Browsing by Author "Swart, Estelle"
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- ItemAccess to education in Africa : responding to the United Nations Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities(Taylor & Francis Routledge, 2012-05) Chataika, Tsitsi; Mckenzie, Judith Anne; Swart, Estelle; Lyner- Cleophas, MarciaArticle 24 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities mandates that disabled people should have full rights to education in inclusive settings. However, to ensure that educational polices and settings are designed to meet this criterion seems challenging to African countries that have ratified this Convention. This article arises from the 2nd African Network of Evidence-to-Action on Disability Symposium. This fluid network was established to address the gap between research and practice in the region. The article reports proceedings and the emerging themes from the Education, Training and Work Commission; one of the six commissions of this Symposium, focusing specifically on the education aspect. It also challenges various stakeholders to move from evidence to action to ensure the educational rights of disabled people in inclusive settings.
- ItemDeveloping metacognition among young learners by using stories(Education Association of South Africa, 2019) Van Aswegen, Suzanne; Swart, Estelle; Oswald, Marietjie M.Being aware of our thinking as we perform learning tasks and then using this knowledge to actively self-regulate what we are doing, is commonly known as metacognition. This study investigated the influence of a story-based intervention on the development of metacognition among Intermediate Phase learners engaged in content area learning. Two intact Grade 4 class groups from two public schools in different socio-economic communities in the Western Cape participated in the study. This design-based research (DBR) study comprised of 2 iterative cycles. A pragmatic paradigm underpins the use of multiple data collection methods. This article reports on the pre- and post-intervention data from the second iteration, comparing the 2 groups. Most learners seemed to have improved in terms of metacognition and strategy knowledge on most data collection instruments. The data, however, revealed that learners in both groups struggled to verbalise their thoughts. Low literacy rates influenced both data collection and the outcome of the intervention. From the study, it appears that the story-based intervention could be a feasible and effective learning tool to develop metacognition within the contexts described in this study.
- ItemEffect of the overhang length of a recurve seawall in reducing wave overtopping(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2016-12) Swart, Estelle; Schoonees, J. S.; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Engineering. Dept. of Civil Engineering.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: With the slow but steady rise in sea level, which is due to global warming, the pressure on the coastal zone across the world has greatly increased. In the past coastal developments have frequently encroached onto the shore, therefore progressively more of these developments have recently come under increasing wave and storm attack, with large portions of the world’s coastlines needing protection. A solution to adequately protect the coastlines under threat would be to increase the crest height of existing seawalls. However, since this would often obstruct the sea view, such a solution would be unacceptable to seaside property owners. The construction of recurve seawalls to reduce overtopping provides a solution, while limiting the obstruction of the sea view. Historically, seawalls have been used to protect coastlines. Recurve seawalls, where the sea-facing side of the wall is shaped concavely forward to re-direct wave attack back out to sea, were first designed in the 1980s. However, very few guidelines for the design of recurve seawalls are currently available. Against this background, the current physical model study was conducted with the objectives of quantifying the reduction in wave overtopping in terms of the various geometrical properties of the recurve seawall, such as the overhang length and freeboard height (being the difference between the crest level and water level), and developing design curves for recurve seawalls. To achieve the objectives of this study, a 2D physical model was designed and built. More than 200 tests were undertaken in order to cover a wide range of water levels and wave periods for nine different recurve seawall designs. The study found that as the overhang length increases, the reduction in overtopping increases up to a certain point, after which a longer overhang length has no further significance. However, under certain conditions, the 0.3 m overhang length produced worse overtopping reduction results than the vertical wall. Further, a recurve seawall with a parapet angle greater than 50º will not improve the reduction in overtopping, when compared to the results for a vertical wall under similar conditions. It was concluded that the crest level, in combination with the freeboard level, are critical parameters in the determination of overtopping. It is recommended that the freeboard should be sufficient so that the incoming wave hits the vertical part of recurve wall. If sufficient freeboard is not available, the recurve wall will be drowned and will not provide any overtopping reduction. A combination of high freeboard and low water levels can produce up to 100% reduction in overtopping. The repeatability of the tests showed that the accuracy is very good, and significantly better than the data in the CLASH database. Comparison of the measured overtopping with the prediction of the most referenced database, the EurOtop dataset, showed that the EurOtop method should be used with caution. Additional tests should be conducted to investigate the influence that the beach slope, as well as the wave height, will have on the effectiveness of the recurve wall. Further overhang lengths in a critical area (for example the 0.2 m and 0.4 m overhang lengths), are also required to expand the usefulness of the design guidelines. The stability of the recurve seawalls and of their foundations should also be considered in greater detail.
