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- ItemDie aanloop tot en stigting van Orania as groeipunt vir 'n Afrikaner-volkstaat(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2007-03) Pienaar, Terisa; Visser, Wessel P.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of History.Throughout the history of South Africa, the Afrikaners have been described as a "strange society". Calvinism was a key to their lifestyle and ideology and they saw themselves as God's special instruments. Their political philosophy of separate development was to a certain extent, revolutionary and was known as "apartheid". This was an attempt to remake a society according to a socio-political ideal which was rooted in the concept of safety in power. This thesis investigates the Afrikaners with regard to their primal ancestors, the origin of their identity, their identity during the reign of the NP government and their identity in the post apartheid South Africa. Discrepancies concerning Afrikaner identity during this time are also investigated. In this thesis special emphasis is placed on the right-wing actions of the Afrikaners, their political development from the time of separation from the NP which arose from the conviction that the leaders of this party were deviating from the moral and political prescriptions of their predecessors, their ideals and visions of freedom. The right-wing tends to qualify the term “nationalism” with the term “Christian” and they therefore believe that their nationhood is widely ordained. Culture, for the right-wing means an inclusive concept which covers every aspect of their lives. Language, i.e. Afrikaans, is seen as the verbal and written expression of their national culture. This study is directed towards the right wing of Afrikaners' quest for a "volkstaat" (state nation) and specifically the foundation of Orania in the Northern Cape and investigates whether it is a viable option for Afrikaners in general to live. The right-wingers believe that the only feasible constitutional option for peace in South Africa lies in partition The origin of the volkstaat idea , the early thoughts and the development of this concept are also investigated as well as the different models and role players. The main aim of this thesis is to investigate the success of Orania as a possible growing point of a "volkstaat" for Afrikaners. The early stages in the development of this small town e.g. the purchase, their efforts in achieving autonomy, their constitutional rights, their efforts in developing their community as well as their image to the outside world are investigated. During a visit to Orania in 2005 questionnaires were handed out to residents in order to compose a social profile and to investigate domicile statistics as well as views on Afrikaner identity. Ultimately this thesis indicates that although Orania functions successfully in most instances the possibility of it serving as a growing point of a “volkstaat” needs a much larger effort and larger support from other Afrikaners.
- ItemDie aanwending en integrasie van pikturale en geskrewe bronne vir 'n kultuurhistoriese evaluering van geselekteerde temas van die Wellington-omgewing, 1657-1900(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2001--03) Smit, Susanna Elizabeth; Van der Merwe, H.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences. Dept. of History.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this study pictorial Africana are used to sketch a socio-historical image of certain aspects of Wellington (previously known as Waggonmakers Valley) during the period 1657 to 1900. Together with written sources such as letters, diaries and travel diaries, the pictorial sources (in this case paintings, pictures and maps) are considered primary sources. Although the inhabitants of Waggonmakers Valley and later Wellington clearly developed an own identity, Wellington cannot be viewed in isolation. The town and region are placed in the broader context of the Drakenstein Valley and the Western Cape. The establishment and development of the town are placed within the prevalent political and economic climate of that time. Historical highlights of the town's history are given in short. A list of artists, pictorial works and place of conservation where these pictorial works are being conserved was compiled. It was attempted to determine the artists' connection with the Drakenstein Valley, Waggonmakers Valley and Wellington in each discussion. In the discussion of the territory (bodem) the Waggonmakers Valley is placed in the context of the Drakenstein Valley. In this discussion the discovery and settlement of the valley are considered, as well as the naming of the Drakenstein Valley, Waggonmakers Valley and Wellington. The appearance of the valley, mountains, hills, as well as the vegetation, animal life and bird life are discussed. The influence of the Berg River and other rivers on the inhabitants' lives is included in the discussion, as well as relevant folk-tales and popular beliefs. Where applicable, various uses for plants (e.g. medicinal) in these people's daily lives are discussed. In the discussion of the church the following aspects are considered: the beginning of missionary work in the Waggonmakers Valley, the secession of the church and the subsequent establishment of Wellington, as well as some religious aspects such as the "Wederdoper" Sect and the big revival of 1860. Festivals, sports and recreation depict the social activities of the Wellington people up to the end of the nineteenth century. In the discussion of the architecture, aspects such as political, economic and social influences on building style as well as building materials and building methods were taken into account. To illustrate: the opening of the Wellington railway line and the opening of Bainskloof Pass influenced the architecture of the town and region. Influencing factors on the lay-out of the town as well as the meaning of BainskloofPass for Wellington were considered.
