Browsing Doctoral Degrees (Viticulture and Oenology) by Subject "Assessment"
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- ItemNon-destructive assessment of leaf composition as related to growth of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz)(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2012-03) Strever, Albert (Albert Erasmus); Hunter, J. J.; Young, Philip R.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of AgriSciences. Dept. of Viticulture and Oenology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Field spectroscopy was used to study leaf composition and selected factors (including canopy growth manipulation and water status changes) that may impact on it in a Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz vineyard, showing considerable variability in vigour. Temporal and spatial variability in leaf composition were incorporated into measurements by analysing leaves in different shoot positions and at different developmental stages during three different growing seasons. Irrigation and canopy manipulation treatments were also imposed in order to provide new insights into assessing the grapevine leaf and possibly also the canopy growth and ageing dynamics as well as pigment content, as a basis of executing a generally non-destructive measurement approach. Despite large climatic differences between the seasons, canopy size seemed of crucial importance in determining grapevine water relations in the grapevines from the different canopy manipulation treatments. Drastic compensation effects in terms of secondary shoot growth also followed the canopy reduction treatment. Despite this, canopy microclimate was apparently improved, considering the results from light measurements as well as the ripening dynamics in the reduced canopies. Reduced canopies also seemed to display a different canopy composition, in favour of secondary growth. This could have impacted positively on water use efficiency as well as ripening, due to higher photosynthetic efficiency of these leaves during the ripening stages. The reduced canopy treatments offered the possibility of attaining technological ripeness at an earlier stage and at comparatively lower potential alcohol levels. This study illustrated the relevance of considering the vegetative development of the grapevine, along with leaf ageing in the canopy, when conducting calibrated non-destructive measurements of leaf pigments, structure and water content. The relevance of using multivariate techniques in leaf spectroscopy was shown. This can be applied and simplified to aid in non-destructive leaf pigment, structure and water content estimation in future studies. Even with the general variation encountered in this vineyard, predictions of the major pigments in grapevine leaves were within acceptable error margins. Further work is required to improve the modelling of xanthophylls, which may require non-linear multivariate techniques. Logistical shoot growth modelling was used in leaf age estimation and classification, which made it possible to simplify statistical analysis of the leaf parameters mentioned. Practical application of the modelled and predicted parameters was shown for a specific period in season two by comparing the reaction of different treatments to developing water deficits. The results indicated that several parameters, with special mention of the carotenoid:chlorophyll ratio and chlorophyll a:b ratio, can be monitored on young and old leaves in the canopy in order to monitor developing water deficit stress. The modelled parameters, however, did not seem to be sensitive enough to allow specific prediction of predawn leaf water potential values. Specific leaf mass, equivalent water thickness, total specific leaf mass as well as leaf chronological age were successfully predicted from leaf spectral absorbance data, and this may be useful in future work on quantifying leaf adaptation to the micro-environment within the canopy.