description of lexemes. Secondly, data is structured in ways that do not enhance optimal retrieval of desired information from the dictionary. The failure to take cognizance of the insights from theoretical lexicography partly explains the state of BH dictionaries. This investigation hypothesizes that current insights from theoretical lexicography can improve existing lexica and create better ones. Accumulated insights from the academic community have resulted in the formulation of a theory of lexicography or metalexicography. In this light, a general lexicographic theory of components and structures of dictionaries is selected and investigated in order to establish the aspects of BH that can be improved. The point of departure is the notion of “dictionary criticism”, which focuses on the critical evaluation of existing dictionaries with the goal of improving them. Though there are other approaches to assess lexica critically, theoretical lexicography provides justified heuristics for an objective appraisal of BH dictionaries. These heuristic include notions of “frame structure”, “lexicographic function,” and “microstructure.” The frame structure focuses on the structural components of the dictionary book. The lexicographic function places emphasis on the goals that the dictionary purports to fulfill in the light of its target users. The microstructure hosts the data that is provided as part of the lexicographic treatment of the lemma sign. In addition, it is the centre of user’s look up activities, and it hosts other important structural components. The above selected notions directly affect the extent to which the user benefits from the dictionary and the success of the dictionary in general. The criticism of selected BH dictionaries in the light of the above-mentioned reveals that most dictionaries fall short in certain critical areas. Data types that are provided are either unnecessary or are not structured in ways that allow optimal and successful retrieval of desired information. Such inadequacies present evidence that existing BH dictionaries can benefit from the insights of theoretical lexicography. A model that seeks to ameliorate BH dictionaries is developed primarily for Bible translators based on selected insights from theoretical lexicography. A trial of this model of BH lexemes that are selected from different lexical classes demonstrates improved lexica in terms of the lexicographic function, the selection, and the organization of data. The trial of the model also highlights areas that need further investigation in the light of current trends in theoretical lexicography in order to better the quality of BH dictionaries.
- ItemCatullus decentred: the poetics of the periphery(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2016-03) De Villiers, Annemarie; Thom, Sjarlene; Thom, J. C.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Ancient Studies.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Catullus is, after Vergil and Horace, the most studied Latin poet. His poems portray a speaking subject whose intense experience of the people and circumstances in his world immediately draws in the reader by suggesting a believable personality experiencing universal emotions. Although the speaker in the poems has often been described as a marginalized figure in terms of his status as a provincial in Rome the problem of his decentredness has not been considered as a recurring motif in the Catullan oeuvre. This study investigates the depiction of the Catullan speaker as a peripheral figure throughout the corpus by analyzing 63 of the 113 poems. Five categories are identified which correspond to the speaker’s experience of being side-lined under different circumstances: the peripheral figure in Rome, the rejected lover, the misunderstood or undervalued friend, the ambiguous invective speaker, and the sympathizer with mythological outcasts. Selected poems are grouped together and analyzed in five chapters based on these categories. These five chapters are introduced by a chapter on a number of theories which may contribute to a better understanding of a peripheral literary personality. Chapter 1 discusses the theories of liminality, dialogism, symbolic space and narrative as means to a clearer formulation of the identity of a marginalized figure. In chapter 2 the Catullan speaker’s peripheral position in Rome is analyzed in terms of the notion of urbanitas, the sophisticated behaviour and aesthetic judgment associated with the city, as well as with reference to his brother’s death, the person who symbolizes his closest link to his rural hometown of Verona. Chapter 3 is concerned with the peripheral status of the Catullan speaker as lover in terms of his relationship with the notoriously disloyal Lesbia in particular, but also with reference to his infatuation with the young man Juventius who openly rejects him. In chapter 4 the Catullan speaker features as a misunderstood or undervalued friend. This chapter analyzes poems directed at friends whose lack of the reciprocal faithfulness implied by amicitia leaves the speaker with a profound sense of not-belonging. Chapter 5 focuses on the Catullan speaker’s use of invective to lash out at enemies or rivals in love. Despite the speaker’s apparent delight in harsh verbal abuse, his loud protestations mask a deep-seated vulnerability and a keen awareness of his own precarious position in the situation in hand. Finally chapter 6 looks at the mythological outcasts Attis and Ariadne as representatives of the only way of life available to those individuals who do not conform to society’s mould. From the perspective of someone who is neither an insider nor a complete outsider the Catullan speaker presents the reader with a unique perspective on Roman society both in terms of the public world of socio-politics as well as the private world of intimate relationships between individuals. At the same time the unique personality of a decentred speaker is revealed. This is the poetics of the periphery.
