Browsing Masters Degrees (Institute for Wine Biotechnology) by Subject "Bacteriocins"
Now showing 1 - 1 of 1
Results Per Page
- ItemThe evaluation of bacteriocins and enzymes for biopreservation of wine(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2002-03) Du Toit, Corina; Du Toit, M.; Pretorius, I. S.; Van Rensburg, P.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of AgriSciences. Dept. of Viticulture and Oenology. Institute for Wine Biotechnology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The winemaking process involves a number of microorganisms, each with its own role. Yeasts are responsible for the alcoholic fermentation, the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are Gram-positive bacteria associated with must and wine and perform the malolactic fermentation (MLF), while the acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are Gram-negative bacteria converting ethanol to acetic acid. These microorganisms are present in the cellar and fermentation tanks and can be seen either as beneficial or as wine spoilage microorganisms because, under certain circumstances, they affect the wine quality if they should grow in the wine or must. Strict measures need to be implemented in the cellar during the winemaking process to ensure microbiological stability. This can be achieved through good microbiological practices and, additionally, chemical preservatives. Sulphur dioxide (S02) is widely used as the primary preservative in winemaking. However, consumer resistance has been building up against the use of chemical preservatives, due to the possible health risks and a decrease in nutritional value and sensorial quality of certain foods and beverages. Biopreservation as an alternative to the traditionally-used chemical preservation is a new approach and has been attracting much attention. This implies the use of the natural microflora and/or their antibacterial products, such as bacteriocins and bacteriolytic enzymes (e.g. lysozyme). Bacteriocins from LAB are proteins or protein complexes, produced by Gram-positive bacteria, with antibacterial activity against closely-related Gram-positive species. Lysozyme occurs in substances such as hen egg white and has lytic activity against Gram-positive bacteria. ' The bacteriocins nisin, of the class I lantibiotics, and pediocin PA-1 and leucocin BTA 11a, of the class lIa Listeria-active bacteriocins, have been investigated for the biopreservation of wine. Nisin, however, is the only bacteriocin that has been approved for use as a preservative, while pediocin is likely to follow in approval. Lysozyme has been approved for use in winemaking by the Office International de la Vigne et du Vin (OIV). The main objectives of this study were to determine whether these substances showed any antimicrobial action against wine-associated microorganisms, namely LAB, AAB and yeasts. The stability and suitability of the bacteriocins and lysozyme as antimicrobials in wine was researched, especially when used in combination. Possible synergistic or antagonistic interactions between the bacteriocins were also investigated by means of the microtitre broth dilution method and scanning electron microscopy, as well as at what concentration and combinations the bacteriocins were most effective against increasing LAB concentrations. It was found that nisin, pediocin and leucocin were effective to varying degrees against a test panel of LAB type and reference strains, as well as wine isolates. Nisin repeatedly had the highest level of inhibition against all the LAB tested, followed by pediocin and leucocin. There was no inhibition of the wine-associated AAB and yeasts tested. Pediocin stability was evaluated in simulated wine must and proved to be stable for at least 20 days, without being affected by the sulphur or alcohol content. A low pH, however, led to a more rapid decrease in activity. The same was found for nisin and leucocin in other studies. Combinations of bacteriocins at increasing concentrations were evaluated against increasing concentrations of a LAB wine isolate. When used in pairs (namely, nisinleucocin, nisin-pediocin and pediocin-Ieucocin), the combinations were most effective against lower concentrations of bacteria, namely 102 and 104 cfu/ml. At lower concentrations, the pairs of bacteriocins were much less effective against the higher bacterial concentrations of 106 and 108 cfu/ml. Leucocin-pediocin combinations were the least effective, while nisin-Ieucocin combinations were marginally more effective than the nisin-pediocin combinations. The most pronounced effect was observed when all three the bacteriocins were used together. Combinations of bacteriocins had no inhibitory effect against AAB. Pediocin and lysozyme was used in combination against the same wine isolate, but no conclusive conclusions could be drawn in this experiment. __ Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate any disturbances in cell morphology when bacteriocins were added to LAB. The above-mentioned LAB was subjected to bacteriocins used singularly and also in combinations of equal amounts of bacteriocins. The action of the bacteriocins led to major disturbances in cell morphology. Once again, the combination of leucocin-pediocin was the least effective, even less so than when the single bacteriocins were used. The nisin-pediocin and nisin-Ieucocin combinations seemed to be more effective in causing cell disturbances and perturbations. The microtitre broth dilution methodwas used to further characterise the nature of the interaction of the pairs of bacteriocins. This test showed clearly that the bacteriocins had definite interactions. By adding one bacteriocin to varying concentrations of another bacteriocin, the inhibitory action of the second bacteriocin was affected, either increasing or decreasing its effectiveness. The most important factor to consider seems to be the ratio at which the bacteriocins should be used together, leading either to synergism or antagonism, and this also implies a very complex interaction. This project indicated that it is indeed possible to use both bacteriocins and lysozyme in "Vine preservation, both being stable in wine environments and effective against LAB without affecting the yeast fermentation. Bacteriocins could also be used in combination, to broaden the inhibition spectrum, as well as possibly increasing the inhibitory potential of the individual antimicrobials. The underlying interactions in such combinations should be carefully researched, however, when considering using combinations of antimicrobials in food and beverage products. Further attention can also be given to finding biopreservatives against the Gram-negative AAB, as well as to research the interaction of the pairs of bacteriocins over time. Another point to consider would be the engineering of yeasts or bacteria to produce these antibacterial substances in situ as part of their metabolism.