- ItemAccess denied? The holistic lived experience of disabled students at Stellenbosch University : 1986-2007(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2019-04) Joubert, Karien; Van der Merwe, Schalk; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of History.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study explores the holistic lived experience of physically disabled students who studied at Stellenbosch University (SU) between 1986, the national year of the disabled and 2007, when the first dedicated disability unit was established at SU. Although this period reflects a generally transitional phase in wider South African history, with an increased emphasis on social equality, the consideration of the position of disabled individuals in this narrative is largely under-represented. The institutional and social elements of university life are explored as both constitute an integrated student life, while the specific position of disabled students is considered from a variety of angles. Official archival material provides insight into institutional responses to the question of disability. Societal narratives concerning disability are explored through an investigation of the disability-related articles which appeared in the Stellenbosch University publications Matieland and Die Matie between 1986 and 2007. Individual elements are also incorporated through a small-scale qualitative study consisting of 11 individual semi-structured interviews with physically disabled SU alumni. A non-linear narrative emerges throughout this period, in the sense that improvements and developments did not follow in any particular chronological order. The reasons for this are varied and cannot be limited to any single element. The institutional environment makes provision for disabled students in various ways, but a gap in the dissemination of information is evident, indicating that students were not always aware of available accommodations and services. Stellenbosch University was revealed to have a particularly long history of accommodating blind and partially sighted students as well as disability sport. A total of 83 articles from Matieland and Die Matie were explored. These also indicate a non-linear portrayal of disability issues and often vacillate between depictions of disabled students as ‘superheroes’ or ‘sub-humans.’ Interview data revealed that disabled individuals were frequently encouraged to pursue a university education, although access to information and the built environment remained an issue. The independent initiative on the part of disabled students and individual involvement of various staff members were key factors in facilitating success in the institutional environment. Disabled students were revealed to have vastly diverse social experiences which were linked to neither type of disability nor period of study. They participated in the social environment through a variety of networks while at university and encountered various public responses to their disability. Ultimately, this study indicates that physically disabled students navigated the university experience at SU between 1986 and 2007 with various levels of institutional and social support.
- ItemDie Afrikaanse volkslied onder die bruinmense(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 1991) Burden, Matilda; Grobbelaar, P. W.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences. Dept. of Cultural History.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A song has to be accepted by the community, must form part of the oral tradition and be handed over from one generation to the next, before it can be called a folk song. In the process of oral tradition, variants usually develop. A folk song is therefore never complete the moment it is created, but is formed gradually through a process of changes. The Afrikaans folk song sung by the coloured people has the same characteristics as the folk song in general. The fact that oral tradition is the major way of spreading songs, is evident from the many variants that occur and from the examples of transformation of words and melody ("Umsingen"and "Zersingen"). Simplicity, the use of the major key and the avoidance of modulation are prominent characteristics. Suggestiveness and coarse language are fairly common. Melismata are very rare and usually occur in songs which probably have their origin in old Afrikaans records. Most of the songs collected amongst coloured children are used to accompany games. The children seldom sing without playing or play without singing. Most variants are found amongst children's songs. Dancing songs are without a doubt the most popular amongst the songs of adults. The form of the stanzas is very simple and usually the songs consist of many stanzas. A small percentage of the songs collected, more or less 5%, presumably originate from old Afrikaans grammophone records. Most of these songs have been transformed by popular usage and even amongst them variants have been found. The main themes of this group of songs are love, parting, grief and death. Picnic songs, work songs, war songs and drinking songs have been found. Humoristic and mocking songs contribute to the entertainment value of the folk song and are also found amongst the coloured people. Because there is so much interaction between sacred songs and secular songs, especially where the melodies are concerned, the two groups cannot always be separated from each other. The sacred songs of the coloured people are mostly of the "refrain"-type. When a group of coloured people perform the sacred songs, they usually harmonise spontaneously and most beautifully. The fact that so much has been said and written on the subject of the folk song, and that even in recent years substantial research projects have been carried out, is proof enough that the folk song has not yet died out. The Afrikaans folk song features strongly amongst coloured people, though noticeably influenced by the English language, modern technology and urbanisation.