- ItemChiastic structures in Hebrews : a study of form and function in Biblical discourse(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2011-03) Heath, David Mark; Thom, Johan C.; Wendland, Ernst R.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Ancient Studies.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The compositional strategy, structure, and peak of the book Hebrews are heavily debated. Most scholars analyze Hebrews from only a Western linear approach. Other scholars like Vanhoye, Neeley, G.H. Guthrie, and Gelardini have suggested a chiastic perspective. Despite the insights gained from a chiastic approach, the linguistic analyses of Neeley and G.H. Guthrie posit linguistic peaks that appear incompatible with the chiastic peak of Vanhoye, Neeley, and Gelardini. Neeley, G.H. Guthrie, and Westfall claim to apply linguistic principles to the text, but with quite different conclusions. This study focuses on the form and function of the literary units and the relationship of these units to the overall book-level structure. Initial considerations include defining the individual literary units and determining the significance of lexical and syntactical recurrences within the pericopes. Such recurrences are important features for determining textual boundaries, transitions, and compositional patterns. Subsequently, this study evaluates literary units in relation to each other in light of book-level correspondences (syntactical and semantic) as a means of positing an overall structure and compositional strategy for the book of Hebrews. Unlike the linear study of Westfall, the relationships of non-sequential literary units are considered as well as sequential units (i.e., both linear and concentric patterns). In addition to the analysis of the form and function of chiastic and parallel literary units, this study also considers the rhetorical function and significance of the central placement of OT quotations within those structures. Although the OT quotations often occur in the center of the chiastic structures, imperativals (imperatives, prohibitive subjunctives, and hortatory subjunctives) do not generally occur in the chiastic centers, but in the outer components of the chiastic structures. Such a perspective is helpful for understanding where the author is placing emphasis as well as for clarifying the relationship between the epideictic (doctrinal) and deliberative (hortatory) sections. Contrary to G.H. Guthrie’s and Westfall’s emphases on the deliberative sections, this study contends that Hebrews contains a coherent concentric pattern (involving a central thematic peak, dual hortatory climaxes, and dual apexes) as part of an overall compositional strategy. This is not to suggest that the epideictic sections are more important than the explicit exhortations found in the deliberative sections, but that the hortatory essence of Hebrews is rooted in both the theological truth of Jesus’ role as the great high priest and the function of his everlasting sacrifice in the heavenly tabernacle. The author weaved these texttypes together to deliver an even more powerful call to faithfulness. This study also challenges Nauck’s assertion that Heb 4:14–10:31 is one integral section. One of the key elements of this challenge is the unique interpretation of Heb 5:1-10 as foreshadowing the topic found in Hebrews 7. Understanding the foreshadowing essence of Heb 5:1-10 opens the means of interpreting Heb 4:14-16 and 10:19-22 as hortatory bookends to the central theological sections of Hebrews as opposed to designating Nauck’s lexical parallels as an inclusio.
- ItemCicero : 'haruspex' vicissitudinum mutationisque rei publicae : a study of Cicero's merit as political analyst(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2000-03) Schneider, Maridien; Claassen, J. M.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences. Dept. of Ancient Studies.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to explore Marcus Tullius Cicero's awareness and interpretation of contemporary political events as reflected in his private correspondence during the last years of both the Roman republic and his own life. Cicero's correspondence gives a detailed view of current political events in Rome and constitutes, with Caesar's own narrative, our major contemporary evidence for the circumstances of the civil war of 49 BC. The dissertation takes as Leitmotiv Cicero's own judgement of the state as 'sacrificial victim' to the ambitions of individual politicians, with as metaphor his examination of a 'dying' body politic in the manner of a haruspex inspecting the entrails of a sacrificial animal. It poses the question whether Cicero understood the message of political decline signalled by the 'entrails' of the 'carcass' of the res publica, and whether this ability in its turn enabled him to anticipate future political development in Rome. In what follows, the theoretical input of Cicero's predecessors, their perceptions of constitutional development, and of Roman politics in particular, as well as Cicero's own perception of their political theories will be considered in order to determine the extent of Cicero's awareness of a larger pattern of political events, and how consistent he was in his analyses of such patterns, that is, to what extent Cicero may be considered seriously as a political analyst.
