Browsing by Author "Wiysonge, Charles Shey"
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- ItemAdvocating for efforts to protect African children, families, and communities from the threat of infectious diseases : report of the First International African Vaccinology Conference(African Field Epidemiology Network, 2016) Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Waggie, Zainab; Hawkridge, Anthony; Schoub, Barry; Madhi, Shabir Ahmed; Rees, Helen; Hussey, GregoryOne means of improving healthcare workers' knowledg e of and attitudes to vaccines is through running v accine conferences which are accessible, affordable, and relevant to their everyday work. Va rious vaccinology conferences are held each year wo rldwide. These meetings focus heavily on basic science with much discussion about new develo pments in vaccines, and relatively little coverage of policy, advocacy, and communication issues. A negligible proportion of delegates at the se conferences come from Africa, home to almost 40% of the global burden of vaccine- preventable diseases. To the best of our knowledge, no major vaccinology conference has ever been held on the African continent apart from World Health Organization (WHO) meetings. The conte nt of the first International African Vaccinology C onference was planned to be different; to focus on the science, with a major part of discussi ons being on clinical, programmatic, policy, and ad vocacy issues. The conference was held in Cape Town, South Africa, from 8 to 11 November 2012 . The theme of the conference was “Advocating for e fforts to protect African children, families, and communities from the threat of infect ious diseases”. There were more than 550 registered participants from 55 countries (including 37 African countries). There were nine pre-conferen ce workshops, ten plenary sessions, and 150 oral an d poster presentations. The conference discussed the challenges to universal immunisation in Africa as well as the promotion of dialogue and communication on immunisation among all stakeholders. There was general acknowledgment that giant strides have been made in Africa since the g lobal launch of the Expanded Programme on Immunisation in 1974. For example, there has bee n significant progress in introducing new and under -utilised vaccines; including hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenza type b, pneumococcal conju gate, rotavirus, meningococcal A conjugate, and hum an papillomavirus vaccines. In May 2012, African countries endorsed the Global Vaccine Action Plan at the World Health Assembly. However, more than six million children remain incompletely vaccinated in Africa leading to more t han one million vaccine-preventable deaths annually . In addition, there are persistent problems with leadership and planning, vaccine stock managem ent, supply chain capacity and quality, provider-pa rent communication, and financial sustainability. The conference delegates agreed to move from talking to taking concrete actions around children's health, and to ensure that African governments commit to saving children's liv es. They would advocate for lower costs of immunisa tion programmes n Africa, perhaps through bulk buying and improved administration of vaccine rollout through the New Partnership for Afr ica's Development.
- ItemBeta-blockers and the treatment of hypertension : it is time to move on(Clinics Cardiv Publishing, 2007-12) Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Volmink, Jimmy; Opie, Lionel H.Existing solid scientific evidence with hard outcome data should be the basis for treatment guidelines, and where such evidence is lacking, we must invest in research. A case in point is the initiation of antihypertensive treatment with a beta-blocker. Beta-blockers are pharmacological agents that block the action of endogenous catecholamines on beta-adrenergic receptors, part of the sympathetic nervous system which mediates the ‘fight or flight’ response.
- ItemBurden of seasonal influenza in sub- Saharan Africa : a systematic review protocol(BMJ Publishing Group, 2018-10) Sambala, Evanson Zondani; Mdolo, Aaron; Banda, Richard; Phiri, Arthur; Wiyeh, Alison B.; Wiysonge, Charles SheyIntroduction Measures of epidemiological burdens are an important contribution to estimating disease severity and determining the at-risk populations for seasonal influenza. In the absence of these data, it is extremely difficult for policy-makers to decide on how to distribute limited resources. This systematic review will synthesise the literature on reported burden of seasonal influenza (eg, morbidity and mortality) in sub-Saharan Africa. Method and analysis We will include published epidemiological studies that capture the burden estimation of seasonal influenza between 1 January 2000 and 31 August 2018. Studies that have reported disease burden estimates associated to influenza-like illness, acute respiratory illness, acute lower respiratory illness, severe acute respiratory illness and severe or very severe pneumonia using laboratory-confirmed influenza cases will be included. We will perform a multiple electronic database search in PubMed, Embase, African Journals Online, Cochrane, Web of science, CINAHL and Google scholar for eligible studies. The reference lists of relevant studies will also be hand-searched for potentially eligible studies. The titles and abstracts of identified records will be screened independently by two authors. The full-text articles of potentially eligible studies will be assessed independently by two authors. Discrepancies will be resolved by discussion, and by a third author if the first two authors fail to come to a consensus. The measures of the burden of influenza will be aggregated using a meta-analysis for homogeneous studies and narrative synthesis if the studies are heterogeneous. The strength of the evidence will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach.