- ItemThe Afrikander Volunteer Corps and the participation of Afrikanders in conflicts in Rhodesia, 1893-1897(Faculty of Military Science of Stellenbosch University, 2012) Hendrich, GustavDuring the last decade of the nineteenth century, British colonisation in Southern Africa, in particular in Rhodesia (today Zimbabwe) had coincided with uneasy relations with the native black population. Partly because of continuing disillusionment over stringent policy regarding native livestock, hostilities between the colonial officials and Matabele and Mashona tribal groups resulted in devastating wars. Within these warring circumstances, Afrikaner settlers who had immigrated to Rhodesia since 1891 – mostly in search of better living opportunities – subsequently found themselves amidst the crossfire of these conflicts. Though subjugated to British colonial authority, the Afrikaner minority were regarded by native blacks as collaborators in maintaining white military and political power in Rhodesia. Consequently, the mere safety of Afrikaners were threatened by sporadic military attacks and skirmishes during the Anglo-Matabele war of 1893, and most of all, for the duration of the Matabele and Mashona rebellions of 1896 to 1897. During the Matabele rebellion, an Afrikander Volunteer Corps (known as the Afrikaner Korps) was established as a military unit, which provided substantial support in two decisive battles. This article seeks to address the role and history of the Afrikander Volunteer Corps, as well as the involvement of ordinary Afrikaners in the turbulent colonial wars in early Rhodesia.
- ItemAfrikanervroue se politieke betrokkenheid in historiese perspektief met spesiale verwysing na die Women’s National Coalition van 1991 tot 1994(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2004-12) Maritz, Loraine; Grundlingh, Albert M.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of History.Toe die onderhandeling vir ‘n nuwe demokratiese bestel in Suid-Afrika na 1990 begin is, het dit ‘n tydperk ingelei waar talle kwessies oor menseregte na vore gekom het. Ook vroue het die geleentheid aangegryp om vrouesake en gender-verhoudings op die nasionale agenda te plaas in ‘n poging om die onregverdighede van die verlede aan te spreek. Die Women’s National Coalition (WNC) is in 1992 amptelik gestig uit vrees dat vroue van die belangrike politieke prosesse wat die toekoms van Suid-Afrika sou bepaal, uitgesluit sou word. Die doelwitte van die WNC was om inligting oor vroue se behoeftes en aspirasies in te samel en dit in ‘n Vrouehandves saam te vat wat uiteindelik ‘n integrale deel van die nuwe grondwet van Suid-Afrika sou word. Die WNC was ‘n inisiatief van die African National Congress Women’s League (ANCWL). Die swart vrou in Suid-Afrika se onderdrukking was drieledig: sy was onderdruk as vrou, deur patriargie en deur apartheid. Sy het polities aktief geraak toe haar familiestrukture bedreig is en het teen paswette, swak behuising, en uitsetttingsaksies van die regering, geprotesteer. Tydens die 1980’s het swart vroue wat aan die noodtoestand blootgestel is, se politieke betrokkenheid verander en sy het ‘n rewolusionêre vryheidsvegter geword. In die buiteland het die swart vrou wat in die bevrydingstryd betrokke was geleidelik erkenning in die ANC gekry. Hierdie vroue was ná 1990 gedetermineerd dat hul verwagtinge vir totale gelykberegtiging in die demokratiese Suid-Afrika sal realiseer. In hierdie proefskrif val die soeklig veral op die Afrikanervrou en -vroueorganisasies wat by die WNC aangesluit het. As Afrikanernasionalis was haar politieke betrokkenheid in die verloop van die geskiedenis marginaal. Met geïsoleerde aktivistiese optrede soos die vroue-optogte van 1915 en 1940, asook die militantheid van die vakbondvroue, het Afrikanervroue hoofsaaklik die veilige ruimte van die liefdadigheidsterrein gebruik om hul politieke voorkeure uit te leef. Afrikanervroue se betrokkenheid in die stemregbeweging was op aandrang van die mans en by insinuasie ook die optogte van 1915 en 1940. Met die magsoorname van die Nasionale Party het die Afrikanervrou polities onbetrokke geraak. Haar funksie was hoofsaaklik die van moeder