- ItemDie effek van 'n troeteldier-ondersteunde leesprogram op woordherkenningsvaardighede van graad 3-kinders(Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns, 2015-06) Le Roux, Marieanna; Swartz, Leslie; Swart, EstelleDie doel van die huidige studie was om die effek van ’n troeteldier-ondersteunde leesprogram (TOL) op die woordherkenningsvaardighede van graad 3-kinders te bepaal. Al die kinders wat met behulp van die ESSI Leestoets as nievaardige lesers (N=102) geïdentifiseer is, is ewekansig toegewys aan drie eksperimentele groepe en een kontrolegroep. Een maal per week vir 10 weke lank het die Leeshondgroep (n=27) vir ’n leeshond in die teenwoordigheid van ’n Pets as Therapyvrywilliger gelees, die Volwassenegroep (n=24) het slegs vir ’n volwassene gelees terwyl die Teddiebeergroep (n=26) vir ’n teddiebeer in die teenwoordigheid van ’n volwassene gelees het. Die Kontrolegroep (n=25) het voortgegaan met hul normale skoolaktiwiteite. Die kinders in die drie eksperimentele groepe het individueel vir ongeveer 20 minute gelees uit graad 1-, 2- en 3-vlak boekies. Data-insameling het plaasgevind voor die aanvang van die leesprogram (Tyd 1), direk ná voltooiing van die leesprogram (Tyd 2) en met ’n opvolgmeting agt weke later (Tyd 3). Die resultate het getoon dat die kinders in die Leeshondgroep op ’n beduidend hoër graadvlak gelees het tydens Tyd 2 en Tyd 3 as die ander drie groepe.
- ItemExploring the perspectives of bullying amongst Grade 5 girls(Stellenbosch : University of Stellenbosch, 2007-12) Bredekamp, Judith; Swart, Estelle; University of Stellenbosch. Faculty of Education. Dept. of Educational PsychologyENGLISH ABSTRACT: Research into bullying has brought with it an awareness of many aspects of this phenomenon. Firstly, it has shown a distinction between various types of bullying and also how these are further delineated by means of gender. Secondly, by mere omission, it has shown the lack of research on bullying amongst girls. Bullying amongst girls is rife, however the research in this area is limited. The aims of this research are to further explore the complex nature of bullying amongst girls and to gain understanding of its impact; to use the perspectives of the participants to drive intervention and preventative strategies; to dispel the myths which support the practice of bullying; and to raise awareness of an invisible problem, thereby rendering it visible. This interpretive study explores bullying amongst girls by using the perspectives of Grade 5 girls in a parochial school in the Western Cape. The process of inquiry is embedded in the ecosystemic approach and constructivism, which emphasises the importance of context and the belief that knowledge is not passively received, but actively constructed on the basis of the experiences of an individual. Data was collected through the use of semi-structured recorded interviews with focus groups, which were then transcribed verbatim and categorised into themes. The themes which emerged include the varied and complex nature of bullying techniques and the effects of bullying. The main finding was that some girls have innate characteristics which help maintain bullying while others have characteristics which protect them from bullying. The environment also plays a large part in either maintaining bullying or protecting girls from bullying. The implication was that intervention and preventative strategies need to be based on these personal and contextual factors in order to effect change.
