Browsing by Author "Versfeld, Daniel J. J."
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- ItemAnalysis of template-based detection algorithms for inshore Bryde’s whale short pulse calls(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2020) Ogundile, Olayinka O.; Versfeld, Daniel J. J.Marine mammals use sound for communication and echolocation within their ecosystems. The detection of these sounds is an important aspect of signal processing, such that we can estimate the spatial position and direction of arrival of these mammals, and have an understanding of their ecology. Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) is widely used to understand marine mammal movement and vocal repertoire. In PAM, datasets are accumulated over days, months or years. Thus, it is impracticable to manually analyse the datasets because it is very large. This motivated the development of automated sound detection techniques for marine mammals, which most often varies depending on the vocal duration, frequency range and call type. In this paper, continuous recordings of Bryde’s whale ( Balaenoptera edeni edeni ) short pulse calls (< 3.1s long) were collected on a weekly basis from December 2018 to April 2019 on sighting of the individual in a single site in the endmost South-West of South Africa. The sound, previously not documented off South Africa, was observed on visual confirmation of the presence of inshore Brydes’s whale. In addition, the paper develops and analyses two automated template-based detection algorithms for this short pulse call, employing dynamic time warping (DTW) and linear predictive coding (LPC) techniques. These proposed template-based detectors are novel, as they have not being previously used in Bryde’s whale sound detection in the literature. When applied to the continuous recordings of the short pulse calls, the DTW-based and LPC-based detection algorithms obtained a sensitivity of 96.04% and 97.14% respectively for high signal-to-noise ratio (about 10dB above the ambient sound). Otherwise, for low SNR, the DTW-based and LPC-based detection algorithms obtained a sensitivity of 94.98% and 96.00% respectively. These detection algorithms exhibit low computational time complexity and can be modified to analyse the movement of obscure but vocal marine species instead of manual identification.
- ItemReview of automatic detection and classification techniques for cetacean vocalization(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2020-06-03) Usman, Ayinde M.; Ogundile, Olayinka O.; Versfeld, Daniel J. J.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Cetaceans have elicited the attention of researchers in recent decades due to their importance to the ecosystem and their economic values. They use sound for communication, echolocation and other social activities. Their sounds are highly non-stationary, transitory and range from short to long sounds. Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) is a popular method used for monitoring cetaceans in their ecosystems. The volumes of data accumulated using PAM are usually big, so they are difficult to analyze using manual inspection. Therefore different techniques with mixed outcomes have been developed for the automatic detection and classification of signals of different cetacean species. So far, no single technique developed is perfect to detect and classify the vocalizations of over 82 known species due to variability in time-frequency, difference in the amplitude among species and within species' vocal repertoire, physical environment, among others. The accuracy of any detector or classifier depends on the technique adopted as well as the nature of the signal to be analyzed. In this article, we review the existing techniques for the automatic detection and classification of cetacean vocalizations. We categorize the surveyed techniques, while emphasizing the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques. The article suggests possible research directions that can improve existing detection and classification techniques. In addition, the article recommends other suitable techniques that can be used to analyze non-linear and non-stationary signals such as the cetaceans' signals. Several research have been dedicated to this topic, however, there is no review of these past results that gives a quick overview in the area of cetacean detection and classification. This review will help researchers and practitioners in the field to make insightful decisions based on their requirements.
- ItemReview of channel estimation for candidate waveforms of next generation networks(MDPI, 2019) Ijiga, Owoicho E.; Ogundile, Olayinka O.; Familua, Ayokunle D.; Versfeld, Daniel J. J.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The advancement in wireless communication applications encourages the use of effective and efficient channel estimation (CE) techniques because of the varying behaviour of the Rayleigh fading channel. In most cases, the emphasis of most proposed CE schemes is to improve the CE performance and complexity for ensuring quality signal reception and improved system throughput. Candidate waveforms whose designs are based on filter bank multi-carrier (FBMC) modulation techniques such as filter bank orthogonal frequency division multiplexing based on offset quadrature amplitude modulation (OFDM-OQAM), universal filtered multicarrier (UFMC) and generalised frequency division multiplexing based on offset quadrature amplitude modulation (GFDM-OQAM) are no exception to the use of these proposed CE techniques in the literature. These schemes are considered as potential waveform candidates for the physical/media access control layer of the emerging fifth generation (5G) networks. Therefore, pinpoint CE techniques represent an important requirement for these waveforms to attain their full potentials. In this regard, this paper reviews the concept of CE as applicable to these waveforms as well as other waveform candidates under consideration in the emerging 5G networks. Since the design of the majority of the waveform candidates is filter based, a review of the general filter design considerations is presented in this paper. Secondly, we review general CE techniques for candidate waveforms of next generation networks and classify some of the studied CE techniques. In particular, we classify the CE schemes used in filter bank OFDM-OQAM and GFDM-OQAM based transceivers and present a performance comparison of some of these CE schemes. Besides, the paper reviews the performances of two linear CE schemes and three adaptive based CE schemes for two FBMC based waveform candidates assuming near perfect reconstruction (NPR) and non-perfect reconstruction (Non-PR) filter designs over slow and fast frequency selective Rayleigh fading channels. The results obtained are documented through computer simulations, where the performances of the studied CE schemes in terms of the normalised mean square error (NMSE) are analysed. Lastly, we summarise the findings of this work and suggest possible research directions in order to improve the potentials of the studied candidate waveforms over Rayleigh fading channels.