Browsing by Author "Stein, Dan J."
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- ItemAnger and Afrophobia in South Africa : what is a health practitioner to do?(Health and Medical Publishing Group, 2015) Long, Wahbie; Chiliza, Bonginkosi; Stein, Dan J.The facts seem to indicate that South Africa is one of the more violent places on earth. We have been, and continue to be, a country with significant levels of political violence, criminal violence and domestic violence. And now, we are witnessing violence against fellow Africans. While many have termed this ‘xenophobia’, a more accurate term may well be ‘Afrophobia’. For clinician-scientists, many questions arise. In this editorial, we briefly consider a few of the most pertinent.
- ItemAssessing cognition in children with prenatal methamphetamine exposure in South Africa(Elsevier, 2019) Roos, Annerine; Stein, Dan J.; Donald, Kirsten A.No abstract available.
- ItemAssessing post-traumatic stress disorder in South African adolescents : using the child and adolescent trauma survey (CATS) as a screening tool(BioMed Central, 2005-01) Suliman, Sharain; Kaminer, Debra; Seedat, Soraya; Stein, Dan J.Background: Several studies have demonstrated that South African children and adolescents are exposed to high levels of violent trauma with a significant proportion developing PTSD, however, limited resources make it difficult to accurately identify traumatized children. Methods: A clinical interview (K-SADS-PL, selected modules) and self-report scale (CATS) were compared to determine if these different methods of assessment elicit similar information with regards to trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adolescents. Youth (n = 58) from 2 schools in Cape Town, South Africa participated. Results: 91% of youth reported having been exposed to a traumatic event on self-report (CATS) and 38% reported symptoms severe enough to be classified as PTSD. On interview (K-SADS-PL), 86% reported exposure to a traumatic event and 19% were found to have PTSD. While there were significant differences in the rates of trauma exposure and PTSD on the K-SADS and CATS, a cut-off value of 15 on the CATS maximized both the number of true positives and true negatives with PTSD. The CATS also differentiated well between adolescents meeting DSM-IV PTSD symptom criteria from adolescents not meeting criteria. Conclusions: Our results indicate that trauma exposure and PTSD are prevalent in South African youth and if appropriate cut-offs are used, self-report scales may be useful screening tools for PTSD.
- ItemAssociation between childhood adversities and long-term suicidality among South Africans from the results of the South African stress and health study : a cross-sectional study(BMJ Publishing Group, 2014-11) Bruwer, Belinda; Govender, Ravi; Bishop, Melanie; Williams, David R.; Stein, Dan J.; Seedat, SorayaObjective: Suicide and suicidal behaviours are significant public health problems and a leading cause of death worldwide and in South Africa. We examined the association between childhood adversities and suicidal behaviour over the life course. Methods: A national probability sample of 4351 South African adult participants (aged 18 years and older) in the South African Stress and Health (SASH) study was interviewed as part of the World Mental Health Surveys initiative. Respondents provided sociodemographic and diagnostic information, as well as an account of suicide-related thoughts and behaviours. Suicidality or suicidal behaviour were defined as were defined as suicide attempts and suicidal ideation in the total sample, and suicide plans and attempts among ideators. Childhood adversities included physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental death, parental divorce, other parental loss, family violence, physical illness and financial adversity. The association between suicidality and childhood adversities was examined using discrete-time survival models. Results: More than a third of the respondents with suicidal behaviour experienced at least one childhood adversity, with physical abuse, parental death and parental divorce being the most prevalent adversities. Physical abuse, sexual abuse and parental divorce were identified as significant risk markers for lifetime suicide attempts, while physical abuse and parental divorce were significantly correlated with suicidal ideation. Two or more childhood adversities were associated with a twofold higher risk of lifetime suicide attempts. Sexual abuse (OR 9.3), parental divorce (OR 3.1) and childhood physical abuse (OR 2.2) had the strongest associations with lifetime suicide attempts. The effect of childhood adversities on suicidal tendencies varied over the life course. For example, sexual abuse was significantly associated with suicide attempts during childhood and teen years, but not during young and later adulthood. Conclusions: Childhood adversities, especially sexual abuse, physical abuse and parental divorce, are important risk factors for the onset and persistence of suicidal behaviour, with this risk being greatest in childhood and adolescence.
