Browsing Masters Degrees (Institute for Wine Biotechnology) by Subject "Bacterial starter cultures -- South Africa"
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- ItemThe evaluation of malolactic fermentation starter cultures under South African winemaking conditions(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2008-03) Van der Merwe, Hanneli; Du Toit, M.; Du Toit, Wessel J.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of AgriSciences. Dept. of Viticulture and Oenology. Institute for Wine Biotechnology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: With ever increasing pressure on wine producers to lower the financial costs involved in winemaking to be able to compete in the market, all while maintaining a high level of wine quality, the focus on maintaining control over all aspects of the winemaking process are greatly emphasized. Malolactic fermentation (MLF) is one of the important processes in red wine production. The advantages of this process, when performed successfully, is widely known and accepted. One way to gain control over MLF is the use of MLF starter cultures. Starter cultures usually consist of Oenococcus oeni that has been isolated from grapes or wines and is in most cases available in a freeze-dried form ready for direct inoculation into the wine when MLF is desired. Starter cultures are induced into wine and usually ensure the immediate onset as well as a fast and clean execution of the process. Starter cultures used in South Africa are in most cases isolated from cooler viticultural regions in the Northern hemisphere. The constitution of wines from cooler viticultural regions, differ from those in South Africa, which has a warm climate. The most important difference is the acid content of the wines which is lower in South African must/wines and results into a higher pH. The three most important changes that develop in wine during MLF are a decrease in acidity due to the conversion of malic acid to the less harsh lactic acid, enhanced flavour and aroma of wine and an increase in the microbiological stability of wine. The decrease in acidity is very important for wines produced for grapes grown in cool viticulture regions. In South Africa though, the climate is warm and higher pH’s are present in the musts and wines and the de-acidification due to MLF is not the main aim but rather the microbiological stabilisation. One of the compounds that could be produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is biogenic amines (BA’s). These compounds can be hazardous to human health. This thesis focussed on the performance of MLF starter cultures in high pH South African red wines. The first objective of the study was to stretch MLF starter cultures in high pH red wines of South Africa. Stretching means to use less than the prescribed dosage or the re-use of starter cultures. The difference in MLF rate, the influence of the natural occurring LAB and the levels of biogenic amines formed during MLF were determined for the different stretching treatments. The results showed that different rates in malic acid degradation were experienced between the treatments, but in all cases MLF fermentation was completed. Biogenic amines were formed at various levels and the influence of the natural occurring LAB also played a role. The second objective of the study was the evaluation of the effect of a wine isolated LAB (Lactobacillus) and an acetic acid bacteria (AAB), inoculated with a MLF starter culture had on MLF at different wine pH’s. It was found that especially in the case where the Lactobacillus was inoculated in combination with the MLF starter culture a possible stimulatory effect was experienced with regards to malic acid degradation rate. Biogenic amine concentration was measured at the end of MLF and it was found that no histamine and tyramine were formed in any of the treatments, while the putrescine and cadaverine levels were found to be at approximately similar levels for the different treatments. The third objective was to evaluate the possible influence of commercial tannin additions and a pectolytic enzyme on rate of MLF and phenolic composition of high pH red wine. The commercial tannins had possible inhibitory as well as stimulatory effects on the rate of malic acid degradation especially during the initial stages of MLF, with the highest dosage having the significant effect. The BA results showed difference in the levels produced due to tannin additions as well as strain differences could exist. The phenolic content showed a decrease in colour density, total red pigments, total phenolics and anthocyanins between AF and MLF. The fourth objective was to evaluate inoculation time of MLF starter cultures. The results showed that the fastest AF/MLF time was with simultaneous inoculation of the yeast and MLF starter cultures. It was also for this treatment where no histamine or tyramine was detected at the end of MLF compared to the other inoculation strategies (before the end of AF and after AF). This study generated a large amount of novel data which made a valuable contribution with regards to MLF in high pH red wines of South Africa.