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- ItemAanvangsonderrig in klavier : ‘n situasie-analise en riglyne vir ondergekwalifiseerde musiekonderwysers in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2006-03) Henn, Wilana; Smit, M.; Schutte, De W.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Music.The piano teacher faces an enormous task as educator in initial educational practice. The child must receive clear directives in terms of piano technique, sight reading skills, aural training, music theory and general music history. These aspects are accepted as providing the basic principles for effective tuition for beginners. Efficient guidance can be delivered only when the piano teacher has the necessary knowledge. In this study piano teachers who lack sufficient experience, knowledge and insight in the relevant knowledge, especially concerning piano technique, are considered to be underqualified.
- ItemDie aanwending van groepsmusiekaktiwiteite in die ontwerp en implementering van 'n klavierkurrikulum vir Suid-Afrikaanse laerskole(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2005-12) Simons, Jacqueline; Smit, M.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences. Dept. of Music.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: South African education is currently moving in a new direction that is aimed at representing all the cultures of the country. Music education is grouped as part of the Arts and Culture learning area of Curriculum 2005 and the implication is that instrumental music teaching is being marginalized at the expense of general music teaching. In the past these two were regarded as separate subjects that each had its own dedicated syllabus. This thesis is geared toward the preservation of instrumental music teaching (in this case piano) as part of the Arts and Culture learning area of Curriculum 2005 by means of a complementary teaching program whereby general music teaching and instrumental music teaching can be taught in conjunction with each other. This approach is based on Gane (1996) who suggests activities and approaches to music education that can support the co-operation between these two areas of music teaching. This thesis is an exploratory study to determine if co-operation between prescribed music curricula and the suggestions for music activities and approaches as proposed by Gane (1996), have the potential to bridge the gap between general music teaching and instrumental music teaching. At the onset of this study it was not to test a predetermined hypothesis, but rather to establish the possibility of a complementary teaching model for music teaching. This research project was done according to the qualitative research methodology as it was done it was done in a social setting. This research project was done over a period of six months with a group of ten learners whose progress ranged from beginner to grade 2 level. A variety of music compositions was selected and applied in the practice of the music lesson to demonstrate the application of the music activities as suggested by Gane (1996). The ultimate goal of the use of the music compositions was to indicate how prescribed and additional music can be explored to optimize the learners' knowledge from the two fields of music learning. The following syllabi were used for this thesis: the British National Curriculum (1995), as well as these South African syllabi: Curriculum for Extra-Curricular Music - piano (1993), the Interim Syllabus for Classmusic (1995), and Curriculum 2005 (1997). The reasons for the focus on these specific syllabi in this research project are as follows: firstly the British National Curriculum serves as framework for Gane's (1996) article "Instrumental performance and the National Curriculum: a possible partnership?" and this forms the foundation for this thesis; secondly the Curriculum for Extra-Curricular music (piano) deals with instrumental music teaching and the Interim Syllabus for Classmusic deals with general music teaching and these are the two aspects of music teaching in South Africa which this thesis aim to bring together; and lastly the Curriculum 2005 (1997) is the curriculum whereby education is currently being practiced in South Africa. The most important finding of this study is that the proposed teaching method is workable for music education if certain conditions as is discussed in chapter 4 are in place. It has also been found that because this is an exploratory study, there is room for more empirical research in this regard. In conclusion it can be said that since this study revealed the possibility for an exploratory teaching method for music teaching, this teaching method does have merit.
- ItemAfrican music in the FET curriculum : an investigation into teaching strategies and the development of a technological resource(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2005-12) Mangiagalli, Carla; Smit, Maria; Herbst, Theo; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Music.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The South African Department of Education (DoE) recently introduced a new curriculum for schools. This curriculum, namely Curriculum 2005 (C2005), and later revised as the National Curriculum Statement (NCS), is functional at a national level in South Africa and claims to be a more equitable curriculum than its predecessor by incorporating a philosophy that accommodates all South African learners from diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds. C2005 (NCS) promotes the principles of outcomes-based education (OBE) and shows a high regard for the Constructivist Learning Theory. In 2006 teachers will be expected to implement the Further Education and Training (FET) Band of the NCS. This study critically investigates C2005 (NCS) with the view to an improved understanding of multicultural education. The focus then turns towards music education by reviewing suggested teaching practices for multicultural music education. Following this is a thorough exploration of several approaches for the teaching of music from diverse cultures with an examination of the various appropriate models for music teaching. However, certain issues arise within the South African context as to whether music teachers have had the necessary preparation for the effective implementation of the prescribed music syllabus of the FET band. The prescribed music syllabus of the FET band includes a variety of musical genres and styles. This analysis culminates in a reflection on African music, which includes an investigation of how African music functions within traditional African societies and an approach for the effective transmission of African music in schools is proposed. Also, arising from numerous reviews concerning the teaching of African music, are opposing convictions that afford the reader an opportunity for creative thought. The lack of adequate didactical resources for the teaching of African music has resulted in a keen interest by the author in employing technology for instructional purposes. This study concludes by exploring recommendations concerning the design of an effective instructional programme that relies on technology and discusses the development of an appropriate technological resource for the teaching of African music.
