Browsing by Author "Sliwa, Karen"
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- ItemClinical characteristics and initial management of patients with tuberculous pericarditis in the HIV era : the investigation of the management of Pericarditis in Africa (IMPI Africa) registry(BioMed Central, 2006-01) Mayosi, Bongani M.; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Volmink, Jimmy A.; Gumedze, Freedom; Maartens, Gary; Aje, Akinyemi; Thomas, Baby M.; Thomas, Kandathil M.; Awotedu, Abolade A.; Thembela, Bongani; Mntla, Phindile; Maritz [Late], Frans; Ngu Blackett, Kathleen; Nkouonlack, Duquesne C.; Burch, Vanessa C.; Rebe, Kevin; Parish, Andy; Sliwa, Karen; Vezi, Brian Z.; Alam, Nowshad; Brown, Basil G.; Gould, Trevor; Visser, Tim; Shey, Muki S.; Magula, Nombulelo P.; Commerford, Patrick J.Background: The incidence of tuberculous pericarditis has increased in Africa as a result of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, the effect of HIV co-infection on clinical features and prognosis in tuberculous pericarditis is not well characterised. We have used baseline data of the Investigation of the Management of Pericarditis in Africa (IMPI Africa) registry to assess the impact of HIV co-infection on clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of patients with suspected tuberculous pericarditis in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Consecutive adult patients in 15 hospitals in three countries in sub-Saharan Africa were recruited on commencement of treatment for tuberculous pericarditis, following informed consent. We recorded demographic, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic information at baseline, and have used the chi-square test and analysis of variance to assess probabilities of significant differences (in these variables) between groups defined by HIV status. Results: A total of 185 patients were enrolled from 01 March 2004 to 31 October 2004, 147 (79.5%) of whom had effusive, 28 (15.1%) effusive-constrictive, and 10 (5.4%) constrictive or acute dry pericarditis. Seventy-four (40%) had clinical features of HIV infection. Patients with clinical HIV disease were more likely to present with dyspnoea (odds ratio [OR] 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4 to 7.4, P = 0.005) and electrocardiographic features of myopericarditis (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 6.9, P = 0.03). In addition to electrocardiographic features of myopericarditis, a positive HIV serological status was associated with greater cardiomegaly (OR 3.89, 95% CI 1.34 to 11.32, P = 0.01) and haemodynamic instability (OR 9.68, 95% CI 2.09 to 44.80, P = 0.0008). However, stage of pericardial disease at diagnosis and use of diagnostic tests were not related to clinical HIV status. Similar results were obtained for serological HIV status. Most patients were treated on clinical grounds, with microbiological evidence of tuberculosis obtained in only 13 (7.0%) patients. Adjunctive corticosteroids were used in 109 (58.9%) patients, with patients having clinical HIV disease less likely to be put on them (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.68). Seven patients were on antiretroviral drugs. Conclusion Patients with suspected tuberculous pericarditis and HIV infection in Africa have greater evidence of myopericarditis, dyspnoea, and haemodynamic instability. These findings, if confirmed in other studies, may suggest more intensive management of the cardiac disease is warranted in patients with HIV-associated pericardial disease.
- ItemMortality in patients treated for tuberculous pericarditis in Sub-Saharan Africa(Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2008-01) Mayosi, Bongani M.; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Gumedze, Freedom; Volmink, Jimmy A.; Maartens, Gary; Aje, Akinyemi; Thomas, Baby M.; Thomas, Kandathil M.; Awotedu, Abolade A.; Thembela, Bongani; Mntla, Phindile; Maritz, Frans; Blackett, Kathleen Ngu; Nkouonlack, Duquesne C.; Burch, Vanessa C.; Rebe, Kevin; Parrish, Andy; Sliwa, Karen; Vezi, Brian Z.; Alam, Nowshad; Brown, Basil G.; Gould, Trevor; Visser, Tim; Magula, Nombulelo P.; Commerford, Patrick J.Objective. To determine the mortality rate and its predictors in patients with a presumptive diagnosis of tuberculous pericarditis in sub-Saharan Africa. Design. Between 1 March 2004 and 31 October 2004, we enrolled 185 consecutive patients with presumed tuberculous pericarditis from 15 referral hospitals in Cameroon, Nigeria and South Africa, and observed them during the 6-month course of antituberculosis treatment for the major outcome of mortality. This was an observational study, with the diagnosis and management of each patient left at the discretion of the attending physician. Using Cox regression, we have assessed the effect of clinical and therapeutic characteristics (recorded at baseline) on mortality during follow-up. Results. We obtained the vital status of 174 (94%) patients (median age 33; range 14-87 years). The overall mortality rate was 26%. Mortality was higher in patients who had clinical features of HIV infection than in those who did not (40% v. 17%, p=0.001). Independent predictors of death during follow-up were: (i) a proven non-tuberculosis final diagnosis (hazard ratio (HR) 5.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.76-16.25), (ii) the presence of clinical signs of HIV infection (HR 2.28, CI 1.14-4.56), (iii) coexistent pulmonary tuberculosis (HR 2.33, CI 1.20-4.54), and (iv) older age (HR 1.02, CI 1.01-1.05). There was also a trend towards an increase in death rate in patients with haemodynamic instability (HR 1.80, CI 0.90-3.58) and a decrease in those who underwent pericardiocentesis (HR 0.34, CI 0.10-1.19). Conclusion. A presumptive diagnosis of tuberculous pericarditis is associated with a high mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Attention to rapid aetiological diagnosis of pericardial effusion and treatment of concomitant HIV infection may reduce the high mortality associated with the disease.