- ItemIncreasing access into higher education : insights from the 2011 African Network on Evidence-to-Action on Disability Symposium – Education Commission(AOSIS Publishing, 2014-06) Lyner-Cleophas, Marcia; Swart, Estelle; Chataika, Tsitsi; Bell, DianeThis article provides some insights into the challenges regarding inclusion in higher education of students with disabilities. It does this by elucidating aspects of the proceedings of the Education Commission at the African Network on Evidence-to-Action on Disability (AfriNEAD) Symposium, which took place in Zimbabwe in November 2011. The presentations specifically focused on the education of people with disabilities from early childhood through to higher education. This article, however, is informed by presentations focusing on increasing access to higher education. The article is focused on the implementation of evidence in practice, research and policies stemming from rigorous debate and scientific foundations, whilst taking into account the dynamic realities of the higher education context. Themes such as the systemic approach needed for inclusion to be successful, increasing access and the dynamic role of students with disabilities are highlighted.
- ItemLearning experiences of students who are hard of hearing in higher education : case study of a South African University(Cogitatio, 2018) Bell, Diane; Swart, EstelleStudents who are hard of hearing (HOH) are being granted access to university increasingly, yet they remain significantly under-represented and under-supported, often resulting in poor academic outcomes with elevated levels of attrition. This situation places a growing obligation on universities to improve the support provided to these students in order to have a positive influence on their overall academic experience and eventual economic independence. This trend is relevant to South Africa, where Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are accepting and registering students with a hearing loss but are not providing adequate academic support and inclusive curricula. Furthermore, in South Africa, almost no research has been conducted concerning students who are HOH in higher education regarding their teaching and learning needs or the coping strategies which they use to survive academically. However, what is known is that, of those HOH students who do enter higher education, many do not graduate successfully (up to 75%) and, of those that do graduate, many continue to be excluded from professions. The aims of this article were to report on the teaching and learning experiences of students who are HOH at a South African university, who prefer to make use of spoken language, to share the daily barriers with which they are faced, and to provide recommendations for teaching and learning, as well as curricula transformation. This study adds to the existing body of knowledge on this topic in South Africa and could be relevant in similar contexts.
- ItemNon-physical bullying : exploring the perspectives of Grade 5 girls(Education Association of South Africa, 2009) Swart, Estelle; Bredekamp, JudithResearch into bullying has generated an awareness of many aspects of this phenomenon: it has shown a distinction between various types of bullying and how these are delineated by gender. It has also shown a scarcity of research on bullying amongst girls, a phenomenon which is rife. We report on a qualitative study, which explored and described the nature of bullying amongst girls, in order to make the invisible problem more visible and to make recommendations for intervention and prevention. In this interpretive study we explored bullying amongst girls by using the perspectives of Grade 5 girls in a parochial school in the Western Cape. Data were generated through the use of semistructured group interviews. We argue that there is no single solution to the problem. Each situation seems to require a unique set of rules, a unique understanding. This is supported by the main finding, namely, some girls have innate characteristics that help maintain bullying while others have characteristics that protect them from bullying. The environment also plays a large part in either maintaining bullying or protecting girls from bullying. The implication is that intervention and preventative strategies need to be based on these personal and contextual factors in order to effect change.