- ItemAfrikaans en Musiek. Kantaantekeninge van iemand wat aan die kant teken(Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns, 2017-06) Ludemann, WinfriedTeen die agtergrond van vrae oor die toekoms van Afrikaans stel hierdie artikel vokale musiek as 'n eie "bestaansdomein" van taal aan die orde. Die spesifiek musikale kenmerke van Afrikaans in vergelyking met ander tale word ondersoek asook die implikasies daarvan vir die komponis van Afrikaanse musiek. 'n Kritiese oorsig word verskaf oor toonsettings van Afrikaanse tekste van die afgelope eeu, veral wat kunsliedere met klavierbegeleiding en verwerkings van Psalms en Gesange betref. Die betekenis van die huidige opbloei van koormusiek in Suid-Afrika word geskets en 'n pleidooi word gelewer dat koormusiek erken word as 'n belangrike domein waarin Afrikaans as kultuurtaal bestaan. Persoonlike woord vooraf Hierdie artikel word geskryf vanuit die perspektief van 'n nie-Afrikaanssprekende buitestander wat van die kantlyn af na ontwikkelinge rondom Afrikaans kyk. As geleentheidskomponis het ek 'n aantal beskeie bydraes tot Afrikaanse koormusiek gelewer en ek het in hierdie verband baie besin oor die musikale potensiaal van die Afrikaanse taal in vergelyking met ander tale waarin ek ook gekomponeer het. Teen my aanvanklike vooroordeel in het Afrikaans my as musiektaal toenemend begin fassineer. Ek het agtergekom dat die potensiaal daarvan as taal vir koormusiek nog nie behoorlik ontdek en ontgin is nie. Dit is hoe die titel van hierdie artikel verstaan moet word.
- ItemAfrikaanse liederwysies : 'n bestekopname(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2013-03) Smith, Aletta Margaretha; Grove, Izak J.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Music.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: “Liederwysies” (folk hymns) are spiritual folk songs that emerged in the Afrikaans culture at the beginning of the 19th century, and were used in isolated cases until the late 20th century. These hymn tunes were sung by isolated rural families during their family worship and were passed on via oral tradition. The origin of such melodies can be traced to various sources, and like the similar process affecting folk music traditions all over the world, they emerged as variations of official settings of psalms, hymns and other spiritual songs as well as secular melodies. The process is comparable with the medieval centonization and contrafacta: in the first case fragments of typical melodic contours may be used, and in the second, secular melodies are appropriated for spiritual texts. (In the latter case the 19th century Anglicisation policy and the influence of American revival hymns probably occasioned e.g. the American folk song Clementine to be used as the basis of a folk hymn.) In some instances specially composed melodies which had become obsolete, were retained as “liederwysies”, as happened with F.W. Jannasch's setting of Psalm 130. The demands of performance practice called for melodic variation, and one might even identify instances of elementary neologism. Much of the variation draw upon extensive decoration, such as melodic and rhythmic deviation, often by means of auxilliary notes, passing notes (known as “draaiers” (“turns”) in the vernacular), and apparently random rhythmic adaptations of unknown sources of melody. Dutch researchers led research into this folk music genre at the beginning of the 20th century. The first known notation of “liederwijzen” was done by Hendrik Vischer in 1896, followed by two booklets by Willem van Warmelo published in 1948 and 1958. These excited much interest, and G.G. (Gawie) Cillié stepped forward as Van Warmelo's avid (if musicologically less erudite) successor. Although Cillié opposed the folk hymns originally from church musical convictions, since he saw them as jeopardizing the “purity” of Afrikaans church music, he did collaborate with the inclusion of some such tunes in the Liedboek van die Kerk (2001). His last publication, reviewing 70 folk hymns, appeared in print in 1993. For the purposes of this thesis all known research on the topic was collected and evaluated critically. The researcher provides the broad historical background to the development of spiritual folk songs and identifies problems involved in such research. A total of 176 melodies (including variants) are examined and described individually, and where possible, they are placed in context with regard to their origin and composition.
