Browsing by Author "Van Helden, Paul David"
Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
Results Per Page
- ItemDevelopment and evaluation of a diagnostic cytokine-release assay for mycobacterium suricattae infection in meerkats (Suricata suricatta)(BioMed Central, 2017-01-04) Clarke, Charlene; Patterson, Stuart James; Drewe, Julian Ashley; Van Helden, Paul David; Miller, Michele Ann; Parsons, Sven David CharlesBackground: Sensitive diagnostic tools are necessary for the detection of Mycobacterium suricattae infection in meerkats (Suricata suricatta) in order to more clearly understand the epidemiology of tuberculosis and the ecological consequences of the disease in this species. We therefore aimed to develop a cytokine release assay to measure antigen-specific cell-mediated immune responses of meerkats. Results: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were evaluated for the detection of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and IFN-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10) in meerkat plasma. An IP-10 ELISA was selected to measure the release of this cytokine in whole blood in response to Bovigam® PC-HP Stimulating Antigen, a commercial peptide pool of M. bovis antigens. Using this protocol, captive meerkats with no known M. suricattae exposure (n = 10) were tested and results were used to define a diagnostic cut off value (mean plus 2 standard deviations). This IP-10 release assay (IPRA) was then evaluated in free-living meerkats with known M. suricattae exposure, categorized as having either a low, moderate or high risk of infection with this pathogen. In each category, respectively, 24.7%, 27.3% and 82.4% of animals tested IPRA-positive. The odds of an animal testing positive was 14.0 times greater for animals with a high risk of M. suricattae infection compared to animals with a low risk. Conclusion: These results support the use of this assay as a measure of M. suricattae exposure in meerkat populations. Ongoing longitudinal studies aim to evaluate the value of the IPRA as a diagnostic test of M. suricattae infection in individual animals.
- ItemEmergence and spread of extensively and totally drug-resistant tuberculosis, South Africa(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2013-03) Klopper, Marisa; Warren, Robin Mark; Hayes, Cindy; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas Claudius; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Muller, Borna; Sirgel, Frederick Adriaan; Chabula-Nxiweni, Mamisa; Hoosain, Ebrahim; Coetzee, Gerrit; Van Helden, Paul David; Victor, Thomas Calldo; Trollip, Andre PhillipENGLISH ABSTRACT: Factors driving the increase in drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, are not understood. A convenience sample of 309 drug-susceptible and 342 multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB isolates, collected July 2008–July 2009, were characterized by spoligotyping, DNA fingerprinting, insertion site mapping, and targeted DNA sequencing. Analysis of molecular-based data showed diverse genetic backgrounds among drug-sensitive and MDR TB sensu stricto isolates in contrast to restricted genetic backgrounds among pre–extensively drug-resistant (pre-XDR) TB and XDR TB isolates. Second-line drug resistance was significantly associated with the atypical Beijing genotype. DNA fingerprinting and sequencing demonstrated that the pre-XDR and XDR atypical Beijing isolates evolved from a common progenitor; 85% and 92%, respectively, were clustered, indicating transmission. Ninety-three percent of atypical XDR Beijing isolates had mutations that confer resistance to 10 anti-TB drugs, and some isolates also were resistant to para-aminosalicylic acid. These findings suggest the emergence of totally drug-resistant TB.
- ItemEvaluating the accuracy of imputation methods in a five-way admixed population(Frontiers Media, 2019) Schurz, Haiko; Muller, Stephanie J.; Van Helden, Paul David; Tromp, Gerard; Hoal, Eileen G.; Kinnear, Craig J.; Moller, MarloGenotype imputation is a powerful tool for increasing statistical power in an association analysis. Meta-analysis of multiple study datasets also requires a substantial overlap of SNPs for a successful association analysis, which can be achieved by imputation. Quality of imputed datasets is largely dependent on the software used, as well as the reference populations chosen. The accuracy of imputation of available reference populations has not been tested for the five-way admixed South African Colored (SAC) population. In this study, imputation results obtained using three freely-accessible methods were evaluated for accuracy and quality. We show that the African Genome Resource is the best reference panel for imputation of missing genotypes in samples from the SAC population, implemented via the freely accessible Sanger Imputation Server.
- ItemExome sequencing identifies a novel MAP3K14 mutation in recessive atypical combined immunodeficiency(Frontiers, 2017-11) Schlechter, Nikola; Glanzmann, Brigitte; Hoal, Eileen Garner; Schoeman, Mardelle; Petersen, Britt-Sabina; Franke, Andre; Lau, Yu-Lung; Urban, Michael; Van Helden, Paul David; Esser, Maria Esser; Moller, Marlo; Kinnear, CraigENGLISH ABSTRACT: Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) render patients vulnerable to infection with a wide range of microorganisms and thus provide good in vivo models for the assessment of immune responses during infectious challenges. Priming of the immune system, especially in infancy, depends on different environmental exposures and medical practices. This may determine the timing and phenotype of clinical appearance of immune deficits as exemplified with early exposure to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination and dissemination in combined immunodeficiencies. Varied phenotype expression poses a challenge to identification of the putative immune deficit. Without the availability of genomic diagnosis and data analysis resources and with limited capacity for functional definition of immune pathways, it is difficult to establish a definitive diagnosis and to decide on appropriate treatment.
- ItemThe plasmid-mediated evolution of the mycobacterial ESX (Type VII) secretion systems(BioMed Central, 2016-03) Newton-Foot, Mae; Warren, Robin Mark; Sampson, Samantha Leigh; Van Helden, Paul David; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas ClaudiusBACKGROUND: The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis contains five copies of the ESX gene cluster, each encoding a dedicated protein secretion system. These ESX secretion systems have been defined as a novel Type VII secretion machinery, responsible for the secretion of proteins across the characteristic outer mycomembrane of the mycobacteria. Some of these secretion systems are involved in virulence and survival in M. tuberculosis; however they are also present in other non-pathogenic mycobacteria, and have been identified in some non-mycobacterial actinomycetes. Three components of the ESX gene cluster have also been found clustered in some gram positive monoderm organisms and are predicted to have preceded the ESX gene cluster. RESULTS: This study used in silico and phylogenetic analyses to describe the evolution of the ESX gene cluster from the WXG-FtsK cluster of monoderm bacteria to the five ESX clusters present in M. tuberculosis and other slow-growing mycobacteria. The ancestral gene cluster, ESX-4, was identified in several nonmycomembrane producing actinobacteria as well as the mycomembrane-containing Corynebacteriales in which the ESX cluster began to evolve and diversify. A novel ESX gene cluster, ESX-4EVOL, was identified in some non-mycobacterial actinomycetes and M. abscessus subsp. bolletii. ESX-4EVOL contains all of the conserved components of the ESX gene cluster and appears to be a precursor of the mycobacterial ESX duplications. Between two and seven ESX gene clusters were identified in each mycobacterial species, with ESX-2 and ESX-5 specifically associated with the slow growers. The order of ESX duplication in the mycobacteria is redefined as ESX-4, ESX-3, ESX-1 and then ESX-2 and ESX-5. Plasmid-encoded precursor ESX gene clusters were identified for each of the genomic ESX-3, -1, -2 and -5 gene clusters, suggesting a novel plasmid-mediated mechanism of ESX duplication and evolution. CONCLUSIONS: The influence of the various ESX gene clusters on vital biological and virulence-related functions has clearly influenced the diversification and success of the various mycobacterial species, and their evolution from the non-pathogenic fast-growing saprophytic to the slow-growing pathogenic organisms.