- ItemThe association between hypertension and depression and anxiety disorders : results from a nationally-representative sample of South African adults(Public Library of Science, 2009-05-14) Grimsrud, Anna; Stein, Dan J.; Seedat, Soraya; Williams, David; Myer, LandonObjective: Growing evidence suggests high levels of comorbidity between hypertension and mental illness but there are few data from low- and middle-income countries. We examined the association between hypertension and depression and anxiety in South Africa. Methods: Data come from a nationally-representative survey of adults (n = 4351). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to measure DSM-IV mental disorders during the previous 12-months. The relationships between self-reported hypertension and anxiety disorders, depressive disorders and comorbid anxiety-depression were assessed after adjustment for participant characteristics including experience of trauma and other chronic physical conditions. Results: Overall 16.7% reported a previous medical diagnosis of hypertension, and 8.1% and 4.9% were found to have a 12-month anxiety or depressive disorder, respectively. In adjusted analyses, hypertension diagnosis was associated with 12-month anxiety disorders [Odds ratio (OR) = 1.55, 95% Confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-2.18] but not 12-month depressive disorders or 12-month comorbid anxiety-depression. Hypertension in the absence of other chronic physical conditions was not associated with any of the 12-month mental health outcomes (p-values all <0.05), while being diagnosed with both hypertension and another chronic physical condition were associated with 12-month anxiety disorders (OR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.46-3.45), but not 12-month depressive disorders or comorbid anxiety-depression. Conclusions: These are the first population-based estimates to demonstrate an association between hypertension and mental disorders in sub-Saharan Africa. Further investigation is needed into role of traumatic life events in the aetiology of hypertension as well as the temporality of the association between hypertension and mental disorders. © 2009 Grimsrud et al.
- ItemThe burden of mental disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 1990-2013(Public Library of Science, 2017) Charara, Raghid; Forouzanfar, Mohammad; Naghavi, Mohsen; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Afshin, Ashkan; Vos, Theo; Daoud, Farah; Wang, Haidong; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Khalil, Ibrahim; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Khader, Yousef; Al-Hamad, Nawal; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Rafay, Anwar; Asghar, Rana; Rana, Saleem M.; Shaheen, Amira; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Husseini, Abdullatif; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Khoja, Tawfik; Al Rayess, Zulfa A.; AlBuhairan, Fadia S.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Alomari, Mahmoud A.; Ali, Raghib; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Hamidi, Samer; Refaat, Amany H.; Westerman, Ronny; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Akanda, Ali S.; Ali, Syed Danish; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Faghmou, Imad A. D.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fischer, Florian; Jonas, Jost B.; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Mehari, Alem; Omer, Saad B.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Mokdad, Ali A.; Maalouf, Fadi T.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Akseer, Nadia; Arya, Dinesh; Borschmann, Rohan; Brazinova, Alexandra; Brugha, Traolach S.; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Degenhardt, Louisa; Ferrari, Alize; Haro, Josep Maria; Horino, Masako; Hornberger, John C.; Huang, Hsiang; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Yunjin; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Mitchell, Philip B.; Patton, George; Sagar, Rajesh; Satpathy, Maheswar; Savuon, Kim; Seedat, Soraya; Shiue, Ivy; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Stein, Dan J.; Tabb, Karen M.; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Mokdad, Ali H.The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) is witnessing an increase in chronic disorders, including mental illness. With ongoing unrest, this is expected to rise. This is the first study to quantify the burden of mental disorders in the EMR. We used data from the Global Burden of Disease study (GBD) 2013. DALYs (disability-adjusted life years) allow assessment of both premature mortality (years of life lost–YLLs) and nonfatal outcomes (years lived with disability–YLDs). DALYs are computed by adding YLLs and YLDs for each age-sex-country group. In 2013, mental disorders contributed to 5.6% of the total disease burden in the EMR (1894 DALYS/100,000 population): 2519 DALYS/100,000 (2590/100,000 males, 2426/100,000 females) in high-income countries, 1884 DALYS/100,000 (1618/100,000 males, 2157/100,000 females) in middle-income countries, 1607 DALYS/100,000 (1500/100,000 males, 1717/100,000 females) in low-income countries. Females had a greater proportion of burden due to mental disorders than did males of equivalent ages, except for those under 15 years of age. The highest proportion of DALYs occurred in the 25–49 age group, with a peak in the 35–39 years age group (5344 DALYs/100,000). The burden of mental disorders in EMR increased from 1726 DALYs/100,000 in 1990 to 1912 DALYs/100,000 in 2013 (10.8% increase). Within the mental disorders group in EMR, depressive disorders accounted for most DALYs, followed by anxiety disorders. Among EMR countries, Palestine had the largest burden of mental disorders. Nearly all EMR countries had a higher mental disorder burden compared to the global level. Our findings call for EMR ministries of health to increase provision of mental health services and to address the stigma of mental illness. Moreover, our results showing the accelerating burden of mental health are alarming as the region is seeing an increased level of instability. Indeed, mental health problems, if not properly addressed, will lead to an increased burden of diseases in the region.