- ItemAgogiek in historiese perspektief met spesiale verwysing na die 18de eeu(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 1987-09) Kotze, Hanneli; Loeb van Zuilenburg, P. E. O. F.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences. Dept. of Music.VOORWOORD Die twintigste eeu beleef 'n besondere belangstelling in die outentieke uitvoering van ou musiek en dit is 'n studieveld wat reeds uitgebreid nagevors is. Desondanks bestaan daar steeds baie vraagstukke aangaande sekere uitvoeringspraktyke en styltipes en hoe ouer die musiek, hoe meer problematies word 'n outentieke uitvoering, veral as gevolg van die groot verskille tussen die moderne en ou instrumente, die speeltegnieke en die dikwels ontoereikende notasie. Die teoriee wat die twintigste eeuse musici aangaande die uitvoeringspraktyke geformuleer het, is hoofsaaklik gebaseer op ou geskrifte, verhandelinge en onderrigboeke uit die onderskeie styltydperke. Daar bestaan baie teenstrydighede tussen hierdie teoriee, veral met betrekking tot die musiek van die Barokperiode. Die uitvoering van musiek van die Klassieke en veral die Romantiese periodes is minder problematies en die redes hiervoor is hoofsaaklik die volgende: Die notasiesisteem het reeds tydens die Hoog-Klassieke tydperk tot sy huidige vorm ontwikkel. Verder het musiekkritiek en -geskiedskrywing segert die agtiende eeu toenemend meer aandag geniet en bestaan daar dus meer inligting aangaande uitvoeringspraktyke. Ten spyte daarvan dat hierdie na vorsing reeds dekades gelede begin het, is daar steeds groot onkunde daaromtrent en word daar dikwels min aandag gegee aan die outentieke uitvoering van ou musiek. Hierdie studie is 'n paging om die navorsing wat reeds gedoen is krities te ondersoek en 'n moontlike samevatting daarvan te gee.
- ItemAlbert Troskie: Bydraes tot Kerkmusiek in Suid-Afrika(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2017-03) Stofberg, Louna; Nell, Mario; Van Niekerk, Caroline; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Department of Music.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The name Albert Troskie is for many organists synonymous with the Southern African Church Organists’ Association (known by the Afrikaans acronym SAKOV). Since founding SAKOV in 1980, Troskie has made many contributions to church music in South Africa. As chairman of SAKOV for 20 years he had regular contact with organists nationwide. He became aware inter alia of their needs with regards to in-service training, appropriate music for church services, salary scales and contact with other organists. As editor of SAKOV’s annual journal Vir die Musiekleier and of Nuusbrief he wrote numerous articles on a wide variety of subjects. As composer he still contributes by writing chorale preludes and choir arrangements for use in either church services or concerts. As one of three editors of the Liedboek van die Kerk his experience and knowledge in the field of church music has always been an asset. Since 2009 Troskie has been a member of the VONKK commission (ongoing development of new classical church music) which is responsible for the publication of additional songs for the Liedboek van die Kerk. For this purpose he has produced many organ harmonisations and choir arrangements. As organ specialist, advisor and historian, his two books on the organs of South Africa make an important contribution to South African cultural history and to the conservation of historical pipe organs. Apart from the many organs where he has acted as advisor, the two organs with which he has been involved over years in Port Elizabeth, the Dutch Reformed Church Summerstrand and the Feathermarket Centre, contribute significantly to the musical life of the city. Through his intiative as secretary of the Feathermarket Organ Society more than 140 concerts have taken place over the last 17 years. As performer he still presents regular organ recitals and six CDs (some with his church choir) have been recorded under his direction. The many awards he has received testify to the extent of the recognition of his contributions to church music in South Africa. The main objective of this research is to highlight Albert Troskie’s different contributions to church music in South Africa.