- ItemA cognitive analysis of similes in the book of Hosea(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2006-03) Pohlig, J. N.; Van der Merwe, C. H. J.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Ancient Studies.This study accounts for the forms and functions of the similes in the Book of Hosea. It proposes new tools for textual criticism, biblical interpretation, and understanding Biblical Hebrew (BH) worldview. Chapter One presents the task we have chosen for ourselves, its nature, some obstacles from other areas of scholarship, and the foundational notions of embodiment and Prototype Theory. Chapter Two presents principles drawn from Cognitive Semantics and Cognitive Syntax. A weakened version of the Lakoff-Johnson conceptual metaphor theory is adopted, and the key notions of embodiment and judgments of prototypicality are presented. Elements of Conceptual Blending are presented and adapted for simile analysis. Finally, text-based differences between metaphors and similes are discussed. Chapter Three presents cognitive cultural constructs of Strauss and Quinn: cultural schemas, cultural exemplars, cultural models, and cultural themes. Strauss and Quinn’s conclusions about metaphors’ use in everyday speech are shown to agree with our postulation of speaker assessment of the hearer’s ability to process utterances before they are produced. This postulation allows us to erect one part of a theory of simile. Chapter Three then integrates metaphor with the Strauss-Quinn cultural meaning model, and then with Boroditsky’s Weak Structuring view of metaphor. The effect is to provide a reasonable basis, amenable to empirical investigation, for the investigation of both metaphor and simile. Finally, the notions of embodiment and prototypicality are applied to the Strauss-Quinn model. Chapter Four presents various assumptions and conclusions that are later used to analyze Hosea’s similes. These include: (1) elements of Floor’s (2004a) model of Information Structure for BH narrative, with modifications and additions for poetry; (2) three cognitive types of similes in Hosea, posited for working purposes; (3) an adaptation of the conceptual blending apparatus to similes; (4) hypotheses to account for the distribution of similes versus that of metaphors in BH poetry, and to account for patterned differences in how various kinds of concepts are combined and manipulated; (5) an integration of these patterns with the three simile types; and (6) correlation of the cultural constructs of cultural schema, cultural theme, and cultural model with Hosea’s similes and metaphors. Chapter Five presents a number of scholarly views of the Book of Hosea, and characterizes the principal authorities cited in the next chapter. Chapter Six deductively applies all the foregoing theory to an examination of Hosea’s similes. Other observations are made inductively: (1) kinaesthetic image schemas’ role in Hosea’s poetry; (2) systematic difference in the use of similes versus metaphors in image elaboration; and (3) Information Structure’s role in simile analysis. Chapter Seven summarizes this study’s research and conclusions concerning, e.g., (1) the criteria for accounting for the embodiment and judgments of prototypicality characterizing Hosea’s similes; (2) the dependence of Hosea and his audience upon knowledge of themselves and their environment for their view of YHWH; and (3) the aid brought by a cognitive theory of similes in the task of textual criticism. Chapter Eight discusses prospects for further research and possible implications for translating Hosea’s similes and metaphors.
- ItemA cognitive linguistic description of purpose and result connectives in biblical Hebrew(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2013-03) Yoo, Chang-Keol; Van der Merwe, C. H. J.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Ancient Studies.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study represents an investigation of a set of BH connectives (רוּבֲעַבּ, ןַעַמְל, and ןֶפּ) as well as other grammatical constructions relevant to the lexical items. This investigation seeks to establish the datatypes which are relevant for distinguishing the meanings and/or senses that the BH connectives רוּבֲעַבּ, ןַעַמְל, and ןֶפּ may display. A literature overview of BH linguistics and existing BH lexica demonstrate that although current resources provide some useful information, there still lacks an adequate framework for describing the lexical items. On the one hand, linguistic descriptions of the connectives in BH linguistics fail to define the word class(es) and scope of the target lexemes, as well as the relations they indicate. None of the studies have structurally described the paradigmatic relation between the different types of purpose constructions. On the other hand, BH lexica show a variety of data types that are assumed to contribute towards both defining and distinguishing the meanings/senses of the lexical items we are concerned with; however, this information only partly helps in this endeavor. To describe more adequately the meaning and polysemic relationships of the lexemes, we relied on cognitive semantics (e.g., conceptual view of meaning, prototype theory, and semantic potential). We were also concerned with purpose/result constructions across languages in order to establish criteria for describing purpose constructions. On the basis of these investigations, we established a model for a semantic description of the target lexemes in addition to some criteria for distinguishing between purpose, result, cause, and reason constructions so that the different relations the target lexemes indicate might be identified. We also established some typological parameters of purpose constructions – such as verbal forms in the matrix, participant encoding, and the positioning patterns of purpose clauses. The value and validity of these criteria were then tested in an empirical investigation. The investigation established that ןַעַמְל, רוּבֲעַבּ, and ןֶפּ have a semantic potential that prompts the conceptualization of multiple relationships (e.g., ןַעַמְל: purpose, result, and reason) with varying scopes, among different levels. We were able to distinguish between the different relationships that the lexemes ןַעַמְל, רוּבֲעַבּ, and ןֶפּ display by relying on the notions of purpose, result, cause, and reason, as defined in cognitive linguistic circles. We also identified the prototypical and less prototypical meanings of the lexemes. This study establishes the value of the model employed, but also reveals that our theoretical model has some limitations.