- ItemBurden of non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa, 1990–2017 : results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017(Elsevier, 2019-10) Gouda, Hebe N.; Charlson, Fiona; Sorsdahl, Katherine; Ahmadzada, Sanam; Ferrari, Alize J.; Erskine, Holly; Leung, Janni; Santamauro, Damian; Lund, Crick; Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Harris, Meredith; Achoki, Tom; Wiysonge, Charles S.; Stein, Dan J.; Whiteford, HarveyBackground: Although the burden of disease in sub-Saharan Africa continues to be dominated by infectious diseases, countries in this region are undergoing a demographic transition leading to increasing prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). To inform health system responses to these changing patterns of disease, we aimed to assess changes in the burden of NCDs in sub-Saharan Africa from 1990 to 2017. Methods: We used data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 to analyse the burden of NCDs in sub-Saharan Africa in terms of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs)—with crude counts as well as all-age and age-standardised rates per 100000 population—with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). We examined changes in burden between 1990 and 2017, and differences across age, sex, and regions. We also compared the observed NCD burden across countries with the expected values based on a country’s Socio-demographic Index. Findings: All-age total DALYs due to NCDs increased by 67·0% between 1990 (90·6 million [95% UI 81·0–101·9]) and 2017 (151·3 million [133·4–171·8]), reflecting an increase in the proportion of total DALYs attributable to NCDs (from 18·6% [95% UI 17·1–20·4] to 29·8% [27·6–32·0] of the total burden). Although most of this increase can be explained by population growth and ageing, the age-standardised DALY rate (per 100000 population) due to NCDs in 2017 (21757·7 DALYs [95% UI 19 377·1–24380·7]) was almost equivalent to that of communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases (26491·6 DALYs [25165·2–28129·8]). Cardiovascular diseases were the second leading cause of NCD burden in 2017, resulting in 22·9 million (21·5–24·3) DALYs (15·1% of the total NCD burden), after the group of disorders categorised as other NCDs (28·8 million [25·1–33·0] DALYs, 19·1%). These categories were followed by neoplasms, mental disorders, and digestive diseases. Although crude DALY rates for all NCDs have decreased slightly across sub-Saharan Africa, age-standardised rates are on the rise in some countries (particularly those in southern sub-Saharan Africa) and for some NCDs (such as diabetes and some cancers, including breast and prostate cancer). Interpretation: NCDs in sub-Saharan Africa are posing an increasing challenge for health systems, which have to date largely focused on tackling infectious diseases and maternal, neonatal, and child deaths. To effectively address these changing needs, countries in sub-Saharan Africa require detailed epidemiological data on NCDs.