- ItemThe alchemy of sound : creating unbelievable believability through audiovisual fusion(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2011-03) Jansen, Rhyno; Herbst, Theo; Vermeulen, J.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Music.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This thesis represents an attempt to explore the use of metadiegetic film sound and its connection with qualities displayed by human physiology. Metadiegesis is chosen as the focus of this study, in order to point out the potential of film sound to be representative and not to slavishly imitate its visual counterpart. Therefore, because metadiegetic sound is deictic in nature, the first hurdle to clear was to navigate through a terminological minefield, allowing a clear glimpse of its true meaning and its connection with the filmic image. The researcher attempts to create hypothetical scenarios in order to analyse and discuss metadiegetic examples from films, convincingly utilised and less-convincingly so. The intention was to understand, clarify and disambiguate terminological uncertainties and inaccuracies. An exploration of asynchronous metadiegetic sound follows as refinement of the first step. This is done by resorting to existing examples in the form of extracts from films for demonstration purposes. As a result, the use of metadiegetic film sound is clearly defined and its use explained by attaching it to three concepts: a ‘story within a story’, external story space, and internal representation. It is argued that through these concepts, sound can be amalgamated with image to create a different realm, where sound and image tell more than an audio-visual story.
- ItemAn analysis of articles on classical music in the SABC Bulletin(2015-12) Meyer, Karin; Ludemann, Winfried; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Music.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The history of broadcasting in South Africa involves the political, cultural, intellectual, technological, and social aspects of the history of South Africa. The South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC), as South Africa‟s first public broadcaster, played an important role in both these histories. It is therefore important to gain a deeper understanding of the SABC throughout South Africa's history. The SABC has been the subject of much recent research – from its programming and programme content to censorship and the political role it played during the apartheid era. An aspect of the SABC's activities that seems not to have been studied yet is the publications of the SABC, including the SABC Bulletin. The SABC Bulletin was published weekly from 1961 to 1973, and was used to advertise and promote the contents of the forthcoming week's broadcasts. A study of articles on classical music in this publication may enrich and inform current understandings of the SABC and its role during the apartheid era. These articles illustrate the prominent role that the SABC played in the establishment and promotion of local classical music, both in respect of composers and performers. Through these articles on classical music and the subsequent classical music broadcast on the SABC radio stations, the SABC provided a forum or public platform for the work of these local musicians. Providing such exposure to musicians of a high calibre may also have served the purpose of setting a benchmark for the quality of local classical music to be composed and performed. It is argued that a degree of contradiction existed between these music Stellenbosch programmes and the articles in which they were discussed on the one side and the overt political agenda on the other. Taking note of these contradictions will allow for a more nuanced understanding of the SABC before 1994. These articles represent an important source for the historiography of classical music in South Africa. They provide interesting insights into the classical music landscape of South Africa during the years 1961 to 1973, and detail classical music events which may be worthy of remembering. It is thus suggested that these articles could enrich our understanding of classical music and its role at the SABC and in South Africa during the years of their publication.
- ItemAn analysis of Priaulx Rainier’s Barbaric Dance Suite for piano(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2009-03) Kruger, Esthea; Muller, S.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Music.Priaulx Rainier (1903-1986) was a South-African born composer whose highly original compositional style attracted great attention during her lifetime. She spent most of her life in England, but was inspired by the images and recollections of her youth in Africa. Despite the critical acclaim she received, little research has been done about her, both in South Africa and abroad. Additionally, the nature of existing sources is mostly not analytical, but rather provides an overview of her life or general aspects of her style. Although some conclusions have been drawn about her compositional style, they are not thoroughly substantiated by concrete analytical evidence. Also, the focus is mostly on her prominent rhythmic use (often linked by authors to the “African” element of her idiom), with an evident disregard of the other aspects of style, most notably with regard to pitch coherence. This research attempts to correct this unbalanced discourse by analysing one of her few solo piano works, the Barbaric Dance Suite (composed in 1949), and pointing out significant pitch relations, similarities and contrasts. The rationale for selecting this specific work originated from Rainier’s own pronouncement that “The Suite is a key to all my later music, for in the three DANCES, their structural embryo is, on a small scale, the basis for most of the later works.” Although the scope of the research did not allow for a comparative analysis, it is strongly believed that the conclusions reached in this study could also be applicable to many of Rainier’s other works, especially of the early period. The study consists of an introduction in which the Barbaric Dance Suite is contextualised, followed by the main body of the thesis that consists of a detailed analysis of each of the three movements. The foremost method of analysis used is set theory analysis, which could be briefly described as a method whereby (particularly atonal) music is segmented and categorised in pitch class sets. As set theory focuses exclusively on the dimension of pitch, traditional methods of analysis are employed to examine the other musical parameters. In the conclusion, the analytical results are contextualised with regard to existing pronouncements on Rainier’s oeuvre. The study also comments on the applicability of set theory as analytical system in Rainier’s music. The many complex pitch relations that were discovered by the intensive analysis of pitch content has given enough evidence to conclude that Rainier’s use of sonorities has been unjustly neglected in the discourse of this work and perhaps also in her musical style as a whole. It is hoped that further detailed analysis of her use of sonorities in other works could lead authorities to revise the insistent pronouncements on her rhythmic use in favour of a more balanced assessment of all aspects of her compositional style.