- ItemClinical characteristics and initial management of patients with tuberculous pericarditis in the HIV era : the investigation of the management of Pericarditis in Africa (IMPI Africa) registry(BioMed Central, 2006-01) Mayosi, Bongani M.; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Volmink, Jimmy A.; Gumedze, Freedom; Maartens, Gary; Aje, Akinyemi; Thomas, Baby M.; Thomas, Kandathil M.; Awotedu, Abolade A.; Thembela, Bongani; Mntla, Phindile; Maritz [Late], Frans; Ngu Blackett, Kathleen; Nkouonlack, Duquesne C.; Burch, Vanessa C.; Rebe, Kevin; Parish, Andy; Sliwa, Karen; Vezi, Brian Z.; Alam, Nowshad; Brown, Basil G.; Gould, Trevor; Visser, Tim; Shey, Muki S.; Magula, Nombulelo P.; Commerford, Patrick J.Background: The incidence of tuberculous pericarditis has increased in Africa as a result of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, the effect of HIV co-infection on clinical features and prognosis in tuberculous pericarditis is not well characterised. We have used baseline data of the Investigation of the Management of Pericarditis in Africa (IMPI Africa) registry to assess the impact of HIV co-infection on clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of patients with suspected tuberculous pericarditis in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Consecutive adult patients in 15 hospitals in three countries in sub-Saharan Africa were recruited on commencement of treatment for tuberculous pericarditis, following informed consent. We recorded demographic, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic information at baseline, and have used the chi-square test and analysis of variance to assess probabilities of significant differences (in these variables) between groups defined by HIV status. Results: A total of 185 patients were enrolled from 01 March 2004 to 31 October 2004, 147 (79.5%) of whom had effusive, 28 (15.1%) effusive-constrictive, and 10 (5.4%) constrictive or acute dry pericarditis. Seventy-four (40%) had clinical features of HIV infection. Patients with clinical HIV disease were more likely to present with dyspnoea (odds ratio [OR] 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4 to 7.4, P = 0.005) and electrocardiographic features of myopericarditis (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 6.9, P = 0.03). In addition to electrocardiographic features of myopericarditis, a positive HIV serological status was associated with greater cardiomegaly (OR 3.89, 95% CI 1.34 to 11.32, P = 0.01) and haemodynamic instability (OR 9.68, 95% CI 2.09 to 44.80, P = 0.0008). However, stage of pericardial disease at diagnosis and use of diagnostic tests were not related to clinical HIV status. Similar results were obtained for serological HIV status. Most patients were treated on clinical grounds, with microbiological evidence of tuberculosis obtained in only 13 (7.0%) patients. Adjunctive corticosteroids were used in 109 (58.9%) patients, with patients having clinical HIV disease less likely to be put on them (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.68). Seven patients were on antiretroviral drugs. Conclusion Patients with suspected tuberculous pericarditis and HIV infection in Africa have greater evidence of myopericarditis, dyspnoea, and haemodynamic instability. These findings, if confirmed in other studies, may suggest more intensive management of the cardiac disease is warranted in patients with HIV-associated pericardial disease.
- ItemContextualised strategies to increase childhood and adolescent vaccination coverage in South Africa : a mixed-methods study(BMJ Publishing, 2020-06-04) Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Mahasha, Phetole Walter; Ndwandwe, Duduzile Edith; Ngcobo, Ntombenhle; Grimmer, Karen; Dizon, Janine; Burnett, Rosemary J.; Cooper, SaraIntroduction Despite the unparalleled success of immunisation in the control of vaccine preventable diseases, immunisation coverage in South Africa remains suboptimal. While many evidence-based interventions have successfully improved vaccination coverage in other countries, they are not necessarily appropriate to the immunisation needs, barriers and facilitators of South Africa. The aim of this research is to investigate barriers and facilitators to optimal vaccination uptake, and develop contextualised strategies and implementation plans to increase childhood and adolescent vaccination coverage in South Africa. Methods The study will employ a mixed-methods research design. It will be conducted over three iterative phases and use the Adopt, Contextualise or Adapt (ACA) model as an overarching conceptual framework. Phase 1 will identify, and develop a sampling frame of, immunisation stakeholders involved in the design, planning and implementation of childhood and human papillomavirus immunisation programmes in South Africa. Phase 2 will identify the main barriers and facilitators to, and solutions for, increasing vaccination coverage. This phase will comprise exploratory qualitative research with stakeholders and a review of existing systematic reviews on interventions for improving vaccination coverage. Using the findings from Phase 2 and the ACA model, Phase 3 will develop a set of proposed interventions and implementation action plans for improving immunisation coverage in South Africa. These plans will be discussed, revised and finalised through a series of participatory stakeholder workshops and an online questionnaire, conducted as part of Phase 3.
- ItemDeveloping the African national health research systems barometer(BioMed Central, 2016-07-22) Kirigia, Joses Muthuri; Ota, Martin Okechukwu; Senkubuge, Flavia; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Mayosi, Bongani M.ENGLISH SUMMARY : Background: A functional national health research system (NHRS) is crucial in strengthening a country’s health system to promote, restore and maintain the health status of its population. Progress towards the goal of universal health coverage in the post-2015 sustainable development agenda will be difficult for African countries without strengthening of their NHRS to yield the required evidence for decision-making. This study aims to develop a barometer to facilitate monitoring of the development and performance of NHRSs in the African Region of WHO. Methods: The African national health research systems barometer algorithm was developed in response to a recommendation of the African Advisory Committee for Health Research and Development of WHO. Survey data collected from all the 47 Member States in the WHO African Region using a questionnaire were entered into an Excel spreadsheet and analysed. The barometer scores for each country were calculated and the performance interpreted according to a set of values ranging from 0% to 100%. Results: The overall NHRS barometer score for the African Region was 42%, which is below the average of 50%. Among the 47 countries, the average NHRS performance was less than 20% in 10 countries, 20–40% in 11 countries, 41–60% in 16 countries, 61–80% in nine countries, and over 80% in one country. The performance of NHRSs in 30 (64%) countries was below 50%. Conclusion: An African NHRS barometer with four functions and 17 sub-functions was developed to identify the gaps in and facilitate monitoring of NHRS development and performance. The NHRS scores for the individual sub-functions can guide policymakers to locate sources of poor performance and to design interventions to address them.