- ItemA case of Ifufunyane : a Xhosa culture-bound syndrome(Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2005-11) Niehaus, Dana J. H.; Stein, Dan J.; Koen, Liezl; Lochner, Christine; Muller, Jacqueline E.; Mbanga, N. Irene; Emsley, Robin A.; Gorman, Jack M.Clinicians and patients frequently have a different understanding and interpretation of the nature of an illness. While many reasons for these discrepancies can be postulated, differences in sociocultural background often play an important role—especially in the field of psychiatry. At our tertiary psychiatric hospital in South Africa, where standard Western teachings are followed, clinicians are often confronted by patients who have a markedly different interpretation of their psychiatric symptoms compared with the clinician’s perspective. For instance, “ifufunyane” (plural “amafufunyana”), a ritualized”“possession state,” often thought to result from witchcraft, is frequently reported by South African (Xhosa) patients with psychosis (including schizophrenia) and their families.
- ItemClinical and neuropsychological predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder(Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2014-11) Suliman, Sharain; Stein, Dan J.; Seedat, Soraya; PsychiatryAbstract: Although acute responses to traumatic stress generally resolve within a few weeks, some individuals experience severe and persistent problems, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While studies have identified a variety of predictors of PTSD, not all data are consistent. This longitudinal study examined the predictive power of neurocognitive deficits with regard to PTSD severity. One hundred thirty one road traffic collision (RTC) survivors were included within 2 weeks of the RTC and followed up 3 and 6 months later to determine severity of PTSD. Impairment on tests of information processing, executive functioning, verbal learning, and motor speed predicted PTSD severity when neuropsychological, clinical, and sociodemographic factors were all taken into account. Clinical variables (initial symptoms, psychiatric diagnoses, disability, trait anxiety, perceived stress, negative cognitions, and sleep) were associated with 3 and 6-month PTSD severity, but only trait anxiety was predictive of PTSD severity. Ethnicity and education were also found to be predictive. These findings suggest implementation of a holistic approach to screening for PTSD and support a need for interventions that target neurocognitive, clinical, and social variables. Early targeted profiling of this group of trauma survivors can inform early clinical interventions and policy.
- ItemComorbidity in trichotillomania (hair‐pulling disorder) : a cluster analytical approach(Wiley, 2019) Lochner, Christine; Keuthen, Nancy J.; Curley, Erin E.; Tung, Esther S.; Redden, Sarah A.; Ricketts, Emily J.; Baue, Christopher C.; Woods, Douglas W.; Grant, Jon E.; Stein, Dan J.Background: A promising approach to reducing the phenotypic heterogeneity of psychiatric disorders involves the identification of homogeneous subtypes. Careful study of comorbidity in obsessive‐compulsive disorder (OCD) contributed to the identification of the DSM‐5 subtype of OCD with tics. Here we investigated one of the largest available cohorts of clinically diagnosed trichotillomania (TTM) to determine whether subtyping TTM based on comorbidity would help delineate clinically meaningful subgroups. Methods: As part of an ongoing international collaboration, lifetime comorbidity data were collated from 304 adults with pathological hair‐pulling who fulfilled criteria for DSM‐IV‐TR or DSM‐5 TTM. Cluster analysis (Ward's method) based on comorbidities was undertaken. Results: Three clusters were identified, namely Cluster 1: cases without any comorbidities (n = 63, 20.7%) labeled “simple TTM,” Cluster 2: cases with comorbid major depressive disorder only (N = 49, 16.12%) labeled “depressive TTM,” and Cluster 3: cases presenting with combinations of the investigated comorbidities (N = 192, 63.16%) labeled “complex TTM.” The clusters differed in terms of hair‐pulling severity (F = 3.75, p = .02; Kruskal–Wallis [KW] p < .01) and depression symptom severity (F = 5.07, p = <.01; KW p < .01), with cases with any comorbidity presenting with increased severity. Analysis of the temporal nature of these conditions in a subset suggested that TTM onset generally preceded major depressive disorder in (subsets of) Clusters 2 and 3. Conclusions: The findings here are useful in emphasizing that while many TTM patients present without comorbidity, depression is present in a substantial proportion of cases. In clinical practice, it is crucial to assess comorbidity, given the links demonstrated here between comorbidity and symptom severity. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings and to determine whether cluster membership based on comorbidity predicts response to treatment.
