Browsing by Author "Smit, Joalida"
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- ItemPostpartum mood disorders : a feminist critique with specific reference to postnatal depression(Stellenbosch : Stellenbosch University, 2002-12) Smit, Joalida; Kruger, Lou-Marie; Stellenbosch University. Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences. Dept. of Psychology.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This review examines the medical model's conceptualisation of postnatal depression (pND) from a feminist perspective. The arguments are fourfold: Firstly, it argues that the fundamental problem underlying the concept of PND is its conception as existing on a continuum with psychosis at the most severe end and maternity blues at the least severe end. The link with psychosis implies that it is potentially pathological requiring medical and psychiatric intervention. On the other hand its link with maternity blues gives scientific credence to continued research on emotional sequelae of reproduction that are below the psychiatric threshold of urgency. Secondly, the medical model's construction of PND implies that women are predisposed to mental illness because of their ability to bear children and thus pathologises normal experiences of childbirth. Thirdly, the medical model's preoccupation with classification and categorisation has become little more than an exercise in labeling that has removed women from their own experiences. Focusing on birth as an activity that is separate from the rest of pregnancy objectify women and ignores the socio-political context within which they give birth and care for their infants. Fourthly, it is argued that a different way of researching postpartum mood disorders is necessary to overcome a reductionistic and pathological model of childbirth. This is important if healthcare delivery hopes to provide adequate treatment for all women in the postnatal period. Especially in South Africa, where the dominant culture has for many years defined the experiences of the 'other', it is important to generate research that should include the 'voices' of the 'other' to prevent hegemonic practice from assuming an expert understanding of PND. This review does not deny the contributions from the medical establishment, but argues that a critique of its underlying assumptions is important to prevent women from being further marginalised by ignoring the socio-political context in which their lives are embedded. The implications for research within South Africa are also addressed.
- ItemSocio-behaviour challenges to phase III HIV vaccine trials in Sub-Saharan Africa(Makerere University Medical School, 2005-09) Smit, Joalida; Middelkoop, Keren; Myer, Landon; Lindegger, Graham; Swartz, Leslie; Seedat, Soraya; Tucker, Tim; Wood, Robin; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Stein, Dan J.Background: A number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa are preparing for HIV vaccine efficacy trials. Social and behavioural factors related to HIV transmission require examination in each setting where these trials are considered. As part of this, several countries have also recently begun preparatory research investigating relevant social and behavioural issues. There is a need for a review of the literature to help focus such research efforts in Sub-Saharan Africa. Objective: To examine key social and behavioural issues that may impact on the conduct of HIV vaccine efficacy trials in sub- Saharan Africa. Design: Literature review Methods: Major databases (PubMed, PsychInfo, EBSCOhost, and AIDSline) were searched for literature that discussed social and behavioural issues related to HIV vaccine trials. Three areas are highlighted as being particularly significant for HIV vaccine research: (1) willingness to participate in future HIV vaccine efficacy trials, (2) retention of participants in studies, and (3) sexual risk reporting during trials. For each of these topics, major findings from both developed and developing countries are described and avenues for further research are discussed. Results: There are few data from Sub-Saharan Africa regarding willingness to participate in HIV vaccine trials. Data on participant retention rates varies widely, and maintaining large cohorts of individuals within Phase III trials presents an important challenge. In addition, the possible impact of trial participation on sexual disinhibition, and response bias on sexual risk-reporting remain as issues for HIV vaccine trials in African contexts. Conclusions: Social and behavioural research forms an important part of preparations for HIV vaccine efficacy trials, and there is a clear need for more research of this type in Sub-Saharan Africa. Innovative approaches are required to address issues such as willingness to participate in vaccine research, participant retention during efficacy trials, and the accurate reporting by participants of sexual risk behaviours.