en vrou en ondersteunend van die heersende ideologie. Met die aftakeling van apartheid is talle tradisionele Afrikanersimbole bevraagteken. Meer as 40% van die Afrikaner het by die meer regse partye aangesluit. Hierdie gebeure het die Afrikanervrou aan die begin van die 1990’s sonder ‘n spesifieke identiteit gelaat. Met die onderhandelings vir die toekomstige demokratiese bestel ‘n werklikheid, was die Afrikanervrou in ‘n onbenydenswaardige identiteitskrisis gedompel. Sy wou apolities bly, maar is deur Afrikanerintelligentsia en politici aangesê om die politieke wêreld te betree. Aan die anderkant wou Afrikanerkultuurorganisasies die Afrikanerkultuur inklusief beveilig. Die Afrikanervroue het moeilik by die WNC aangepas. Daar was talle praktiese probleme, maar dit was veral haar gebrek aan politieke vernuf, en die vyandigheid van swart vroue wat die vergaderings van die WNC domineer het, wat haar betrokkenheid in die wiele gery het. Die gedagte het ook by feitlik al die Afrikanervroue ontstaan dat die WNC ‘n politieke rookskerm was vir die ANC om sy magsbasis te versterk. Die spanninge van die Veelparty-onderhandelinge het ook na die WNC oorgespoel en vertragings en opskorting van lidmaatskap tot gevolg gehad. Daar was Afrikanervroue wat hul belewenis van die WNC as volkome positief ervaar het, wat dit as geleentheid gesien het om by vrouebemagtiging en politieke onderhandelinge betrokke te raak. Die meerderheid van vroue wat by hierdie ondersoek betrek is, was egter onseker en het die negatiewe aspekte van hul belewenis hulle die ondervinding laat bevraagteken. Daar was selfs vroue wat slegs die vyandigheid onthou het. Uiteindelik het Afrikanervrou nie heeltmal aangepas by die WNC nie en was ook nie werklik betrokke nie.
- ItemAlmal kom na Lubbe" : die skoenmakerverhaal van A.P. Lubbe en Seun (Edms.) Bpk. 1918-2001(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2007-03) Van Eeden, Suzanne; Ehlers, Anton; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of History.The thesis “ ‘Almal kom na Lubbe: Die skoenmakerverhaal van A.P. Lubbe en Seun (Edms) Bpk, 1918-2001”, is an attempt to investigate the history of a family business spanning three generations against the background of the general socio-economic and political circumstances during the period 1918-2001. In 1918, at the time of the start of industrialisation in South Africa, Andries Petrus Lubbe started a bridle and shoe repair business en Bird Street, Stellenbosch. To him this business was the beginning of the realization of a dream to own his own shoe factory. During the 1940’s Andries Lubbe started experimenting with the manufacturing of shoes. This experiment was successful and encouraged his eldest son, Willem, to join the business in 1943. In 1948 after Willem completed his training in shoe technology in Britain, the business was officially registered as a private company. In 1956 Lubbe opened a shoe factory near Du Toit Station in Stellenbosch. This was the start of an era of mass production and mechanization in the company. Willem Lubbe was solely in charge of the factory and against the background of the economic affluence of the sixties the company prospered. In 1970 Andries Lubbe died and Willem Lubbe became the sole owner of the family business. In 1976, André Lubbe, Willem’s only son, joined the business. Against the setting of the unfavourable economic circumstances of the late seventies and eighties, André Lubbe succeeded to guide the company towards the niche market field by manufacturing speciality shoes, e.g. “Trailbuster” hiking boots. The nineties were characterised by unstable political and socio-economic conditions associated with South Africa’s transition to democracy and Lubbe suffered as a consequence. In an attempt to overcome the problems André tried to make the company more internationally orientated and Lubbe International was therefore established in 1994. This was not successful and by 1999 it was clear that Lubbe would not be able to function any longer. Some of the brand names were sold to another shoe manufacturer, Corrida Shoes, and in 2001, the doors of A.P. Lubbe and Son (Pty) Ltd were finally closed.