- ItemComparison of pain, cortisol levels, and psychological distress in women undergoing surgical termination of pregnancy under local anaesthesia versus intravenous sedation(BioMed Central, 2007-06) Suliman, Sharain; Ericksen, Todd; Labuschgne, Peter W.; De Wit, Renee; Stein, Dan J.; Seedat, SorayaBackground: The weight of evidence suggests that women who freely choose to terminate a pregnancy are unlikely to experience significant mental health risks, however some studies have documented psychological distress in the form of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in the aftermath of termination. Choice of anaesthetic has been suggested as a determinant of outcome. This study compared the effects of local anaesthesia and intravenous sedation, administered for elective surgical termination, on outcomes of pain, cortisol, and psychological distress. Methods: 155 women were recruited from a private abortion clinic and state hospital (mean age: 25.4 ± 6.1 years) and assessed on various symptom domains, using both clinician-administered interviews and self-report measures just prior to termination, immediately post-procedure, and at 1 month and 3 months post-procedure. Morning salivary cortisol assays were collected prior to anaesthesia and termination. Results: The group who received local anaesthetic demonstrated higher baseline cortisol levels (mean = 4.7 vs 0.2), more dissociative symptoms immediately post-termination (mean = 14.7 vs 7.3), and higher levels of pain before (mean = 4.9 vs 3.0) and during the procedure (mean = 8.0 vs 4.4). However, in the longer-term (1 and 3 months), there were no significant differences in pain, psychological outcomes (PTSD, depression, self-esteem, state anxiety), or disability between the groups. More than 65% of the variance in PTSD symptoms at 3 months could be explained by baseline PTSD symptom severity and disability, and post-termination dissociative symptoms. Of interest was the finding that pre-procedural cortisol levels were positively correlated with PTSD symptoms at both 1 and 3 months. Conclusion: High rates of PTSD characterise women who have undergone surgical abortions (almost one fifth of the sample meet criteria for PTSD), with women who receive local anaesthetic experiencing more severe acute reactions. The choice of anesthetic, however, does not appear to impact on longer-term psychiatric outcomes or functional status.
- ItemConcordance of genetic variation that increases risk for Tourette Syndrome and that influences its underlying neurocircuitry(Springer Nature, 2019) Mufford, Mary; Cheung, Josh; Jahanshad, Neda; Van Der Merwe, Celia; Ding, Linda; Groenewold, Nynke; Koen, Nastassja; Chimusa, Emile R.; Dalvie, Shareefa; Ramesar, Raj; Knowles, James A.; Lochner, Christine; Hibar, Derrek P.; Paschou, Peristera; Van Den Heuvel, Odile A.; Medland, Sarah E.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Mathews, Carol A.; Thompson, Paul M.; Stein, Dan J.; Psychiatric Genomics Consortium - Tourette Syndrome working groupENGLISH ABSTRACT: There have been considerable recent advances in understanding the genetic architecture of Tourette Syndrome (TS) as well as its underlying neurocircuitry. However, the mechanisms by which genetic variation that increases risk for TS—and its main symptom dimensions—influence relevant brain regions are poorly understood. Here we undertook a genome-wide investigation of the overlap between TS genetic risk and genetic influences on the volume of specific subcortical brain structures that have been implicated in TS. We obtained summary statistics for the most recent TS genome-wide association study (GWAS) from the TS Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Working Group (4644 cases and 8695 controls) and GWAS of subcortical volumes from the ENIGMA consortium (30,717 individuals). We also undertook analyses using GWAS summary statistics of key symptom factors in TS, namely social disinhibition and symmetry behaviour. SNP effect concordance analysis (SECA) was used to examine genetic pleiotropy—the same SNP affecting two traits—and concordance—the agreement in single nucelotide polymorphism (SNP) effect directions across these two traits. In addition, a conditional false discovery rate (FDR) analysis was performed, conditioning the TS risk variants on each of the seven subcortical and the intracranial brain volume GWAS. Linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSR) was used as validation of the SECA method. SECA revealed significant pleiotropy between TS and putamen (p = 2 × 10−4) and caudate (p = 4 × 10−4) volumes, independent of direction of effect, and significant concordance between TS and lower thalamic volume (p = 1 × 10−3). LDSR lent additional support for the association between TS and thalamus volume (p = 5.85 × 10−2). Furthermore, SECA revealed significant evidence of concordance between the social disinhibition symptom dimension and lower thalamus volume (p = 1 × 10−3), as well as concordance between symmetry behaviour and greater putamen volume (p = 7 × 10−4). Conditional FDR analysis further revealed novel variants significantly associated with TS (p < 8 × 10−7) when conditioning on intracranial (rs2708146, q = 0.046; and rs72853320, q = 0.035) and hippocampal (rs1922786, q = 0.001) volumes, respectively. These data indicate concordance for genetic variation involved in disorder risk and subcortical brain volumes in TS. Further work with larger samples is needed to fully delineate the genetic architecture of these disorders and their underlying neurocircuitry.