- ItemEffectiveness of female condom in preventing HIV and sexually transmitted infections : a systematic review protocol(BMJ Publishing Group, 2018-08) Mome, Ruth K. B.; Wiyeh, Alison B.; Kongnyuy, Eugene J.; Wiysonge, Charles SheyIntroduction The HIV pandemic continues to evolve with young women being the most vulnerable group to acquire infection. The presence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) further enhances HIV susceptibility and also leads to long-term complications such as infertility and cervical cancer. The female condom is a self-initiated method for STI and HIV prevention but there are controversies on its effects. We aim to assess the effectiveness, safety and acceptability of the use of female condoms for prevention of STI and HIV acquisition among women. Methods and analysis We will search Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry and reference lists of relevant publications for potentially eligible studies. We will screen search outputs, select eligible studies, extract data and assess risk of bias in duplicate; resolving discrepancies through discussion and consensus or arbitration. We will combine data from clinically homogenous studies in a fixed effect meta-analysis and assess the certainty of the evidence using the method for Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation. We registered the planned systematic review with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) in March 2018 and will finalise the search strategy in August 2018; conduct the searches and select eligible studies between August and October 2018; and collect data, conduct statistical analyses and prepare and submit the manuscript for consideration by a peer-reviewed journal between November 2018 and April 2019.
- ItemEpidemiology of rubella infection in Cameroon : a 7-year experience of measles and rubella case-based surveillance, 2008–2014(BMJ Publishing Group, 2017-04) Nimpa Mengouo, Marcellin; Ndze, Valantine Ngum; Baonga, Frangy; Kobela, Marie; Wiysonge, Charles SheyObjective The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of rubella disease in a measles case-based surveillance in Cameroon prior to rubella vaccine introduction into the national immunisation programme. Design This was a cross-sectional study for rubella infection in Cameroon for the period 2008 to 2014. Setting Patients suspected with measles from the 10 regions of Cameroon were recruited according to the WHO measles case definition and were tested for rubella IgM antibodies accompanied with the case report/investigation forms. Participants All persons with rash and fever within 14 days of onset of rash according to the standard WHO African Regional Office (WHO/AFRO) case definition for a suspected measles case. Outcome measures Descriptive analyses and simple logistic regressions were performed. OR were estimated. Results A total of 9907 serum samples from people with fever and rash were received in the laboratory from 2008 to 2014. A total of 7489 (75.59%) measles-negative samples were tested for rubella; 699 (9.3%) were positive for rubella IgM antibodies. Logistic regression analysis was done using IgM antibodies detection as the outcome variable. Age, sex and setting were explanatory variables. Logistic regression analysis revealed that, comparing the proportion of rubella IgM seropositivity status by age, the association to a positive rubella IgM increased with age from 1 to 4 years (OR 7.11; 95% CI 4.35 to 12.41; p<0.0001), through 5 to 9 years (OR 13.07; 95% CI 7.93 to 22.93; p<0.001), to 10 to 14 years of age (OR 13.86; 95% CI 8.06 to 25.12; p<0.001). Persons aged ≥15 years were also more likely to have rubella infection than children under one (OR 3.69; 95% CI 1.85 to 7.48; p=0.0001). There were also significant associations with sex, with males being less associated to a positive rubella serology than females (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.56; p=0.0001). No statistically significant difference in proportion of rubella cases was observed between urban and rural populations (OR 1.11; 95% CI 0.94 to 1.31; p=0.208). Conclusions This study reveals that rubella virus circulates in Cameroon, with important number of cases in children under 15 years. This finding supports the planned introduction of rubella-containing vaccines into the Expanded Program on Immunization.
- ItemGlobal, regional, and national burden of neurological disorders, 1990–2016 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016(Elsevier, 2019-05-01) Feigin, Valery L.; Nichols, Emma; Alam, Tahiya; Bannick, Marlena S.; Beghi, Ettore; Blake, Natacha; Culpepper, William J.; Dorsey, E. Ray; Elbaz, Alexis; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Fisher, James L.