- ItemAndersdenkende verset : Afrikaner kulturele standpunt teen apartheid en Afrikaner kontak met die ANC in die 1980's(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2003-03) Kitshoff, Herman van Zijl; Grundlingh, Albert; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of History.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A renewed and unique spirit of resistance to apartheid spread across South Africa during the 1980's. This manifested as the black revolt between 1984 and 1986, as well as in the ANC's policies supporting the use of violence as a means to emancipation from the restrictions imposed by the apartheid government. The legacy of the Soweto uprising of 1976, coupled with P.W. Botha's efforts to reform, to a great extent fuelled these revolts which spread across the country during the 1980' s; while the constitution of 1983 led the militant young, predominantly ANC followers to again conclude that their future was doomed under apartheid. The ANC's policy of aggession towards the government was a further impetus for violent behaviour amongst the masses. International sanctions against apartheid increasingly crippled the National Party government during the 1980's. This revolutionary situation III the country, together with the obvious logjam the government found itself in, led to the psychological awakening of a group of Afrikaners known as the "dissidents". Although doubts about apartheid had existed amongst white South Africans since the sixties, the resistance in Afrikaner-circles during the 1980's was unique especially for it's active nature. It agreed furthermore with a zealous global sense of apathy towards apartheid, and was to a great degree fuelled by the black revolts and the government's aggressive way of containing these uprisings. This caused liberalminded Afrikaners not only to question their own identity and privileged position within South Africa, but urged several individuals, groups and organisations to make contact with the ANC. The reason for this was to engage in discussions with the ANC concerning the future of the country, and served as a form of passive resistance against the government. This thesis examines the work of these liberal Afrikaners against the backdrop of the troublesome eighties, and tries furthermore to capture their spirit of resistance.
- ItemAn Anglican parish in transformation : the history of St. Margaret’s, Parow, 1942 - 1995(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2013-03) Davids, Tessa Dawn; Grundlingh, Albert M.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of History.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This study is an historical analysis of the History of St. Margaret’s Anglican Parish, situated in the Northern Suburbs of Cape Town. While documenting the history of the parish since its establishment in 1942, it also critically examines its response to the socio-political changes the country was going through such as the Group Areas Act and in so doing, determines the extent of its own transformation. St. Margaret’s was not the first Anglican parish in Parow. An Anglican presence existed in Parow since 1900 with St. John the Baptist being the first parish along with an Anglican primary school, namely Glen Lily. The Anglican parishes of Parow were profoundly affected by apartheid, especially the Group Areas Act which completely changed the landscape of the town and the roles of the parishes. It led to the deconsecration of St. John’s and the closure of Glen Lily Primary school. The church building survived, but the school was completely demolished. St. Margaret’s did became an independent parish, but faced many challenges as it struggled to cope with the call from the Anglican Church to become agents of reconciliation while Archbishop Tutu called for sanctions against South Africa and seemingly supported the armed struggle. Despite the unhappiness with the Archbishop’s call for greater commitment to the abolition of apartheid, the congregation did in time find its own metier.
- ItemAnimals, acrobats and amusement : a history of performance in South Africa’s circus industry, c.1882–1963(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2021-03) Uys, Mia; Swart, Sandra S.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of History.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In South Africa, the circus industry became an important leisure industry in the 1800s and remained a popular form of entertainment until the turn of the twenty-first century, attracting diverse audiences across the country. Yet this industry is a neglected area of historical research. This thesis uses a rich variety of primary sources to debunk the myth of the ‘timeless circus act’, static and uniform. Instead, it demonstrates that this industry has gone through several transformations throughout the history of its existence. It analyses these changes, with particular focus on animal and gender history, by comparing performances between three circus companies that toured South Africa between 1882 and 1963: Fillis’s Circus, Pagel’s Circus and Boswell’s Circus. In doing so, this thesis explores the international influence on performances. This thesis argues that animals were integral to the circus industry, but their roles were mutable and affected by changes in human society. It traces their shifting role in performances across the companies, while also considering their shifting and subjective experiences in captivity. It contends that we can conceive of animals as ‘political performers’ and even as political agents with the ability to exert their agency and effect change. Throughout this thesis, the notion of ‘performing gender’ is analysed by comparing routines, as well as the various audience reactions to examine the ideals of masculinity and femininity reflected in society at the time. Overall, it argues that the significant changes that occurred within animal and gendered performances were a response to the shifting localised public mindsets and political climates, affected in turn by broader global forces.