- ItemDepression and anxiety in multisomatoform disorder : prevalence and clinical predictors in primary care(Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2008) Muller, Jacqueline E.; Wentzel, Ignatius; Nel, Daniel G.; Stein, Dan J.Objective. Multisomatoform disorder (MSD) is characterised by ≥3 medically inexplicable, troublesome physical symptoms, together with a ≥2-year history of somatisation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders in a South African sample MSD, and to compare demographic and clinical outcomes in those patients with and without co-morbidity. Methods. Fifty-one adult outpatients with MSD were recruited from primary care clinics in the Cape Town metropole. Participants were assessed for the presence of co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorders using the Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus (MINI-Plus). Outcomes included somatic symptom severity, disability, reported sick days and health care visits, pain experience, patient satisfaction with health services, and clinician-experienced difficulty. Results. A current co-morbid depressive disorder was present in 29.4% (N=15) of patients, and a current co-morbid anxiety disorder in 52.9% (N=27). MSD patients with a co-morbid depressive disorder (current or lifetime) had significantly higher physical symptom counts, greater functional impairment, higher unemployment rates, more clinician-reported difficulties, and more dissatisfaction with health care services than those without the disorder. A larger number of co-morbid disorders was associated with greater overall disability. Conclusion. High rates of co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorders were present in a South African sample of primary care patients with MSD. Not all patients had co-morbidity, which is consistent with the view that MSD should be viewed as an independent disorder. However, co-morbid depressive disorders were associated with increased symptom severity and functional impairment, consistent with previous reports from developing countries, emphasising the importance of comorbidity in MSD.
- ItemDSM-IV-defined common mental disorders : association with HIV testing, HIV-related fears, perceived risk and preventive behaviours among South African adults(Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2009) Myer, Landon; Stein, Dan J.; Grimsrud, Anna T.; Herman, Allen; Seedat, Soraya; Moomal, Hashim; Williams, David R.Background. There are few reports from South Africa on how common mental disorders may be associated with HIV-related perceptions and behaviours. Methods. Between 2002 and 2004, 4 351 South African adults were interviewed. Psychiatric diagnoses of depression, anxiety and substance abuse disorders were based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th edition (DSM-IV). HIV-related fears, perceived risk and behaviour change were measured using multi-item scales. We analysed forms of behaviour change that were appropriate for risk reduction (such as changes in sexual behaviour) separately from behaviour changes that were inappropriate to prevent HIV (such as care over things touched or avoiding certain social situations). Results. The presence of any DSM-IV-defined disorder during the previous 12 months was associated with previous HIV testing, increased HIV-related fears, and high levels of perceived risk of HIV. There were no associations between depression, anxiety and substance abuse disorders and appropriate forms of behaviour change for HIV risk reduction. However, individuals with an anxiety or a depressive disorder were more likely to report inappropriate forms of behaviour change. For example, individuals with any depressive and/or anxiety disorders were 1.57 and 1.47 times more likely, respectively, to report avoiding certain social situations to prevent HIV/AIDS compared with those who did not have such disorders (p<0.01 for both associations). Discussion. The lack of appropriate forms of behaviour change to prevent HIV transmission, despite increased levels of HIV-related fear and perceived risk, underscores the need for HIV risk reduction interventions for individuals living with common mental disorders in South Africa.