- ItemAn Anthology of Existence: Explorations into the Life and Works of Christopher Langford James (1952 - 2008)(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2017-12) Rontsch, Marc Anton; Muller, Stephanus; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Department of Music.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The Christopher James Collection (CJC) in the Documentation Centre for Music (DOMUS) at Stellenbosch University, South Africa, consists of over 100 boxes containing material ranging from hand-written manuscript scores, personal correspondences and diary entries. James was born in Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), and studied composition at the University of Pretoria before doing a Doctorate of Musical Arts (DMA) at the University of Cincinnati on a Fullbright bursary. As a composer, James’s style conflated traditional European musical textures with southern African instrumentation, rhythms and harmonies. His compositions include works such as Four portraits for pianoforte in four movements (1982), Songs of lamentation and remonstration (1985), Images of Africa (1987) and Paradise Regained (1999). James was also the original orchestrator of Mzilikazi Khumalo’s musical epic uShaka KaSenzangakhona. James’s music has not received significant attention from performers or musicologists, both during his life and posthumously. Because of this, the archive has become the main source of information in writing the untold story of James’s life. This projects is thus the first exploration into James’s life and music, explorations done through the lenses of archive theory, life-writing/(auto)-biographical theory and musicology. Discussions of selections of James’s music are found within the narrative of his life, a narrative which is structured around the location where James lived during a point in his life’s chronology. The selection criteria for which works have been selected for discussion is informed by the archive: namely the presence of recordings, frequency of the work appearing in letters and diary entries, and works being mentioned by interview participants. This dissertation thus aims not only to present critical discussions of James’s music as read through his life story, but also to explore the possibilities and limitations of the “life-and- works study” paradigm, and experiment with a structural framework which integrates musicological discussions with narrative ones. This work also probes the post-colonial problematic of location, place and ideas of “home” through structural devices.
- ItemAnton Goosen se bydrae tot die Afrikaanse luisterliedjie(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2018-03) Stofberg, Rolene; Ludemann, Winfried; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Music.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The popular Afrikaans music industry of the late seventies was characterised by a number of musical developments. This study focuses on these developments, with specific reference to the songs on Anton Goosen's LP, Boy van die Suburbs (1979), as representative of the music that emerged around the initiative ‘Musiek en Liriek’ (music and lyrics). The approach that was followed in this study attempts to link style-critical and historic-contextual perspectives, whilst at the same time acknowledging the existence of a broader level of meaning in popular music that surpasses the established form-stylistic terminology2, but can still be described by using a musical vocabulary. The investigation of popular Afrikaans music from such a multitude of perspectives is still an unexplored field of study. The revival of the popular Afrikaans song was driven by a group of musicians, including Goosen, who performed under the auspices of Musiek en Liriek and the so-called luisterlied (listening song). By looking at the history and state of popular Afrikaans music before Musiek en Liriek, a historiccontextual framework was created that contextualises the developments during the late seventies. This includes a description of both traditional Afrikaans folk music and early popular Afrikaans music. Compared to the older popular Afrikaans songs and lekkerliedjies (nice or fun songs), the luisterlied offered a more sophisticated alternative, with a focus on original and poetic lyrics. One of the characteristics of the luisterlied is that it systematically turned towards a more critical perspective on the challenges of the time, although an outlet for true protest in popular Afrikaans music would only be found later on. Central to this study is the search for the exact site of meaning of the songs on Boy van die Suburbs. The opinion is that a broader level of meaning exists in Goosen’s songs, standing alongside the narrow form-stylistic and contextual characteristics, and that the true level of meaning in his music is to be found at this level. Goosen’s popularity can be attributed mainly to these factors. He creates this broader level of meaning by using specific positive and negative (‘ontkennende’) semantic indicators based on culture-specific references in his lyrics, musical embodiment and instrumentation. In this respect, he relies on the associative characteristics of these references. On the one hand, references to traditional foodstuffs such as koeksisters and melkkos are used in conjunction with instruments such as the concertina to emphasise the traditional aspects of the Afrikaners’ cultural practices. On the other hand, Goosen implements contemporary stylistic elements in his music – which speak to a modern listener – of which Afrikaans rock music is the most significant example. By using rock music, Goosen rebels against the Afrikaans cultural institutions of his day and against older popular Afrikaans music, unlocking the potential of popular Afrikaans music by making it receptive to renewal. The study should not be understood only as appreciation of an influential artist, but as a contribution to the critical evaluation of a genre that, with all its inherent contradictions, forms an essential phase in the history of popular Afrikaans music.