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Giussani, Giorgia; Glennie, Linda; James, Spencer L.; Johnson, Catherine Owens; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Marin, Benoit; Mountjoy-Venning, W. Cliff; Nguyen, Minh; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Patel, Anoop P.; Piccininni, Marco; Roth, Gregory A.; Steiner, Timothy J.; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.; Theadom, Alice; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wallin, Mitchell Taylor; Wright, Claire; Zunt, Joseph Raymond; Abbasi, Nooshin; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdelalim, Ahmed; Abdollahpour, Ibrahim; Aboyans, Victor; Abraha, Haftom Niguse; Acharya, Dilaram; Adamu, Abdu A.; Adebayo, Oladimeji M.; Adeoye, Abiodun Moshood; Adsuar, Jose C.; Afarideh, Mohsen; Agrawal, Sutapa; Ahmadi, Alireza; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Aichour, Amani Nidhal; Aichour, Ibtihel; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola; Akseer, Nadia; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman; Al-Shahi salman, Rustam; Alahdab, Fares; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Altirkawi, Khalid; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Anber, Nahla Hamed; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Arabloo, Jalal; Aremu, Olatunde; Arnlov, Johan; Asayesh, Hamid; Asghar, Rana Jawad; Atalay, Hagos Tasew; Awasthi, Ashish; Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina; Ayuk, Tambe B.; Badawi, Alaa; Banach, Maciej; Banoub, Joseph Adel Mattar; Barboza, Miguel A.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyn; Barnighausen, Till Winfried; Baune, Bernhard T.; Bedi, Neeraj; Behzadifar, Masoud; Behzadifar, Meysam; Bejot, Yannick; Bekele, Bayu Begashaw; Belachew, Abate Bekele; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Berhane, Adugnaw; Beuran, Mircea; Bhattacharyya, Krittika; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Biadgo, Belete; Bijani, Ali; Bililign, Nigus; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat; Blazes, Christopher Kynrint; Brayne, Carol; Butt, Zahid A.; Campos-Nonato, Ismael R.; Cantu-Brito, Carlos; Car, Mate; Cardenas, Rosario; Carrero, Juan J.; Carvalho, Felix; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Castro, Franz; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Cerin, Ester; Chaiah, Yazan; Chang, Jung-Chen; Chatziralli, Irini; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Christensen, Hanne; Christopher, Devasahayam J.; Cooper, Cyrus; Cortesi, Paolo Angelo; Costa, Vera M.; Criqui, Michael H.; Crowe, Christopher Stephen; Damasceno, Albertino Antonio Moura; Daryani, Ahmad; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; De La Hoz, Fernando Pio; De Leo, Diego; Degefa, Meaza Girma; Demoz, Gebre Teklemariam; Deribe, Kebede; Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda; Diaz, Daniel; Dinberu, Mesfin Tadese; Djalalinia, Shirin; Doku, David Teye; Dubey, Manisha; Dubljanin, Eleonora; Duken, Eyasu Ejeta; Edvardsson, David; El-Khatib, Ziad; Endres, Matthias; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Esteghamati, Alireza; Esteghamati, Sadaf; Farhadi, Farzaneh; Faro, Andre; Farzadfar, Farshad; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Fatima, Batool; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Eduarda; Feyissa, Garumma Tolu; Filip, Irina; Fischer, Florian; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Ganji, Morsaleh; Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho; Garcia-Gordillo, Miguel A,; Gebre, Abadi Kahsu; Gebremichael, Teklu Gebrehiwo; Gelaw, Belayneh K,; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Geremew, Demeke; Gezae, Kebede Embaye; Ghasemi-Kasman, Maryam; Gidey, Mahari Y.; Gill, Paramjit Singh; Gill, Tiffany K.; Gnedovskaya, Elena V.; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Grada, Ayman; Grosso, Giuseppe; Guo, Yuming; Gupta, Rajeev; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Hagos, Tekleberhan B.; Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Hamidi, Samer; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hao, Yuantao; Haro, Josep Maria; Hassankhani, Hadi; Hassen, Hamid Yimam; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I.; Hegazy, Mohamed I.; Heidari, Behnam; Henok, Andualem; Heydarpour, Fatemeh; Hoang, Chi Linh; Hole, Michael K.; Homaie Rad, Enayatollah; Hosseini, Seyed Mostafa; Hu, Guoqing; Igumbor, Ehimario U.; Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jha, Ravi Prakash; Jobanputra, Yash B.; Jonas, Jost B.; Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy; Jurisson, Mikk; Kahsay, Amaha; Kalani, Rizwan; Kalkonde, Yogeshwar; Kamil, Teshome Abegaz; Kanchan, Tanuj; Karami, Manoochehr; Karch, Andre; Karimi, Narges; Kasaeian, Amir; Kassa, Tesfaye Dessale; Kassa, Zemenu Yohannes; Kaul, Anil; Kefale, Adane Teshome; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khang, Young-Ho; Khazaie, Habibolah; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A.; Kiirithio, Daniel N.; Kim, Anthony S.; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Young-Eun; Kim, Yun Jin; Kisa, Adnan; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Koyanagi, Ai; Krishnamurthi, Rita V.; Kuate Defo, Barthelemy; Kucuk Bicer, Burcu; Kumar, Manasi; Lacey, Ben; Lafranconi, Alessandra; Lansingh, Van C.; Latifi, Arman; Leshargie, Cheru Tesema; Li, Shanshan; Liao, Yu; Linn, Shai; Lo, Warren David; Lopez, Jaifred Christian F.; Lorkowski, Stefan; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lucas, Robyn M.