- ItemApartheid South Africa's propaganda effort c.1960-1980 : the hearts and minds campaign of the National Party(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2016-12) Obermeyer, Johann; Nasson, William Richard; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of History.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to examine the South African National Party’s efforts at winning ‘hearts and minds’ within the decades of the 1960s’ up to the 1980s’. Thus, the various attempts by the NP to control and manipulate the image of the Republic of South Africa as seen from within and outside of its borders, is examined. The perspective offered in this study is from the point of view from the NP itself, as this is done in order to try to get a clear picture of what the apartheid government was struggling for and against. The methods employed within the study are, at times, of a historiographical nature and rely on various documentary sources. Because of the nature of the topic, subterfuge is to be expected and thus the sources are assessed for what they are, and not necessarily what they perhaps pretend to be. The phenomenon of subterfuge is thus examined in its own right. The study concludes with the suggestion that it might be useful to further research one particular aspect as shown in chapter 3, as well as with the idea that further studies of this kind might be useful in contributing towards the shift towards a more integrated contemporary South African history.
- ItemDie argitektuur van die Paarl tussen die twee wereldoorloe : 'n kultuurhistoriese ondersoek(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 1992-12) Albertyn, Elizabeth; Grobbelaar, P. W.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of History.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The erection of buildings in Paarl during the period between the two world wars was influenced by several important socio-economical and cultural circumstances. These events changed the built-up environment of Paarl dramatically. This period can be seen as a change from a traditionial to a modern way of living and this phenomena is clearly imposed on the buildings erected during this period. Some of the important happenings that changed the lives of all Paarlites in those years and influenced their building works, was the influenza epidemic of 1918, the worldwide depression of 1929 which lasted until 1932, the peak and the pining of the wagonbuilding industry, the introduction of the motor car, electricity, motion pictures and technological development in general. This technological progress, especially the introduction of the motor car, brought about the erection of new types of buildings like service stations, show rooms and private garages for these vehicles all over Paarl. Roads were tarred and improved and electrical street lighting was introduced. On 29 November 1924 all the documents and building plans housed in the then existing town hall were destroyed by fire. Further developments that influenced living in Paarl was the establishment of the KWV in 1918, SASKO in 1935, the erection of a new hospital, town hall, post office, schools and the establishment of several other fruit and wine related industries. The granite industry flourished during this period. For the first time Paarl had its own local architects, draughtsmen and builders. Several important architects from Cape Town and elsewhere executed buildings in the town. According to existing records at the Paarl Municipality no less than 34 different architects or partnerships, draughtsmen and builders were responsible for the execution of building plans handed in at the Municipality between 1926 and 1939. Before the period in question Paarl streets were never formally laid out and for the first time large townships were planned from scratch. A wide spectrum of structures ranging from alterations to existing buildings, verandahs, garages, swimming pools, shops, offices, schools, churches and public buildings were erected in Paarl during this period.
- ItemAspekte van nasionale en kulturele identiteit van 'n verenigende Europa sedert 1958 : enkele gevallestudies(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2003-03) Carstens, T. H. M; Grundlingh, A.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts & Social Sciences. Dept. of History.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In a globalizing world it follows that the identity of individuals will come under scrutiny as borders between states fade. It is exactly for this reason that so many people feel uncomfortable within themselves and become involved in a desperate search for new terms of reference and value systems. By virtue of this, history is utilized to explore the problem by tracing circumstances on a continent where the issue is currently very topical. Certain facets of Europe, which was the axis of the catastrophic Second World War but simultaneously the cradle of an Eurocentrism which has evolved gradually over centuries, is carefully scrutinized in order to determine what tendencies are becoming noticeable. This investigation cannot ignore the demise of the Soviet Empire and the burgeoning nation states of Eastern Europe since it represents an important divide in the European history of the twentieth century. A unifying Europe is embodied in various institutions which have sprung up since the Second World War, partially due to efforts of Europeans to organise themselves or alternatively, as a consequence of the Atlantic allies' attempts to present a united front to Soviet Russia. With the demise of the Soviet Republic in 1989, the concept underwent a further change when the Eastern European countries joined the institutional structures of a unifying nature such as the Council of Europe. It is exactly because of this that the identity issue came to the fore. The only realistic and pragmatic yardstick to measure national and cultural identity within the defined period is by employing the sovereignty of the nation state. Concurrently with this yardstick is the realisation that the protection or loss of sovereignty occurs within the upper constitutional or political levels where the public is seldom involved, but ultimately as a consequence affected. This reflects a democratic deficit. Seen from the angle of the early protagonists of Eurocentrism as well as the USA, there were conflicting views on the protection or loss of sovereignty, but an admission that greater unity could lead to the loss of some sovereignty. Britain, without publicly acknowledging it, had indeed surrendered some of its sovereignty during the 1970's when it became a member of the European Economic Community, by subjecting itself to the ruling that European Union legislation would be superior to that of Britain in the event of a conflict. Britain had thus, with regard to national and cultural identity, already proceeded to a new relationship. This new relationship was reinforced by Britain's under-writing of the principle of subsidiarity which ultimately promotes a dual identity of being British and European. The same tendency was noticeable in the institutional arrangements and programmes of the Council of Europe and the European Union. On investigating the viewpoints and role which Belgium, as one of the founder members of the European Economic Community, and simultaneously a small nation, this tendency also becomes very apparent, but possibly with greater emphasis of the regional role as a result of strong identity forming influences. In conclusion, it is thus apparent that being a European, and British or Flemish simultaneously, is currently becoming the vogue. However, being European is currently of a consumer-goods nature. It does not embrace a vibrant European identity particularly as a consequence of the language difference which limit the Europeanisation of national and cultural identities. Attempts to resolve the problem through adages such as "unity in diversity" has not produced the expected results.