- ItemOuers van kinders in hulle middelkinderjare met aandagtekort- en hiperaktiwiteitsversteuring se belewing : ’n veerkragtigheidsperspektief(LitNet, 2018) Du Toit, Susan; Swart, EstelleAandagtekort- en Hiperaktiwiteitsversteuring (ATHV) word gekenmerk deur ‘n aanhoudende patroon van onoplettendheid en/of hiperaktiwiteit-impulsiwiteit wat ‘n negatiewe invloed op daaglikse funksionering en ontwikkeling het. Statistiek dui daarop dat al hoe meer kinders, ook in die middelkinderjare, daardeur geraak word. Middelkinderjare verwys na die ouderdomme van ses tot twaalf jaar. Kinders met ATHV in die middelkinderjare het eiesoortige ondersteuning nodig in die bemeestering van verskeie ontwikkelingstake eie aan hierdie fase. Dit plaas, bo en behalwe die gewone eise van ouerskap, eiesoortige druk en stres op ouers. Hierdie studie is vanuit bekwaamheidsteorie as teoretiese raamwerk benader, wat die navorsing gerig het om individuele bepalers, hulpbronne, sosiale bepalers, en faktore van veerkragtigheid te identifiseer in die beantwoording van die navorsingsvrae, te wete: Wat is die belewing van ouers van kinders met ATHV in hulle middelkinderjare? en Wat is die bepalers vir die vergestalting van veerkragtige ouerskap in terme van kinders met ATHV in hulle middelkinderjare? ‘n Verkennende narratiewe gevallestudie is as navorsingsontwerp gevolg. Een-en-twintig ouers van kinders met ATHV in hulle middelkinderjare het aan die studie deelgeneem. Data is oor ‘n tydperk van twee maande en primêr deur semigestruktureerde onderhoude gegenereer. Tematiese ontleding het ses temas opgelewer, naamlik (1) die proses van diagnose en behandeling; (2) ‘n ouer se algemene ervaring en emosies; (3) die invloed van ATHV op die gesinsdinamika; (4) die invloed van ‘n skoolstelsel; (5) die waarde van ‘n ondersteuningstelsel; en (6) die samelewing se persepsie van ATHV. Bevindinge is in ‘n diagrammatiese voorstelling saamgevat wat enkele bepalers van en hindernisse tot veerkragtigheid, asook prosesse wat hiermee verband hou, illustreer. Samevattend is onkunde van die samelewing as die grootste hindernis tot die vergestalting van veerkragtige ouerskap bevind, en hou dit klaarblyklik verband met mense se kritiek en oordeel, die uitsluiting van kinders met ATHV in hoofstroomskole, en die stigma wat aan die gebruik van medikasie, asook die plasing van kinders met hierdie toestand in spesiale skole, kleef. Die bepalers van deelnemers se veerkragtigheid sluit in: ‘n positiewe ingesteldheid en ‘n streng roetine tuis, tyd en ervaring om by hierdie toestand aan te pas, en die ondersteuning wat deur familie, die personeel van spesiale skole en ander ouers van kinders met ATHV in hulle middelkinderjare gebied word. In die lig hiervan lewer die studie ‘n bydrae tot die begryping van die belewing en vergestalting van veerkragtige ouerskap in terme van die teikengroep.
- ItemParticipation in higher education : Experiences of students with disabilities(SUN MeDIA Bloemfontein, 2011) Swart, Estelle; Greyling, ElsabeHigher education institutions are required to promote equal access to all qualifying students, including those with disabilities. These institutions are expected to create environments that accommodate the diverse needs of all students and facilitate their learning and participation. The aim of this qualitative study is to obtain an in-depth understanding of how a group of students with disabilities experience participation at a university. This article supports the notion that disability is an experience that develops out of the interaction between individuals with a functional limitation and the social, attitudinal and physical environment in which they live. It focuses on their personal experience of living with impairment, both socially and individually, and demonstrates how both personal characteristics and proximal processes play an important role in participating in higher education.
- ItemReflektiewe vakdeskundigheid in opvoedkundige sielkunde : konteks en uitdagings(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2006) Swart, Estelle; Van der Merwe, MattieInaugural address delivered on 3 October 2006 by Professor Estelle Swart.
- ItemA service user perspective informing the role of occupational therapy in school transition practice for high school learners with TBI : an African perspective(Hindawi, 2019) Khuabi, Lee-Ann Jacobs-Nzuzi; Swart, Estelle; Soeker, Mogammad ShaheedBackground. In the South African context, there are no specific guidelines regarding how to prepare and support adolescents for the transition from a health care to a high school setting post TBI. This raises questions about the relevance and responsiveness of the current transition practices in occupational therapy in terms of adequately preparing and supporting these adolescents to participate in school and hence exercise their right to a quality education. Method. This study explored adolescents and other key role players’ perspectives on and experiences of the high school transition (i.e., school reentry and continued school participation) post TBI. It was anticipated that this would provide an increased understanding of the enablers and barriers to high school reentry and participation post TBI. This served as a basis to explore the main aim of this study which was to help occupational therapists identify where efforts in terms of service delivery are needed. This study was situated in the interpretivist qualitative paradigm and used a multicase study design, which included semistructured interviews with eight adolescent learners with TBI, their primary caregivers, teachers, and principals as well as observations and documentation review. Results. This paper will focus on a central theme in the research, namely, the nature and extent of support needed to facilitate the high school transition of adolescents with TBI within a developing context. Similar to the findings of studies conducted in developed contexts, participants highlighted that they felt that adolescents need support at various stages of the school transition. Participants further alluded to support that should be collaborative, coordinated, flexible, and monitored to ensure it is relevant and responsive to these adolescents’ changing needs. Conclusion. The study findings conclude that occupational therapists have a crucial role in fostering an enabling environment (directly and indirectly) through fulfilling various roles including that of a facilitator, intermediary, coach, collaborator, supporter, and advocator.