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Mackay, Mark T.; Mahotra, Narayan Bahadur; Majdan, Marek; Majdzadeh, Reza; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Manafi, Navid; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Mantovani, Lorenzo Giovanni; Marz, Winfried; Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani Phosa; Massenburg, Benjamin Ballard; Mate, Kedar K. V.; McAlinden, Colm; McGrath, John J.; Mehta, Varshil; Meier, Toni; Meles, Hagazi Gebre; Melese, Addisu; Memiah, Peter T. N.; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Mengistu, Desalegn Tadese; Mengistu, Getnet; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Mestrovic, Tomislav; Miazgowski, Bartosz; Miazgowski, Tomasz; Miller, Ted R.; Mini, G. K.; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Moazen, Babak; Mohajer, Bahram; Mezerji, Naser Mohammad Gholi; Mohammadi, Moslem; Mohammadi-Khanaposhtani, Maryam; Mohammadibakhsh, Roghayeh; Mohammadnia-Afrouzi, Mousa; Mohammed, Shafiu; Mohebi, Farnam; Mokdad, Ali H.; Monasta, Lorenzo; Mondello, Stefania; Moodley, Yoshan; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Moradi, Ghobad; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moradinazar, Mehdi; Moraga, Paula; Moreno Velasquez, Ilais; Morrison, Shane Douglas; Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam; Muhammed, Oumer Sada; Muruet, Walter; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Mustafa, Ghulam; Naderi, Mehdi; Nagel, Gabriele; Naheed, Aliya; Naik, Gurudatta; Najafi, Farid; Nangia, Vinay; Negoi, Ionut; Negoi, Ruxandra Irina; Newton, Charles Richard James; Ngunjiri, Josephine W.; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini; Nirayo, Yirga Legesse; Nixon, Molly R.; Norrving, Bo; Noubiap, Jean Jacques; Nourollahpour Shiadeh, Malihe; Nyasulu, Peter S.; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oh, In-Hwan; Olagunju, Andrew T.; Olagunju, Tinuke O.; Olivares, Pedro R.; Onwujekwe, Obinna E.; Oren, Eyal; Owolabi, Mayowa Ojo; P A, Mahesh; Pakpour, Amir H.; Pan, Wen-Harn; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai; Patel, Sangram Kishor; Pereira, David M.; Petzold, Max; Pillay, Julian David; Piradov, Michael A.; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Polinder, Suzanne; Postma, Maarten J.; Poulton, Richie; Poustchi, Hossein; Prakash, Swayam; Prakash, V.; Qorbani, Mostafa; Radfar, Amir; Rafay, Anwar; Rafiei, Alireza; Rahim, Fakher; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Rajati, Fatemeh; Ram, Usha; Ranta, Anna; Rawaf, David Laith; Rawaf, Salman; Reinig, Nickolas; Reis, Cesar; Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Resnikoff, Serge; Rezaeian, Shahab; Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh; Rios Gonzalez, Carlos Miguel; Roberts, Nicholas L. S.; Roever, Leonardo; Ronfani, Luca; Roro, Elias Merdassa; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Rostami, Ali; Sabbagh, Parisa; Sacco, Ralph L.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saddik, Basema; Safari, Hosein; Safari-Faramani, Roya; Safi, Sare; Safiri, Saeid; Sagar, Rajesh; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Salamati, Payman; Salehi Zahabi, Saleh; Salimi, Yahya; Samy, Abdallah M.; Sanabria, Juan; Santos, Itamar S.; Santric Milicevic, Milena M.; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Sartorius, Benn; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Sathian, Brijesh; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawant, Arundhati R.; Sawhney, Monika; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schottker, Ben; Schwebel, David C.; Seedat, Soraya, 1966-; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Shabaninejad, Hosein; Shafieesabet, Azadeh; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Shakir, Raad A.; Shams-Beyranvand, Mehran; Shamsizadeh, Morteza; Sharif, Mehdi; Sharif-Alhoseini, Mahdi; She, Jun; Sheikh, Aziz; Sheth, Kevin N.; Shigematsu, Mika; Shiri, Rahman; Shirkoohi, Reza; Shiue, Ivy; Siabani, Soraya; Siddiqi, Tariq J.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig; Silberberg, Donald H.; Silva, Joao Pedro; Silveira, Dayane Gabriele Alves; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Skiadaresi, Eirini; Smith, Mari; Sobaih, Badr Hasan; Sobhani, Soheila; Soofi, Moslem; Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Sposato, Luciano A.; Stein, Dan J.; Stein, Murray B.; Stokes, Mark A.; Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale; Sykes, Bryan L.; Sylaja, Pn; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Te Ao, Braden James; Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash; Temsah, Mohamad-Hani; Temsah, Omar; Thakur, Jarnail Singh; Thrift, Amanda G.; Topor-Madry, Roman; Tortajada-Girbés, Miguel; Tovani-Palone, Marcos Roberto; Tran, Bach Xuan; Tran, Khanh Bao; Truelsen, Thomas Clement; Tsadik, Afewerki Gebremeskel; Tudor Car, Lorainne; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna; Ullah, Irfan; Usman, Muhammad Shariq; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Valdez, Pascual R.; Vasankari, Tommi Juhani; Vasanthan, Rajagopalan; Veisani, Yousef; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasily; Vosoughi, Kia; Vu, Giang Thu; Vujcic, Isidora S.; Wagnew, Fasil Shiferaw; Waheed, Yasir; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weiss, Jordan; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Wijeratne, Tissa; Winkler, Andrea Sylvia; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Xu, Gelin; Yadollahpour, Ali; Yamada, Tomohide; Yano, Yuichiro; Yaseri, Mehdi; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Yimer, Ebrahim M.; Yip, Paul; Yisma, Engida; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaman, Sojib Bin; Zamani, Mohammad; Zandian, Hamed; Zare, Zohreh; Zhang, Yunquan; Zodpey, Sanjay; Naghavi, Mohsen; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Vos, Theo; Gupta, RahulBackground: Neurological disorders are increasingly recognised as major causes of death and disability worldwide. The aim of this analysis from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 is to provide the most comprehensive and up-to-date estimates of the global, regional, and national burden