Browsing by Author "Strever, Albert"
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- ItemComparison of vegetation indices for leaf area index estimation in vertical shoot positioned vine canopies with and without grenbiule hail-protection netting(MDPI, 2019-05-07) Towers, Pedro C.; Strever, Albert; Poblete-Echeverria, CarlosLeaf area per unit surface (LAI—leaf area index) is a valuable parameter to assess vine vigour in several applications, including direct mapping of vegetative–reproductive balance (VRB). Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has been successfully used to assess the spatial variability of estimated LAI. However, sometimes NDVI is unsuitable due to its lack of sensitivity at high LAI values. Moreover, the presence of hail protection with Grenbiule netting also affects incident light and reflection, and consequently spectral response. This study analyses the effect of protective netting in the LAI–NDVI relationship and, using NDVI as a reference index, compares several indices in terms of accuracy and sensitivity using linear and logarithmic models. Among the indices compared, results show NDVI to be the most accurate, and ratio vegetation index (RVI) to be the most sensitive. The wide dynamic range vegetation index (WDRVI) presented a good balance between accuracy and sensitivity. Soil-adjusted vegetation index 2 (SAVI2) appears to be the best estimator of LAI with linear models. Logarithmic models provided higher determination coefficients, but this has little influence over the normal range of LAI values. A similar NDVI–LAI relationship holds for protected and unprotected canopies in initial vegetation stages, but different functions are preferable once the canopy is fully developed, in particular, if tipping is performed.
- ItemModelling water stress in a Shiraz Vineyard using hyperspectral imaging and machine learning(MDPI, 2018) Loggenberg, Kyle; Strever, Albert; Greyling, Berno; Poona, Nitesh KeshavelalThe detection of water stress in vineyards plays an integral role in the sustainability of high-quality grapes and prevention of devastating crop loses. Hyperspectral remote sensing technologies combined with machine learning provides a practical means for modelling vineyard water stress. In this study, we applied two ensemble learners, i.e., random forest (RF) and extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), for discriminating stressed and non-stressed Shiraz vines using terrestrial hyperspectral imaging. Additionally, we evaluated the utility of a spectral subset of wavebands, derived using RF mean decrease accuracy (MDA) and XGBoost gain. Our results show that both ensemble learners can effectively analyse the hyperspectral data. When using all wavebands (p = 176), RF produced a test accuracy of 83.3% (KHAT (kappa analysis) = 0.67), and XGBoost a test accuracy of 80.0% (KHAT = 0.6). Using the subset of wavebands (p = 18) produced slight increases in accuracy ranging from 1.7% to 5.5% for both RF and XGBoost. We further investigated the effect of smoothing the spectral data using the Savitzky-Golay filter. The results indicated that the Savitzky-Golay filter reduced model accuracies (ranging from 0.7% to 3.3%). The results demonstrate the feasibility of terrestrial hyperspectral imagery and machine learning to create a semi-automated framework for vineyard water stress modelling.