- ItemThe application of the Alexander technique to the teaching and performing of singing : a case study approach(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 1986) Lloyd, G.(Gwyneth); Du Toit, Nellie; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Department of Music.No abstract available.
- ItemApplying the phi ratio in designing a musical scale(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2005-03) Smit, Konrad van Zyl; Herbst, Theo; Vermeulen, Johan; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Music.In this thesis, an attempt is made to create an aesthetically pleasing musical scale based on the ratio of phi. Precedents for the application of phi in aesthetic fields exist; noteworthy is Le Corbusier’s architectural works, the measurements of which are based on phi. A brief discussion of the unique mathematical properties of phi is given, followed by a discussion of the manifestations of phi in the physical ratios as they appear in animal and plant life. Specific scales which have found an application in art music are discussed, and the properties to which their success is attributable are identified. Consequently, during the design of the phi scale, these characteristics are incorporated. The design of the phi scale is facilitated by the use of the most sophisticated modern computer software in the field of psychacoustics. During the scale’s design process, particular emphasis is placed on the requirement of obtaining maximal sensory consonance. For this reason, an in-depth discussion of the theories regarding consonance perception is undertaken. During this discussion, the reader’s attention is drawn to the difference between musical and perceptual consonance, and a discussion of the developmental history of musical consonance is given. Lastly, the scale is tested to see whether it complies with the requirements for successful scales.
- ItemArnold Schönberg's Verklärte Nacht [music] : transcription for two pianos(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2002-02) Magalhaes, Luis Miguel de Araujo; Schoenberg, Arnold,1874-1951. Verklärte Nacht; arr; Roosenschoon, Hans; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences. Dept. of Music .ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The transcription for two pianos of Arnold Schonberg's Verkliirte Nacht fills a gap in the two-piano literature and gives an insight into the composer's earlier style of composition. Few works of this complexity exist in the two-piano literature. The process of transcription has to take into account the composer's structural and tonal language, and in particular the problems of transferring a composition from string instruments to the piano. The transcriber cannot imagine how the composer would have done a similar transcription, but the intentions of the composer in the original version can be interpreted and transferred in a stylistically acceptable manner. At all times the possibilities of the instruments should be taken into consideration. Given the complex sound texture of the original version, the suggestions for a twopiano version have to incorporate the following: note length and rest length, sound colour, attack/articulation, bowing, articulation markings, effects and texture. In the assignment an explanation is given of the deviations that stem from the above factors. The awareness of these deviations necessitates a distinction between arrangement and transcription and compels the transcriber to be as faithful to the original score as possible. The explanation of deviations further provides the performer with an awareness of the artistic possibilities that the work provides.