- ItemThe effectiveness of a hospital-based intervention for patients with substance-use problems in the Western Cape(HMPG, 2012-06) Sorsdahl, Katherine; Stein, Dan J.; Weich, Lize; Fourie, David; Myers, BronwynENGLISH ABSTRACT: District hospitals regularly experience a high incidence of substanceuse disorders, but rarely provide interventions. We describe the effectiveness of an intervention developed and implemented by a Western Cape hospital. Patients with probable substance use were referred to an on-site social worker for an alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST), a brief motivational intervention and referral to specialist care. At the 3-month followup, the ASSIST was re-administered telephonically. An intervention was received by 127 patients. A significant reduction in substance use was reported in 92 patients who completed a 3-month followup evaluation (p<0.001). Of the 60 patients referred to further care, half entered treatment. We conclude that, with minimal resourcing, it is feasible to administer a brief substance-use intervention for patients attending district hospitals.
- ItemThe effectiveness of problem solving therapy in deprived South African communities : results from a pilot study(BioMed Central, 2011-09) Van't Hof, Edith; Stein, Dan J.; Marks, Isaac; Tomlinson, Mark; Cuijpers, PimBackground: The majority of South Africans with a DSM-IV diagnosis receive no treatment for their mental health problems. There is a move to simplify treatment for common mental disorders (CMDs) in order to ease access. Brief problem solving therapy (PST) might fill the treatment gap for CMD's in deprived communities in South Africa. This pilot study evaluates the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of this PST program for CMD's in deprived communities around Cape Town. Methods: A Dutch problem solving program was adapted and translated into English, Xhosa and Afrikaans and thereafter implemented in townships around Cape Town. An initial attempt to recruit participants for online PST proved difficult, and so the program was adapted to a booklet format. Volunteers experiencing psychological distress were invited to participate in the either individually or group delivered 5-week during self-help program. To evaluate the effectiveness, psychological distress was administered through self-report questionnaires. After completion of the intervention participants also rated the program on various acceptability aspects. Results: Of 103 participants, 73 completed 5 weeks of brief PST in a booklet/workshop format. There were significantly more dropouts in those who used the booklet individually than in the group. Psychological distress measured on the K-10 and SRQ fell significantly and the program was evaluated positively. Conclusions: The results suggest that brief problem solving in a booklet/workshop format may be an effective, feasible and acceptable short-term treatment for people with CMD's in deprived communities. In this setting, group delivery of PST had lower drop-out rates than individual delivery, and was more feasible and acceptable. Randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate the effect of brief self-help PST more rigorously.
- ItemEmpathy and moral emotions in post-apartheid South Africa : an fMRI investigation(Oxford University Press, 2017) Fourie, Melike M.; Stein, Dan J.; Solms, Mark; Gobodo-Madikizela, Pumla; Decety, JeanMoral emotions elicited in response to others’ suffering are mediated by empathy and affect how we respond to their pain. South Africa provides a unique opportunity to study group processes given its racially divided past. The present study seeks insights into aspects of the moral brain by investigating behavioral and functional MRI responses of White and Black South Africans who lived through apartheid to in- and out-group physical and social pain. Whereas the physical pain task featured faces expressing dynamic suffering, the social pain task featured victims of apartheid violence from the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission to elicit heartfelt emotion. Black participants’ behavioral responses were suggestive of in-group favoritism, whereas White participants’ responses were apparently egalitarian. However, all participants showed significant in-group biases in activation in the amygdala (physical pain), as well as areas involved in mental state representation, including the precuneus, temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and frontal pole (physical and social pain). Additionally, Black participants reacted with heightened moral indignation to own-race suffering, whereas White participants reacted with heightened shame to Black suffering, which was associated with blunted neural empathic responding. These findings provide ecologically valid insights into some behavioral and brain processes involved in complex moral situations.