- ItemStudents with hearing impairment at a South African university : self-identity and disclosure(AOSIS Publishing, 2016) Bell, Diane; Carl, Arend; Swart, EstelleBackground: A growing number of students with hearing loss are being granted access to higher education in South Africa due to the adoption of inclusive educational policies. However, available statistics indicate that participation by students with hearing impairments in higher education remains low and research suggests that support provisioning for those who do gain access is inadequate. Objectives: This article aims to illustrate that the assumed self-identity of students with hearing impairment influences their choice to disclose their disability. The choice not to disclose their hearing loss prevents them from accessing the necessary reasonable accommodations and this in turn may affect their eventual educational success. Method: Reported here is a qualitative descriptive case study at a South African university. Purposive sampling methods were employed. Data were gathered from in-depth interviews with seven students with hearing impairment ranging from moderate to profound, using spoken language. Constructivist grounded theory was used as an approach to the process of generating and transforming the data, as well as the construction of theory. Findings: All the student participants identified as having a hearing rather than a D/deaf identity cultural paradigm and viewed themselves as ‘normal’. Linked to this was their unwillingness to disclose their hearing impairment and thus access support. Conclusion: It is crucially important for academic, support and administrative staff to be aware of both the assumed ‘hearing’ identity and therefore subsequent non-disclosure practices of students with a hearing impairment using the oral method of communication. Universities need to put measures in place to encourage students to voluntarily disclose their hearing impairment in order to provide more targeted teaching and learning support. This could lead to improved educational outcomes for students.
- ItemTeoretisering van die selfkonsep van studente wat hakkel(LitNet, 2013) Conradie, Karlien; Swart, EstelleHierdie artikel rapporteer die bevindinge van ŉ kwalitatiewe studie wat ten doel gehad het om ondersoek in te stel na die selfkonsep van studente tussen die ouderdom van 18 en 22 jaar wat hakkel.1 Die doelstellings van die navorsing was om (i) die selfkonsep van studente wat hakkel te verken en te beskryf deur middel van hulle belewing daarvan in terme van die verskillende dimensies van die selfkonsep, (ii) enkele determinante te identifiseer wat kan bydra tot ŉ ruimer begrip van die wyse waarop die selfkonsep van die betrokke studente manifesteer, en (iii) holistiese wyses van ondersteuning binne die psigoterapeutiese en onderrig- en leeromgewings te beskryf. Laat-adolessensie word veral gekenmerk deur betekenisvolle ontwikkeling van ŉ persoon se selfkonsep. Adolessente se verhoogde selfbewustheid en ontvanklikheid vir evaluering deur die portuurgroep word as belangrike faktore in die verwerking van inligting ten opsigte van die self beskou. Daaruit kan afgelei word dat die selfkonsep van studente wat hakkel waarskynlik beïnvloed word deur hul bewustheid van luisteraars se reaksies. By wyse van semigestruktureerde individuele onderhoude bestaande uit oop vrae, asook ŉ fokusgroep, is op induktiewe wyse ondersoek ingestel na die selfkonsep van studente wat hakkel. Resultate wat deur middel van die konstante vergelykende metode van data-ontleding verkry is, het geïllustreer dat die selfkonsep as uitdrukking dien van die betrokke studente se verhouding met hakkel en die verskillende dimensies daarvan. Die identifisering van enkele intra- en interpersoonlike determinante dra, tesame met die prosesse van psigiese heling en verwonding, waarskynlik by tot die vorming van die selfkonsep van studente wat hakkel. Hierdie ondersoek vul ŉ leemte in die literatuur oor die onderwerp en bevindinge kan bydra tot die ontwikkeling van omvattende intervensie- en ondersteuningsraamwerke gerig op die positiewe integrasie van hakkel as deel van die selfkonsep.