- ItemPrevention of infective endocarditis associated with dental interventions : South African Heart association position statement, endorsed by the South African Dental Association(South African Heart Association, 2017) Jankelow, David; Cupido, Blanche; Zuhlke, Liesl; Sliwa, Karen; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Manga, Pravin; Doubell, Anton; Lawrenson, John; Essop, Mohammed RafiqueENGLISH ABSTRACT: Infective endocarditis (IE) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Prevention is therefore an important clinical entity. The maintenance of optimal oral health is likely to play the most important role in protecting those at risk for IE. Both patients and health care practitioners must be educated in this regard. Guidelines have recommended that antibiotic prophylaxis should be limited to individuals (undergoing certain high-risk dental procedures) with underlying cardiac conditions that are associated with the greatest risk of an adverse outcome from IE. These conditions include prosthetic valves, congenital heart disease and previous IE. In South Africa, and other developing countries, IE is often a disease of young patients with rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and carries a very poor prognosis. In contrast, IE in Europe/North America, where guidelines and indications for antibiotic prophylaxis have been reduced, has a different spectrum of factors. These patients are older with degenerative valve disease. IE may also occur as a result of invasive health care associated procedures or in the setting of prosthetic valves and implantable cardiac devices. Recently published international guidelines cannot be automatically applied to countries where RHD is common and oral hygiene is poor. We therefore recommend that patients with RHD should also receive antibiotic prophylaxis prior to the listed dental procedures. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be prescribed after stressing the role of good oral health and why the approach differs in South Africa. There should be close cooperation between the dental practitioner and clinician as to who should receive prophylaxis and who should not.
- ItemPROTEA, a Southern African multicenter congenital heart disease registry and biorepository: rationale, design, and initial results(Frontiers Media S.A., 2021-10) Aldersley, Thomas; Lawrenson, John; Human, Paul; Shaboodien, Gasnat; Cupido, Blanche; Comitis, George; De Decker, Rik; Fourie, Barend; Swanson, Lenise; Joachim, Alexia; Magadla, Phaphama; Ngoepe, Malebogo; Swanson, Liam; Revell, Alistair; Ramesar, Raj; Brooks, Andre; Saacks, Nicole; De Koning, Bianca; Sliwa, Karen; Anthony, John; Osman, Ayesha; Keavney, Bernard; Zühlke, LieslObjectives: The PartneRships in cOngeniTal hEart disease (PROTEA) project aims to establish a densely phenotyped and genotyped Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) cohort for southern Africa. This will facilitate research into the epidemiology and genetic determinants of CHD in the region. This paper introduces the PROTEA project, characterizes its initial cohort, from the Western Cape Province of South Africa, and compares the proportion or “cohort-prevalences” of CHD-subtypes with international findings. Methods: PROTEA is a prospective multicenter CHD registry and biorepository. The initial cohort was recruited from seven hospitals in the Western Cape Province of South Africa from 1 April 2017 to 31 March 2019. All patients with structural CHD were eligible for inclusion. Descriptive data for the preliminary cohort are presented. In addition, cohort-prevalences (i.e., the proportion of patients within the cohort with a specific CHD-subtype) of 26 CHD-subtypes in PROTEA's pediatric cohort were compared with the cohort-prevalences of CHD-subtypes in two global birth-prevalence studies. Results: The study enrolled 1,473 participants over 2 years, median age was 1.9 (IQR 0.4–7.1) years. Predominant subtypes included ventricular septal defect (VSD) (339, 20%), atrial septal defect (ASD) (174, 11%), patent ductus arteriosus (185, 11%), atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) (124, 7%), and tetralogy of Fallot (121, 7%). VSDs were 1.8 (95% CI, 1.6–2.0) times and ASDs 1.4 (95% CI, 1.2–1.6) times more common in global prevalence estimates than in PROTEA's pediatric cohort. AVSDs were 2.1 (95% CI, 1.7–2.5) times more common in PROTEA and pulmonary stenosis and double outlet right ventricle were also significantly more common compared to global estimates. Median maternal age at delivery was 28 (IQR 23–34) years. Eighty-two percent (347/425) of mothers used no pre-conception supplementation and 42% (105/250) used no first trimester supplements. Conclusions: The cohort-prevalence of certain mild CHD subtypes is lower than for international estimates and the cohort-prevalence of certain severe subtypes is higher. PROTEA is not a prevalence study, and these inconsistencies are unlikely the result of true differences in prevalence. However, these findings may indicate under-diagnosis of mild to moderate CHD and differences in CHD management and outcomes. This reemphasizes the need for robust CHD epidemiological research in the region.