- ItemThe epidemiology of major depression in South Africa : results from the South African Stress and Health study(Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2009) Tomlinson, Mark; Grimsrud, Anna T.; Stein, Dan J.; Williams, David R.; Myer, LandonBackground. Mental disorders are a major contributor to the burden of disease in all regions of the world. There are limited data on the epidemiology of major depressive disorder in South Africa. Methods. A nationally representative household survey was conducted between 2002 and 2004 using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to establish a diagnosis of depression. The dataset analysed included 4 351 adult South Africans of all racial groups. Results. The prevalence of major depression was 9.7% for lifetime and 4.9% for the 12 months prior to the interview. The prevalence of depression was significantly higher among females than among males. The prevalence was also higher among those with a low level of education. Over 90% of all respondents with depression reported global role impairment. Conclusion. In comparison with data from other countries, South Africa has lower rates of depression than the USA but higher rates than Nigeria. The findings are broadly consistent with previous findings in South Africa. These findings are the first step in documenting a level of need for care in a context of significant under-funding of mental health services and research in South Africa.
- ItemEpidemiology of major depressive disorder in South Africa (1997 – 2015): a systematic review protocol(BMJ Publishing Group, 2016) Nglazi, Mweete D.; Joubert, Jane D.; Stein, Dan J.; Lund, Crick; Wiysonge, Charles S.; Vos, Theo; Pillay-van Wyk, Victoria; Roomaney, Rifqah A.; Muhwava, Lorrein S.; Bradshaw, DebbieENGLISH SUMMARY : Introduction: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disease and disability globally and in South Africa. Epidemiological data for MDD are essential to estimate the overall disease burden in a country. The objective of the systematic review is to examine the evidence base for prevalence, incidence, remission, duration, severity, case fatality and excess mortality of MDD in South Africa from 1997 to 2015. Methods and analysis: We will perform electronic searches in PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus and other bibliographical databases. Articles published between January 1997 and December 2015 will be eligible for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes will be prevalence, incidence, remission, duration, severity, case fatality and excess mortality of MDD. The secondary outcomes will be risk factors and selected populations for MDD. If appropriate, a meta-analysis will be performed. If a meta-analysis is not possible, the review findings will be presented narratively and in tables. Subgroup analyses will be conducted with subgroups defined by population group, rural/urban settings and study designs, if sufficient data are available.
- ItemEscitalopram in the prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder : a pilot randomized controlled trial(BioMed Central, 2015-02) Suliman, Sharain; Seedat, Soraya; Pingo, Janine; Sutherland, Taryn; Zohar, Joseph; Stein, Dan J.Background: A small literature suggests that pharmacotherapy may be useful in the prophylaxis of posttraumatic stress disorder in patients presenting with major trauma. There is relatively little data, however, on the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in this context. Methods: 24 week, double-blind placebo controlled study. 31 participants presenting immediately after trauma, and meeting diagnostic criteria for full or partial acute stress disorder were randomized to treatment with 10–20 mg of escitalopram or placebo daily for 24 weeks. 2 participants were excluded from the analysis due to early drop out, leaving 29 participants (escitalopram = 12, placebo = 17) for inclusion in an intent- to- treat analysis. Participants were followed up until 56 weeks, and assessed with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). A mixed model repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) was undertaken to determine the efficacy of the intervention on the CAPS score. Results: There was a significant reduction in CAPS score over the course of treatment (F(7, 142) = 41. 58, p < 0.001) in both the escitalopram and placebo groups, with a greater reduction in CAPS score in the placebo group F(7, 142) = 2.12, p = 0.045. There were improvements on all secondary measures, including the Clinical Global Impressions scale, and scales assessing depression, anxiety and disability. Only functional disability outcomes (F(7, 141) = 2.13, p = .04), were significantly different between treatment and placebo groups. In the sample as a whole, improvement in scores were maintained at the 52 week follow-up. Side effects were comparable between the groups. Conclusions: These data are consistent with other recent work indicating that the SSRIs may not be efficacious in the prevention of PTSD. Nevertheless, the small sample size and baseline differences between groups limit the explanatory power of the study. Although a consideration of the possibility of medication prophylaxis in PTSD remains important, both from conceptual and clinical perspectives, caution is needed with regards to the use of SSRIs until their efficacy can be proven.