- ItemAweregs : die rustelose lewe van Ben Viljoen 1868-1917(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2018-12) Van der Merwe, Willem Carel; Grundlingh, Albert Mauritz; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of History.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This thesis is a critical interpretative biography of Barend (later Benjamin) Johannes Viljoen, who was born in Thembuland, South Africa in 1868 and died in New Mexico, USA in 1917 at the age of 48 from natural causes. After his arrival at the age of eighteen in the South African Republic as a the eldest son of a poor migrant farming family, Ben Viljoen rose within twelve years from an ordinary policeman to a journalist, newspaper owner, commandant of the Johannesburg commando and member of the Tweede Volksraad (Second House of Assembly) for the Johannesburg constituency. During the Anglo-Boer War he participated in numerous engagements and was promoted to general and assistant commandant-general of the Transvaal forces. He was captured at the beginning of 1902 and banished to St. Helena. Following several unsuccessful attempts to establish himself in the Transvaal Colony after the war, Viljoen was the co-organiser of and a participant in the Boer War Spectacle at the 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair. Afterwards he remained in the USA and married an American woman even before his divorce in South Africa was finalised. After an unsuccessful attempt by him and “general” Willem Snyman to establish a Boer colony in northern Mexico, Viljoen and other Afrikaners settled at the end of 1905 in the southwestern American state of New Mexico where they became successful alfalfa farmers. Here Viljoen played an active role in the local community life and state politics. During the Mexican revolution in 1911 he acted as a military adviser to the revolutionary leader (and later Mexican president) Francisco Madero, who afterwards appointed him as peace commissioner to the Yaqui Indians of Mexico. After a short appointment as a Mexican consul in Germany he was involved in several filibustering attempts in northern Mexico with prominent American capitalists. This thesis is based on extensive primary research in South Africa, the Netherlands, Britain, Mexico and the USA. It contributes to an understanding of the undercurrents in the ranks of the Afrikaners and Afrikaner nationalism during the first few years after the war. Considered as a whole this biography of Ben Viljoen is a re-evaluation of the prevailing notions of how the Boer leaders adapted to the post-war dispensation. It also examines the strategies that Viljoen used to establish and further himself in the South African Republic, Mexico and the USA. By examining Viljoen’s life and the influences that formed him, this thesis seeks to throw more light on that period and thus promote a nuanced understanding of the South African past.
- ItemBantu education : destructive intervention or part of reform(North-West University, 2012-12) Giliomee, HermannThe introduction of public education for blacks in 1953 and the withdrawal of state subsidies from mission schools were among the most controversial measures that the National Party (NP) government took. In introducing Bantu Education the NP government was within the broad parameters of white interests and thinking at the time. There was no strong support in either the NP or United Party (UP) for large scale state spending on black education, no real demand from employers for well-educated black workers and a general concern among whites that educated blacks would become politicised if they were unable to find appropriate work. The state’s priority in introducing Bantu education was to reduce widespread black illiteracy. While Minister of Native Affairs Hendrik Verwoerd spelled out in crude and offensive terms that blacks would not be able to perform high-level jobs in “white South Africa”, it is wrong to assume that this was based on the assumption of black intellectual inferiority. Bantu education always lagged far behind white education with respect to per capita spending and the ratio of teacher to pupils in the class room. After 1994, ANC (African National Congress) leaders criticised the introduction of Bantu education in ever more strident terms, suggesting that it should be considered as a destructive intervention. The article argues that, viewed against the state of education that existed before 1953, it can be considered as part-reform in that it brought primary education to a far greater number of black children than was the case before 1953. The extensive use of mother tongue education was contentious, but several comparative studies show that the use of such a system in at least the first seven or eight years of the child’s education is superior to other systems. The school-leaving pass rate of 83.7% for black students in 1976 is the highest pass rate to date.