from neurological disorders. Methods: We estimated prevalence, incidence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs; the sum of years of life lost [YLLs] and years lived with disability [YLDs]) by age and sex for 15 neurological disorder categories (tetanus, meningitis, encephalitis, stroke, brain and other CNS cancers, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, motor neuron diseases, idiopathic epilepsy, migraine, tension-type headache, and a residual category for other less common neurological disorders) in 195 countries from 1990 to 2016. DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, was the main method of estimation of prevalence and incidence, and the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) was used for mortality estimation. We quantified the contribution of 84 risks and combinations of risk to the disease estimates for the 15 neurological disorder categories using the GBD comparative risk assessment approach. Findings: Globally, in 2016, neurological disorders were the leading cause of DALYs (276 million [95% UI 247–308]) and second leading cause of deaths (9·0 million [8·8–9·4]). The absolute number of deaths and DALYs from all neurological disorders combined increased (deaths by 39% [34–44] and DALYs by 15% [9–21]) whereas their age-standardised rates decreased (deaths by 28% [26–30] and DALYs by 27% [24–31]) between 1990 and 2016. The only neurological disorders that had a decrease in rates and absolute numbers of deaths and DALYs were tetanus, meningitis, and encephalitis. The four largest contributors of neurological DALYs were stroke (42·2% [38·6–46·1]), migraine (16·3% [11·7–20·8]), Alzheimer's and other dementias (10·4% [9·0–12·1]), and meningitis (7·9% [6·6–10·4]). For the combined neurological disorders, age-standardised DALY rates were significantly higher in males than in females (male-to-female ratio 1·12 [1·05–1·20]), but migraine, multiple sclerosis, and tension-type headache were more common and caused more burden in females, with male-to-female ratios of less than 0·7. The 84 risks quantified in GBD explain less than 10% of neurological disorder DALY burdens, except stroke, for which 88·8% (86·5–90·9) of DALYs are attributable to risk factors, and to a lesser extent Alzheimer's disease and other dementias (22·3% [11·8–35·1] of DALYs are risk attributable) and idiopathic epilepsy (14·1% [10·8–17·5] of DALYs are risk attributable). Interpretation: Globally, the burden of neurological disorders, as measured by the absolute number of DALYs, continues to increase. As populations are growing and ageing, and the prevalence of major disabling neurological disorders steeply increases with age, governments will face increasing demand for treatment, rehabilitation, and support services for neurological disorders. The scarcity of established modifiable risks for most of the neurological burden demonstrates that new knowledge is required to develop effective prevention and treatment strategies.
- ItemMortality in patients treated for tuberculous pericarditis in Sub-Saharan Africa(Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2008-01) Mayosi, Bongani M.; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Gumedze, Freedom; Volmink, Jimmy A.; Maartens, Gary; Aje, Akinyemi; Thomas, Baby M.; Thomas, Kandathil M.; Awotedu, Abolade A.; Thembela, Bongani; Mntla, Phindile; Maritz, Frans; Blackett, Kathleen Ngu; Nkouonlack, Duquesne C.; Burch, Vanessa C.; Rebe, Kevin; Parrish, Andy; Sliwa, Karen; Vezi, Brian Z.; Alam, Nowshad; Brown, Basil G.; Gould, Trevor; Visser, Tim; Magula, Nombulelo P.; Commerford, Patrick J.Objective. To determine the mortality rate and its predictors in patients with a presumptive diagnosis of tuberculous pericarditis in sub-Saharan Africa. Design. Between 1 March 2004 and 31 October 2004, we enrolled 185 consecutive patients with presumed tuberculous pericarditis from 15 referral hospitals in Cameroon, Nigeria and South Africa, and observed them during the 6-month course of antituberculosis treatment for the major outcome of mortality. This was an observational study, with the diagnosis and management of each patient left at the discretion of the attending physician. Using Cox regression, we have assessed the effect of clinical and therapeutic characteristics (recorded at baseline) on mortality during follow-up. Results. We obtained the vital status of 174 (94%) patients (median age 33; range 14-87 years). The overall mortality rate was 26%. Mortality was higher in patients who had clinical features of HIV infection than in those who did not (40% v. 17%, p=0.001). Independent predictors of death during follow-up were: (i) a proven non-tuberculosis final diagnosis (hazard ratio (HR) 5.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.76-16.25), (ii) the presence of clinical signs of HIV infection (HR 2.28, CI 1.14-4.56), (iii) coexistent pulmonary tuberculosis (HR 2.33, CI 1.20-4.54), and (iv) older age (HR 1.02, CI 1.01-1.05). There was also a trend towards an increase in death rate in patients with haemodynamic instability (HR 1.80, CI 0.90-3.58) and a decrease in those who underwent pericardiocentesis (HR 0.34, CI 0.10-1.19). Conclusion. A presumptive diagnosis of tuberculous pericarditis is associated with a high mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Attention to rapid aetiological diagnosis of pericardial effusion and treatment of concomitant HIV infection may reduce the high mortality associated with the disease.
