Browsing by Author "Van der Westhuizen, E. J."
Now showing 1 - 3 of 3
Results Per Page
- ItemAnalysis of carcass characteristics and fat deposition of Merino, South African Mutton Merino and Dorper lambs housed in a feedlot(South African Society for Animal Science, 2018-02-15) Brand, T. S.; Van der Westhuizen, E. J.; Van der Merwe, D. A.; Hoffman, L. C.The objective of this study was to determine the effect of time spent in a feedlot on the size of the various fat depots and the distribution of the main tissues (muscle, bone, and fat) of three common South African sheep breeds. Lambs were supplied with a balanced diet (16% protein, 10 MJ ME/kg feed) ad libitum and had free access to water. Lambs from each breed were divided into six groups, which were slaughtered at 21-day intervals until a production period of 105 days had been reached. During carcass dressing, visceral and renal fat was removed and expressed as a percentage of carcass weight. The subcutaneous fat (SCF) depth was measured on the longissimus lumborum at the 13th rib position using an electronic calliper. The proportion of muscle, bone and fat was determined by dissecting a three-rib cut made on the prime rib between the 9th and 11th ribs. The percentage of visceral and renal fat increased throughout the production period for all breeds. The percentage of renal fat was up to 2.9% higher than the percentage visceral fat in both SAMM production groups. Dorper lambs tended to have high SCF levels (5.6 mm fat after 42 days) due to the early maturing nature of the breed. They reached a maximum fat depth of 20.4 mm fat after 105 days. The SAMM lambs tended to deposit SCF at a slower rate and the late maturing Merino breed was found to be much leaner, and did not reach the high fat levels of the SAMM or Dorper lambs. The percentage of muscle and bone in all carcasses decreased with an increase in the number of days in the feedlot, while the percentage of carcass fat increased during this period. The increase in late maturing adipose tissue in all breeds as they become older is amplified by the restricted movement in the feedlot and high energy diet that the lambs receive.
- ItemEffect of days in feedlot on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Merino, South African Mutton Merino and Dorper lambs(South African Society for Animal Science, 2016-12-08) Brand, T. S.; Van der Westhuizen, E. J.; Van der Merwe, D. A.; Hoffman, L. C.This study investigated the effect of feedlot production on lamb growth characteristics of three common South African breeds: Merino, South African Mutton Merino (SAMM) and Dorper. Lambs were supplied with a balanced diet (16% crude protein, 9.41 MJ ME/kg feed) ad libitum and had free access to water. Lambs from each breed were divided into six groups. One group of each breed was slaughtered every three weeks until 105 days under feedlot production were reached. The weights of the lambs were recorded weekly, along with feed intake, to obtain the individual daily intake, average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) for each lamb. The ADG for the SAMM 2007 and Dorper lambs increased throughout their production period, while that of the SAMM 2008 and Merino lambs tended to decrease with time, although the SAMM 2008 group achieved the highest ADG of 350.2 g/lamb/day of all the breeds. The Dorper and SAMM 2007 lambs had higher FCR (7.52 and 7.58, respectively). The average FCR achieved by the SAMM 2008 and Merino lambs was 5.54 and 5.14, respectively. However, the FCR of Merino and SAMM 2008 lambs increased throughout the production period. The Dorper lambs produced fatter carcasses and therefore exhibited the highest average dressing percentage of 49.7% compared with the SAMM 2007 (48.4%) and 2008 lambs (45.6%), followed by the Merino lambs (43.9%). The results confirm that the Merino is a late maturing breed that is recognised for its wool rather than meat production, and therefore exhibits weaker growth characteristics. The SAMM is a dual-purpose breed that has also been selected for growth and meat production, and therefore exhibits desirable production characteristics, while the Dorper is an early maturing breed that deposits localized fat at an earlier age as it grows, thereby producing fatter carcasses than SAMM and Merino lambs. Therefore, Dorper lambs should be slaughtered at lower live weights so that carcasses are not graded as over-fat.
- ItemThe effect of slaughter age on the lamb characteristics of Merino, South African Mutton Merino and Dorper lambs(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2010-03) Van der Westhuizen, E. J.; Brand, T. S.; Hoffman, Louwrens C.; Cloete, J. J. E.; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Agrisciences. Dept. of Animal Sciences.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of feedlot production on the growth and carcass characteristics, as well as the distribution of the main tissues (muscle, fat and bone) and meat quality of Merino, South African Mutton Merino (SAMM) and Dorper lambs. The Merino and SAMM 2008 outperformed (P<0.05) the 2007 SAMM and both Dorper production groups in terms of average daily gain, while the Merino and both SAMM production groups achieved the best feed conversion ratio (P<0.05). The highest percentage A2 graded carcasses was achieved after 42 days under feedlot conditions by the Merino and both Dorper production groups, but it took only 21 days in the feedlot for the SAMM lambs to achieve the same result. Slaughter weight, carcass weight and dressing percentage all increased significantly with an increase in the number of days under feedlot conditions for all three breeds, while a decrease in the percentage head, trotters and red offal was also documented. The fatter retail cuts (thick rib, flank, prime rib and loin) increased (P<0.05) in percentage with an increase in the number of days under feedlot conditions. A significant decrease in the percentage leaner retail cuts (raised shoulder and hind-quarters) was found when the amount of days under feedlot conditions increased. The highest profit is obtained by the prime rib, loin and hind-quarters in a lamb carcass. For the Merino and Dorper lambs these three cuts, or a combination of the three showed the highest combined percentages after 42 and 63 days under feedlot conditions, respectively. The late maturing SAMM lambs achieved the highest percentages for these three cuts after 63 and 84 days under feedlot conditions in 2007 and 2008 respectively. Visceral and renal fat deposition increased throughout the production period for all breeds. The Dorper lambs attained the highest subcutaneous fat depth, and also produced the heaviest, but fattest carcasses. For A2-graded carcasses, Dorper lambs had the highest dressing percentage and lowest subcutaneous fat depth, followed by the SAMM and then Merino breed. A decrease in the percentage muscle and bone was found with an increase in the number of days under feedlot conditions, whilst an increase in the percentage fat was found under the same conditions. Meat quality was mostly affected by the 48h post mortem pH. This pH value is affected by the cooling rate of the carcasses, which in turn is affected by the level of carcass fatness. Carcass fatness increased with an increase in the number of days under feedlot conditions, resulting in a low 48h post mortem pH. A low 48h post mortem pH is accompanied by higher percentages of cooking and drip loss, as well as a high a*-colour reading for all three breeds.