- Item“Barbed-Wire Boks” : the long shadow of the 1981 Springbok Tour of New Zealand and the United States of America(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2017-03) Potgieter, Sebastian Johann Shore; Grundlingh, Albert; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of History.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In 1981, during the height of apartheid, the South African national rugby team, the Springboks, toured to New Zealand and the United States of America. In South Africa, the tour was expected to reopen the doors to international competition for the Springboks after an anti-apartheid sporting boycott had forced the sport into relative isolation during the 1970s. In the face of much international condemnation, the Springboks toured to New Zealand and the USA in 1981 where they encountered large and often violent demonstrations as those who opposed the tour attempted to scuttle it. For the duration of the tour, New Zealand was plunged into a divisive state of chaos as police and protestors clashed outside heavily fortified rugby stadiums. In South Africa, those bleary-eyed rugby fans who braved the early morning hours to watch the historic live broadcasts of the matches were greeted with extraordinary scenes: rugby fields being combed for glass shards, fishhooks, and nails scattered by anti-tour protestors; a pitch invasion at Hamilton forcing the cancellation of the Springboks’ match against Waikato; and the infamous Auckland test, dubbed the ‘flour-bomb’ test. While the tour matter polarised New Zealanders, there were only minor disruptions during the USA leg of the tour as rugby was still a relatively unknown sport to most Americans. Although the tour events were a rude awakening to many white South Africans on the hostilities abroad towards the apartheid regime, the country’s racist policies remained unyielding. However, the tour had repercussions for South African rugby and reflected how desperate establishment rugby had become to stave off total isolation. While the tour is frequently mentioned in work on the sporting boycott era, it is rarely assigned the significance it deserves. Using hitherto untapped archival material this thesis concerns an in depth discussion on the 1981 tour, what it revealed about South African rugby at the time, and in particular how the tour had a large hand in bringing about South African rugby’s total isolation in the 1980s.
- ItemThe beasts of Berlin(AOSIS Openjournals, 2011-04) Nasson, BillIn the early stage of the First World War, the Union of South Africa invaded the neighbouring colony of German South West Africa at the request of the British War Cabinet. The assignment was to knock out a German coastal wireless station, but South Africa’s war leaders, Generals Louis Botha and Jan Smuts, got above themselves. Going the whole hog, they seized the territory from Berlin. In the peace negotiations which finally ended the Great War, Pretoria persuaded the victorious powers to allow it to keep the former enemy colony under its jurisdiction as a League of Nations mandate territory.
- ItemBeing public : musicians and the Market Theatre Cafe, 1976 - 1980(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2023-03) Ncume, Pakama Sbongile; Matshoba, Pakama Sbongile; Lambrechts, Lizabe; Fransch, Chet; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of History.ENGLISH SUMMARY : In 1976 the Market Theatre Complex was opened in Newton, Johannesburg by Barney Simon and Mannie Manim. Their vision was to establish a non-discriminatory and inclusive theatre that operated outside the legislated segregation policies of the apartheid system. One of the venues in the complex was a small music entertainment space called the Market Theatre Café. The Café which operated from 1976 to 1978 was run and managed by David Marks and his wife Frances Marks. Throughout its short existence, the venue offered a platform for local and international musicians, English, Afrikaans, Zulu, and Sepedi singers-songwriters, folk musicians, township jazz groups, rock and punk groups, and jazz musicians to perform. While the performances in the Market Theatre Complex are well documented, very little has been written about the Café and the music and musicians who performed there. Using primary sources, specifically live sound recordings made of the performances at the Café, preserved in the Hidden Years Music Archive at Stellenbosch University, this study will offer an analysis of the concerts staged in the Market Theatre Café. Through investigating the musicians, the music performed and lyrics of songs, as well as the conversations on stage between musicians and/or with the audience - as well as the music productions staged at the venue - this study will explore how such music performances enabled the coming together and the “being public” of a community that sanctioned a space for freedom of expression and political action during times when “publics” and “being public” were highly regulated.