- ItemMortality, morbidity, and hospitalisations due to influenza lower respiratory tract infections, 2017 : an analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017(Elsevier, 2019) Troeger, Christopher E.; Blacker, Brigette F.; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Zimsen, Stephanie R. M.; Albertson, Samuel B.; Abate, Degu; Abdela, Jemal; Adhikari, Tara Ballav; Aghayan, Sargis Aghasi; Agrawal, Sutapa; Ahmadi, Alireza; Aichour, Amani Nidhal; Aichour, Ibtihel; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M.; Alahdab, Fares; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Anber, Nahla Hamed; Anjomshoa, Mina; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Aremu, Olatunde; Atalay, Hagos Tasew; Atique, Suleman; Attia, Engi F.; Avokpaho, Euripide F. G. A.; Awasthi, Ashish; Babazadeh, Arefeh; Badali, Hamid; Badawi, Alaa; Banoub, Joseph Adel Mattar; Barac, Aleksandra; Bassat, Quique; Bedi, Neeraj; Belachew, Abate Bekele; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bhattacharyya, Krittika; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bijani, Ali; Carvalho, Felix; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Christopher, Devasahayam J.; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dang, Anh Kim; Daryani, Ahmad; Degefa, Meaza Girma; Demeke, Feleke Mekonnen; Dhimal, Meghnath; Djalalinia, Shirin; Doku, David Teye; Dubey, Manisha; Dubljanin, Eleonora; Duken, Eyasu Ejeta; Edessa, Dumessa; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Fakhim, Hamed; Fernandes, Eduarda; Fischer, Florian; Flor, Luisa Sorio; Foreman, Kyle J.; Gebremichael, Teklu Gebrehiwo; Geremew, Demeke; Ghadiri, Keyghobad; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Guo, Jingwen; Ha, Giang Hai; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Hamidi, Samer; Hassen, Hamid Yimam; Hoang, Chi Linh; Horita, Nobuyuki; Hostiuc, Mihaela; Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi; Jha, Ravi Prakash; Jonas, Jost B.; Kahsay, Amaha; Karch, Andre; Kasaeian, Amir; Kassa, Tesfaye Dessale; Kefale, Adane Teshome; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khan, Gulfaraz; Khan, Md Nuruzzaman; Khang, Young-Ho; Khoja, Abdullah T.; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kimokoti, Ruth W.; Kisa, Adnan; Knibbs, Luke D.; Kochhar, Sonali; Kosen, Soewarta; Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Kumar, G. Anil; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar; Lamichhane, Prabhat; Leshargie, Cheru Tesema; Levi, Miriam; Li, Shanshan; Macarayan, Erlyn Rachelle King; Majdan, Marek; Mehta, Varshil; Melese, Addisu; Memish, Ziad A.; Mengistu, Desalegn Tadese; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Mestrovic, Tomislav; Miazgowski, Bartosz; Milne, George J.; Milosevic, Branko; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Moazen, Babak; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mohammed, Shafiu; Monasta, Lorenzo; Morawska, Lidia; Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam; Muhammed, Oumer Sada S.; Murthy, Srinivas; Mustafa, Ghulam; Naheed, Aliya; Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi; Nguyen, Nam Ba; Nguyen, Son Hoang; Nguyen, Trang Huyen; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Nixon, Molly R.; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Olagunju, Andrew T.; Olagunju, Tinuke O.; Oren, Eyal; Ortiz, Justin R.; Mahesh, P. A.; Pakhale, Smita; Patel, Shanti; Paudel, Deepak; Pigott, David M.; Postma, Maarten J.; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rafay, Anwar; Rafiei, Alireza; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh; Roberts, Nicholas L. S.; Ronfani, Luca; Rubino, Salvatore; Safari, Saeed; Safiri, Saeid; Saleem, Zikria; Sambala, Evanson Zondani; Samy, Abdallah M.; Milicevic, Milena M. Santric; Sartorius, Benn; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Savic, Miloje; Sawhney, Monika; Saxena, Sonia; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Sharif, Mehdi; Sheikh, Aziz; Shigematsu, Mika; Smith, David L.; Somayaji, Ranjani; Soriano, Joan B.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Sufiyan, Muawiyyah Babale; Temsah, Mohamad-Hani; Tessema, Belay; Teweldemedhin, Mebrahtu; Tortajada-Girbes, Miguel; Tran, Bach Xuan; Tran, Khanh Bao; Tsadik, Afewerki Gebremeskel; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna; Ullah, Irfan; Vasankari, Tommi Juhani; Vu, Giang Thu; Wada, Fiseha Wadilo; Waheed, Yasir; West, T. Eoin; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Yimer, Ebrahim M.; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Zaidi, Zoubida; Vos, Theo; Lim, Stephen S.; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Hay, Simon I.; Reiner, Robert C.Background: Although the burden of influenza is often discussed in the context of historical pandemics and the threat of future pandemics, every year a substantial burden of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) and other respiratory conditions (like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) are attributable to seasonal influenza. The Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) 2017 is a systematic scientific effort to quantify the health loss associated with a comprehensive set of diseases and disabilities. In this Article, we focus on LRTIs that can be attributed to influenza. Methods We modelled the LRTI incidence, hospitalisations, and mortality attributable to influenza for every country and selected subnational locations by age and year from 1990 to 2017 as part of GBD 2017. We used a counterfactual approach that first estimated the LRTI incidence, hospitalisations, and mortality and then attributed a fraction of those outcomes to influenza. Findings Influenza LRTI was responsible for an estimated 145 000 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 99 000–200 000) deaths among all ages in 2017. The influenza LRTI mortality rate was highest among adults older than 70 years (16·4 deaths per 100 000 [95% UI 11·6–21·9]), and the highest rate among all ages was in eastern Europe (5·2 per 100 000 population [95% UI 3·5–7·2]). We estimated that influenza LRTIs accounted for 9 459 000 (95% UI 3 709 000–22 935 000) hospitalisations due to LRTIs and 81 536 000 hospital days (24 330 000–259 851 000). We estimated that 11·5% (95% UI 10·0–12·9) of LRTI episodes were attributable to influenza, corresponding to 54 481 000 (38 465 000–73 864 000) episodes and 8 172 000 severe episodes (5 000 000–13 296 000). Interpretation This comprehensive assessment of the burden of influenza LRTIs shows the substantial annual effect of influenza on global health. Although preparedness planning will be important for potential pandemics, health loss due to seasonal influenza LRTIs should not be overlooked, and vaccine use should be considered. Efforts to improve influenza prevention measures are needed.
