Browsing Masters Degrees (Institute for Wine Biotechnology) by Subject "Brandy -- Microbiology"
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- ItemThe role of lactic acid bacteria in brandy production(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2002-12) Du Plessis, Heinrich Wilbur,1975-; Lambrechts, M. G.; Du Toit, M.; Pretorius, I. S.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of AgriSciences. Dept. of Viticulture and Oenology and Institute for Wine Biotechnology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The presence and growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in wine and their influence on wine quality has received much attention in recent years. Lactic acid bacteria are responsible for conducting malolactic fermentation (MLF) in wine. The benefits associated with malolactic fermentation in terms of deacidification of wine and the contribution to wine flavour and complexity have also recently been the topic of research. It is impossible to describe malolactic fermentation as distinctly desirable or undesirable in terms of its influence on the final quality of wine. The benefits and disadvantages are dependent upon viticultural region, grape variety, wine composition, winemaking techniques and the style and objectives of the winemaker. Brandy production is a multi-stage process in which base wine production, distillation technique and wood maturation all have a large influence on the final chemical profile and organoleptic quality of the brandy. The volatile composition of the base wine, which basically undergoes a concentration process during the subsequent double distillation phase, is critical in determining the aroma and flavour quality of the final brandy product. Thus, the brandy is only as good as the base wine it is distilled from. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of lactic acid bacteria and spontaneous malolactic fermentation on the quality of brandy base wine and the resulting distillate, and to determine which LAB species had been responsible for the occurrence of spontaneous MLF. This study showed that LAB are present at high numbers and are able to conduct spontaneous MLF of brandy base wines. It was shown that the incidence of spontaneous MLF varied from year to year. In 1998, 50% of the commercially produced base wines had undergone partial MLF prior to distillation. In 1999 and 2000 respectively, 34% and 45% of the commercial base wines had undergone partial MLF prior to distillation. The occurrence of spontaneous MLF had an influence on the chemical composition and the sensory quality of the base wine and distillate. There was an increase in the concentrations of ethyl lactate, acetic acid and diethyl succinate in samples that had undergone MLF. There was also a decrease in the concentrations of esters, such as iso-amyl acetate, ethyl acetate, ethyl caproate, hexyl acetate and 2-phenethyl acetate in these same samples. Sensory evaluation of the base wines and distillates demonstrated that samples that had undergone MLF differed significantly from samples that had not undergone MLF. It was also shown that distillates that had not undergone MLF had a slightly better aroma profile than those that had. Sweet aromas, like chocolate and caramel, as well as negative aromas, like chemical or solvent, were more prominent in brandy distillates that had undergone MLF. Herbaceous and fruity aromas were more intense in distillates not having undergone MLF. Fifty-four strains, all Gram-positive and catalase negative, were isolated at different stages of brandy production. Seven strains were isolated from the grape juice, 15 strains were isolated from the base wine, 20 strains were isolated during MLF and 12 strains were isolated from the base wine after MLF had been completed. Based on C02 production from glucose and gluconate, 17 strains were classified as facultatively heterofermentative and 37 strains as obligately heterofermentative. Fifteen of the 37 obligately heterofermentative strains were rod-shaped and were regarded as lactobacilli. The remaining 22 strains were oval or cocci-bacilli shaped. The isolates were identified to species level by using numerical analysis of the total soluble cell protein patterns, 16S rRNAsequencing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with species-specific primers. The facultative heterofermentative lactobacilli were identified as Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus p/antarum. The fifteen obligately heterofermentative lactobacilli were identified as members of the species Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus verrniforme, Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus hi/gardii. The 22 obligate heterofermentative isolates, with a coccoid morphology, could be grouped into two clusters and were identified as Oenococcus oeni. O. oeni was the species responsible for the occurrence of spontaneous MLF in most of the commercial base wines. Lb. brevis, Lb. hi/gardii and Lb. paracasei were also isolated from commercial base wines that had undergone spontaneous MLF. In nine out of 14 experimental base wine samples that had undergone spontaneous MLF, O. oeni was again the predominant species. Lb. brevis, Lb. hi/gardii and Lb. paracasei were identified in the remaining experimental base wine samples. This is the first report of the presence of Lb. perecese! and Lb. vermiforme in brandy base wine. It was shown that the occurrence of spontaneous MLF had a negative effect on the quality of brandy base wine, but that was shown to be due to the different species and strains performing MLF. In the non-preferred distillate samples, Lactobacillus spp. had performed MLF or had developed after or during MLF.