- ItemArnold van Wyk as liedkomponis : ’n ontsluiting van die liedere in die Arnold van Wyk-versameling by die Universiteit Stellenbosch(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2014-04) Oosthuizen, Magdalena Johanna; Ludemann, Winfried; Muller, S. J. V. Z.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Music.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this study an investigation into Arnold van Wyk’s song oeuvre — including the published and unpublished (completed and incomplete) songs — is done on the basis of the available composition sketches in the Arnold van Wyk Collection at Stellenbosch University. Firstly, Van Wyk as composer of art song in South Africa was put in perspective against the broader cultural context, especially in relation to Afrikaans poets who were his contemporaries. An overall view is also provided of possible influences that other composers had on his work. This provides an holistic picture of Van Wyk as composer of the art song. In his Juvenilia a surprisingly large amount of his music language is present, though not yet mature. Four prominent periods characterise the discussion of Van Wyk’s song oeuvre. In addition to these periods the study provides a summary that clearly shows his development as an art song composer as well as the musical devices which, in the course of time, became characteristic as part of his style in song writing. Owing to the fact that the setting to music of each song’s vocal part is analysed in close relationship to the source text, the complete text have been provided, with Afrikaans verbatim translations for the Latin and Old Dutch poems. Even though the composer sometimes only sets a couple of stanzas of the text, the complete poem is provided to properly orientate the reader. This allows the complete picture of each song to be taken into account. The relationship between each text and its setting to music of the song’s vocal part is analysed. This also applies to the illustrative meaning of where in the vocal range each text lies (the range as well as tessiture of the vocal part) and the illustrative use of intervals and other melodic devices such as melismas, setting to rhythmic patterns, etc. The accompaniment is investigated, regarding the relationship to and illustrative of the text, complementary to and in support of the vocal part as well as to which extent it supports the song’s formal design. Only the most prominent characteristics of Van Wyk’s highly complex harmonic usage are pointed out. An important aspect of this study is the investigation from a vocal technical point of view into how Van Wyk merged the writing of a vocal melody with his knowledge of the human voice, for instance in Van liefde en verlatenheid as well as in the Petronius songs. Where available, the history of how a song evolved is recorded in great detail, to illustrate the inception of a specific musical idea as well as its development and finalisation, but moreover, to allow the sketches to reveal how tedious (and sometimes even laid-back) the composition process took place most of the time. Van Wyk’s method and tempo of composing can be clearly deduced from the compositional sketches. These conclusions are confirmed and illustrated by his fairly regular dating of his work, and by information such as an address and/or some diary information that he occasionally added. Particulars like these are often included in this study, to shed light on the compositional process as well as on the composer as a human being. To avoid scanning numerous examples of notes, the C1 tot c3 way of spelling the notes is used.
- ItemArtistic experimentation through decolonial sound projects for clarinet(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2021-04) Liebenberg, Visser; Muller, Stephanus; Pauw, Esther Marie; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Department of Music.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study explores the sounding capacity of the clarinet through decolonial projects. This study’s sound projects are infused by a decolonial imperative that invokes the conglomerate concept of modernity/(de)coloniality (Walter Mignolo, 2012: 90). Mignolo’s term, together with his notion of decolonial aestheSis operate as turbines from which to explore the sounding capacity of the clarinet, an instrument that is conventionally situated in a largely Western music practice. In my research, the clarinet, as well as the researcher, encounter endogenous sounds and thereby engage in processes of sound translation. The method of investigation used is that of artistic research and specifically artistic experimentation that relies on generating knowledge from practice and reflecting on the generated knowledges, as possible avenues for exploration. The avoidance of a potentially opportunistic use of a decolonial imperative for a sound translation process directs this study towards the researcher’s creation of an index of clarinet sounds. This index is codified as a list of newly improvised sounds and from this index a collaborative creation process for a new composition emerges. The new composition, created with the composer Pierre-Henri Wicomb, is composed, notated and performed by the researcher. Throughout this study, various decolonial encounters are staged ranging from interaction with musicians and dancers, discussions with colleague artistic researchers, as well as two research performance events, one in front of a small group of participants at the Percival Kirby Collection of Indigenous instruments, and the other in front of a much larger audience at the Stellenbosch University Museum. The experiments presented through this research delink the clarinet from Western performance practice and its discourses, so that novel avenues for exploring the sounding capacity of the clarinet, and the situatedness of the clarinet player, arise. Resulting knowledges and further questions from the various research processes crystallise into consideration of how a decolonial imperative confronts, questions, and enhances the sounding clarinet, together with how these processes morph with the identity of the clarinettist-researcher. The research finds that a decolonial imperative does indeed transform the sounding capacities of the clarinet, so that the clarinet practice of the researcher itself, as well as its contexts of influence, are shifted into forms of sonic migrancy. Aspects such as these are documented and clarified through self-reflexive writing in the dissertation. The research presented in the thesis is paired with film footage of sound experiments, as undertaken throughout the research.