- ItemThe value of literary theatre in the consciousness education of psychotherapy students(Suid-Afrikaanse Akademie vir Wetenskap en Kuns, 2023) Conradie, Karlien; Swart, EstelleThe capacity to comprehend experiences in a coherent way and attribute meaning to existence is unique to human beings. Through Dasein, being consciously concerned with the onto-phenomenological experience, thus interpreting what it means to exist amid that which is and is still becoming, human beings strive to connect with their Lebenswelt (a lived world). Only when individuals are consciously receptive to and involved in their own ontological being and becoming can they empathise with the very nature of another. Woven into this larger disposition characterised by continuous onto-phenomenological self-making-in-a-situation (Bildung) -the Nietzschean call - is the empathic attitude. In the context of psychology, in particular psychotherapy, the empathic attitude - that is, being sensitively aware of how we understand ourselves, others and the world we share - is undeniably part of the repertoire of qualities that a therapist ought to possess. Often, however, the attitude of novice therapists towards what is happening between them and their clients here and now involves inflated self-awareness that is devoid of ontological considerations. Frequently, this results in a clichéd form of empathy based primarily on sentimental emotionality. It seems to be true that, in a ubiquitous cyberculture characterised by self-absorption and the mere accumulation of simplistic explanations, the ability to be ontologically receptive - as the sine qua non of an empathetic attitude - is gradually becoming undervalued. Art, in particular literary theatre, has the capacity to push psychotherapy students (as spectators) to the edge of what it means to be human beings; by implication, therefore, it constitutes an appeal for existential phenomenological involvement. Suddenly the spectators cannot escape the incantatory circle ofwhat is affectively transcendent and become participants in their own self-developmental needs and psychological yearnings. This article seeks to illustrate how the existential phenomenological elements of literary theatre, including physicality (language, movement, actions and sound), time and spatiality, can be used to comprehend an embodied involvement (being with the client, here, now) and encourage ontological reflection in psychotherapy students. In this regard, literary theatre displays certain existential phenomenological characteristics that can be understood and applied as part of a pedagogical enterprise in psychotherapy teaching and training. Some core characteristics include inner stillness, a sensitive-receptive attitude, and an awareness of Jungian or depth-psychology archetypes. Of importance is therefore the existential phenomenological attitude of the psychotherapy student towards a child's being (onto-involvement) in the therapy room or clinical evaluation situation. By way of a conceptual explication, we attempt to provide an understanding of the relationship between the psychological function of literary theatre and the existential phenomenological attitude of the educational psychology student. This attitude embodies a certain artistry or aesthetic disposition, characterised by qualities such as honed intuition, sensitive awareness and the formation of nuanced connections. Such artistry allows the psychotherapy student to explore the developmentally and contextually layered client, and to articulate den Zachen Zelbst meaningfully by way of contemplative, nuanced thought and language. Den Zachen Zelbst, ingrained in the Husserlian and Heideggerian vernacular of philosophy of phenomenology, refers to existence as intentional; to be consciously concerned with the meaning of being, therefore life-world experience, as opposed to merely registering and measuring impressions from the outside world. An existential phenomenological disposition cannot be assumed, however, nor can it be simply taught as part of a postgraduate module on psychotherapy skills. Instead, the existential phenomenological disposition ought to be fostered and developed through carefully crafted embodiment activities of an intersectional nature (the intersection of philosophy, psychology, literature and drama, for example) as part of the teaching and training of psychotherapy students. This article attempts to cast light on the existential phenomenological disposition as an essential attitude of the psychotherapy student, especially in the context of an often unmindful, mechanistic and utilitarian society. At its core, the existential-phenomenological attitude presupposes a more embodied (as opposed to essentialist) psychotherapy, characterised by ontological awareness, deepening insight and symbolic language. These intellectual qualities need to be protected at all costs from the technocratic materialism of mass psychology.