- ItemThe complementation of ראה in Biblical Hebrew(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2023-03) Mathewson, Steven; Van der Merwe Christo, H. J.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Ancient Studies.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study is an investigation of the complementation of the verb ראה in Biblical Hebrew. The problem it addresses is the lack of a coherent account of the various complements selected by this verb, as well as the semantic or pragmatic effects of these various complements. This investigation begins with a survey of previous lexical studies of the verb ראה and establishes that the verb’s most basic sense is perception with the eyes and that this meaning regularly extends metaphorically to cognition—that is, understanding or realization. Then, this study utilizes an eclectic collection of insights from Cognitive Linguistics as the framework for investigating a data set that includes the 1,303 occurrences of the verb ראה in the Hebrew Bible. The concepts that have shaped this linguistic framework include complementation, embodiment, intersubjectivity, information state, and sensory perception. A key feature of the investigation is the grouping and analysis of the verb ראה and the complements it selects within the following categories: • ראה + Object (with or without the object marker אֵת ) • ראה + Ø (no explicit complement) • ראה + כִּי (that) • ראה + וְהִּנֵה (and behold) • ראה + אֲשֶׁר (how) • ראה + prepositions (בְְּ, in/into; עַל, on/upon, etc.) • ראה + other particles (interrogatives, etc.) This investigation yielded several results. First, it determined how the collocation of the verb ראה with various kinds of complements effects meaning. For example, ראה + כִּי constructions signify a mental perception of a proposition which can even be derived from means other than eyesight. Second, it determined that the most prototypical construction involving the verb ראה in the Hebrew Bible is ראה + Object (50.5% of the total instances) and that its prototypical sense is the perception of an object or event with one’s eyes. Third, it established various metaphorical extensions and metonymic paths that move from this sense to others. For example, ראה can extend metaphorically from visual perception with an intentional look to meanings like “inspect” or “choose.” An example of a metonymic path is see → see and encounter → make an effort to see and encounter (= visit). Fourth, this study provided insight into unique expressions associated with the verb ראה . For example, lift up her/his/my eyes signifies an intentional effort to acquire knowledge. Fifth, this study considered how the complementation of other BH verbs of sight and perception compare with the complementation of ראה . For example, the other sight verbs occur with much less frequency and always signify intentional acts of looking. By contrast, ראה frequently denotes the visual stimulation that happens automatically in bodily experience.
- ItemThe Complementation of ראה in Biblical Hebrew(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2023-03) Mathewson, Steven D. (Steven Dale), 1961-; Van der Merwe, C. H. J.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study is an investigation of the complementation of the verb האר in Biblical Hebrew. The problem it addresses is the lack of a coherent account of the various complements selected by this verb, as well as the semantic or pragmatic effects of these various complements. This investigation begins with a survey of previous lexical studies of the verb האר and establishes that the verb’s most basic sense is perception with the eyes and that this meaning regularly extends metaphorically to cognition—that is, understanding or realization. Then, this study utilizes an eclectic collection of insights from Cognitive Linguistics as the framework for investigating a data set that includes the 1,303 occurrences of the verb האר in the Hebrew Bible. The concepts that have shaped this linguistic framework include complementation, embodiment, intersubjectivity, information state, and sensory perception. A key feature of the investigation is the grouping and analysis of the verb האר and the complements it selects within the following categories: • האר + Object (with or without the object marker תאֵ ) • האר + Ø (no explicit complement) • האר + יכִּ (“that”) • האר + הנֵ הִּ וְ (“and behold”) • האר + רשֶׁ אֲ (“how”) • האר + prepositions (בְ , “in/into;” לעַ , “on/upon,” etc.) • האר + other particles (interrogatives, etc.) This investigation yielded several results. First, it determined how the collocation of the verb האר with various kinds of complements effects meaning. For example, האר + יכִּ constructions signify a mental perception of a proposition which can even be derived from means other than eyesight. Second, it determined that the most prototypical construction involving the verb האר in the Hebrew Bible is האר + Object (50.5% of the total instances) and that its prototypical sense is the perception of an object or event with one’s eyes. Third, it established various metaphorical extensions and metonymic paths that move from this sense to others. For example, האר can extend metaphorically from visual perception with an intentional look to meanings like “inspect” or “choose.” An example of a metonymic path is see → see and encounter → make an effort to see and encounter (= visit). Fourth, this study provided insight into unique expressions associated with the verb האר. For example, “lift up her/his/my eyes” signifies an intentional effort to acquire knowledge. Fifth, this study considered how the complementation of other BH verbs of sight and perception compare with the complementation of האר. For example, the other sight verbs occur with much less frequency and always signify intentional acts of looking. By contrast, האר frequently denotes the visual stimulation that happens automatically in bodily experience.