- ItemAspekte van die Franse barokstyl : riglyne vir blokfluitonderwysers by die aanleer van ornamentering(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2003-03) Maritz, Karin; Smit, M.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences. Dept. of Music .ENGLISH ABSTRACT: As an instrument the recorder enjoys an active following in South African schools, in tertiary institutions and in private tuition. In spite of this healthy interest, few teachers and students are afforded significant exposure to essentially good recorder playing, nor do they receive specialised tuition in the various aspects of this field of study. The development - and popularity - of the recorder reached a high point during the Baroque era. During this period the greatest repertoire for the instrument was composed. It is to this music that the player is mostly exposed. The French Baroque falls within the broader Baroque period and has provided a substantial repertoire that is freely available and regularly performed, either as part of an examination programme or as a self-study piece at eisteddfodau. It is clear, however, that among South African recorder teachers and students, the background knowledge required for a historically informed performance of pieces from this period is generally insufficient. The reason for this could be a lack of exposure to this particular style: a problem that cannot be overcome without a concerted effort on the part of the teachers and students to redress it. The purpose of this study is to stimulate an enthusiasm for French Baroque music among teachers and students, and to provide them with a store of knowledge they can then apply in a meaningful way in practice. It is far easier for the musician of the 21st century to look back objectively at the developments of the Baroque period and to appreciate the prolific contributions of the musicians of the time. However, it is important to remember that the numerous examples, expositions and definitions left to us by the composers of the Baroque should be interpreted as guidelines, rather than rigid rules. It is of crucial importance that these guidelines - ornamentation and its conventions, articulation, variable rhythmic groupings, as well as a background knowledge of the composers and the repertoire - be subjected to an in-depth study. Subsequently, by cultivating an instinct for good taste and judgment, justice will be done to the music of the French Baroque.
- ItemAspekte van stemontwikkeling : 'n psigo-fisiese benadering(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 1994-03) Theron, Marie Antoinette; Loeb van Zuilenburg, P. E. O. F.; Oosthuizen, M. J.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences. Dept. of Music.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between developing the voice and freeing the voice. The ultimate aim of developing the singing voice is expression through the medium of sound. For this to happen, a singer's voice has to function free and resonant. Every song demands certain expressive qualities, and the singing instrument should be able to react to a wide range of impulses. The singing instrument should be freed to enable optimal functioning, while authentically conveying powerful emotions. Developing and freeing the voice is a psycho-physical process. A person's psycho-physical functioning is manifested in body posture. As it were, the body conforms to a person's predisposition and muscle use. Muscle condition, muscle use and the singer's psychological state of mind influence the way in which sound is produced. Sensory perception, the body and breathing in balance, and the use of the body as singing instrument is discussed in chapter two. During the teaching of singing it is imperative that singers develop free habits and expectations. A process of releasing the voice is needed, because stressful habits and distorted sound-expectations have become part of the singer's performance. This inhibits expression in sound and causes the singing apparatus to operate ineffectively. The proper balance between effort and result is often disturbed. In chapter three it is pointed out that more attention should be paid to psycho-physical aspects, including psychological hindrances, the mind, motivation and body language. The teacher-pupil relationship and fear can also influence the development of the voice. In the process of freeing the voice, the Alexander technique can contribute to recognition of malfunctioning and tension in the body. A new and expanded approach to teaching and learning is needed - this will enable the singer to fully participate through thought, physical sensing, feeling and intuitive functions during teaching sessions. All these components interact with each other to support the singing process and develop good technical skills. In chapter four activities which can contribute to the freeing process of the voice and psycho-physical development are discussed. Activities used to promote the integration of all components are game playing as aid to singing development, characterisation as tool for personality and emotional development, imagery and imagination, and voice and movement. In the final chapter some conclusions and directives are given for future teaching of singing, with recommendations about areas in which more research is needed, including development of mental concepts in singing, sound and movement, and the role and influence of feeling and emotion during the singing process.
- ItemAspekte van twintigste-eeuse musiek : 'n bydrae tot die betekenisbepaling van die begrippe 'hedendaags' en 'eietyds' na aanleiding van komposisietegnieke sedert 1900(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 1975) Temmingh, Roelof Willem; Otterman, R. E.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Music.AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die skryf vari hierdie proefskrif is aanvanklik aangespoor deur 'n suiwer subjektiewe doelstelling: selfanalise en -orientering. Die onderwerp van die proefskrif is 'n logiese uitvloeisel van hierdie doelstelling, en orngekeerd: die doelstelling van die proefskrif is, vanwee die aard van die onderwerp, wesenlik subjektief. Vir 'n komponis wat kornposisietegnieke van sy eie tyd bestudeer, is sy studie altyd in die eerste plaas subjektief en rneestal ook didakties van aard. Deur sy studie van tydgenootlike werke word die kornponis beinvloed en bepaal hy, meestal bewus rnaar soms ook onbewus, sy houding teenoor en verhouding tot sy tydgenote an hul musiek.