- ItemProtocol for a qualitative synthesis of barriers and facilitators in implementing guidelines for diagnosis of tuberculosis(BMJ Publishing Group, 2017-06) Ochodo, Eleanor; Kredo, Tamara; Young, Taryn; Wiysonge, Charles SheyIntroduction Despite the introduction of new tests and guidelines for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB), worldwide case detection rate of TB is still suboptimal. This could be in part explained by the poor implementation of TB diagnostic guidelines. We aim to identify, appraise and synthesise qualitative evidence exploring the barriers and facilitators to implementing TB diagnostic guidelines. Methods and analysis A systematic review of qualitative studies will be conducted. Relevant electronic databases will be searched and studies included based on predefined inclusion criteria. We will also search reference lists, grey literature, conduct forward citation searches and contact relevant content experts. An adaptation of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool will be used to assess the methodological quality of included studies. Two authors will review the search output, extract data and assess methodological quality independently, resolving any disagreements by consensus. We will use the thematic framework analysis approach based on the Supporting the Use of Research Evidence thematic framework to analyse and synthesise our data. We will apply the Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research approach to transparently assess our confidence in the findings of the systematic review.
- ItemProtocol for a systematic review of the effects of interventions for vaccine stock management(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2019-01-08) Iwu, Chinwe Juliana; Jaca, Anelisa; Abdullahi, Leila H.; Ngcobo, Ntombenhle Judith; Wiysonge, Charles SheyBackground: Inadequate vaccine stock management in health facilities leads to vaccine stock-outs. The latter threatens the success of immunisation programmes. Countries have used various approaches to reduce stock-outs and improve vaccine availability, but we are not aware of a systematic review of these interventions. This protocol describes the methods we will use to assess the effects of existing approaches for improving vaccine stock management. Methods: We include randomised and non-randomised studies identified through a compehensive search of peer-reviewed and grey literature databases. We will search PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, Web of Science, PDQ-Evidence and Scopus. We will also search websites of the World Health Organisation (WHO), Global Alliance for Vaccine and Immunisation, PATH Vaccine Resources Library and United Nations Children’s Fund. In addition, we will search the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews. Finally, we plan to do a citation search for included studies. We will use Cochrane recommended methods to screen search outputs, assess study eligibility and risk of bias, extract and analyse study results. We will use the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) tool to assess the certainty of the evidence on the effects of the interventions. Discussion: We believe that the findings of this review will serve as valuable information for policy makers on ways to improve vaccine stock management and vaccine availability. When vaccine availability is improved, those who need them, especially children, will be adequately protected from vaccine-preventable diseases.
- ItemShifting tasks from pharmacy to nonpharmacy personnel for providing antiretroviral therapy to people living with HIV : a systematic review and metaanalysis(BMJ Publishing Group, 2017-8) Mbeye, Nyanyiwe Masingi; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Negussie, Eyerusalem; Kredo, Tamara; Wiysonge, Charles SheyObjectives Lay people or non-pharmacy health workers with training could dispense antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-constrained countries, freeing up time for pharmacists to focus on more technical tasks. We assessed the effectiveness of such task-shifting in lowincome and middle-income countries. Method We conducted comprehensive searches of peerreviewed and grey literature. Two authors independently screened search outputs, selected controlled trials, extracted data and resolved discrepancies by consensus. We performed random-effects meta-analysis and assessed certainty of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Results Three studies with 1993 participants met the inclusion criteria, including two cluster trials conducted in Kenya and Uganda and an individually randomised trial conducted in Brazil. We found very low certainty evidence regarding mortality due to the low number of events. Therefore, we are uncertain whether there is a true increase in mortality as the effect size suggests, or a reduction in mortality between pharmacy and non-pharmacy models of dispensing ART (risk ratio (RR) 1.86, 95% CI 0.44 to 7.95, n=1993, three trials, very low certainty evidence). There may be no differences between pharmacy and non-pharmacy models of dispensing ART on virological failure (risk ratio (RR) 0.92, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.15, n=1993, three trials, low certainty evidence) and loss to follow-up (RR 1.13, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.91, n=1993. three trials, low certainty evidence). We found some evidence that costs may be reduced for the patient and health system when task-shifting is undertaken. Conclusions The low certainty regarding the evidence implies a high likelihood that further research may find the effects of the intervention to be substantially different from our findings. If resource-constrained countries decide to shift ART dispensing and distribution from pharmacy to non-pharmacy personnel, this should be accompanied by robust monitoring and impact evaluation.
- ItemUnderstanding the underlying drivers of obesity in Africa : a scoping review protocol(BMJ Publishing, 2020-11) Jaca, Anelisa; Iwu, Chinwe; Durão, Solange; Onyango, Adelheid W.; Wiysonge, Charles SheyIntroduction: The worldwide prevalence of obesity and overweight has doubled since 1980, such that approximately a third of the world's population is reported as obese or overweight. Obesity rates have increased in all ages and both sexes irrespective of geographical area, ethnicity or socioeconomic status. Due to the high prevalence, related health consequences and costs of childhood and adult obesity, there is a need to comprehensively identify and assess the major underlying drivers of obesity and overweight in the African context. Methods and analysis: This scoping review will be carried out as per the methodological outline by Arksey and O'Malley. The search strategy will be developed and search performed in the Scopus and PubMed electronic databases. In the first search, we will identify concepts that are used as an equivalent to obesity and overweight. Subsequently, we will search for studies comprising of search terms on the underlying factors that drive the development of obesity and overweight. Lastly, we will check reference lists for additional publications. Abstracts and full-text studies will independently be screened by two authors. Ethics and dissemination: The proposed study will generate evidence from published data and hence does not require ethics approval. Evidence generated from this review will be disseminated through journal publications and conference presentations.