Browsing by Author "Siegfried, N."
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- ItemDoes South Africa need a national clinical trials support unit?(Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2010) Siegfried, N.; Volmink, J.; Dhansay, A.Background. No national South African institution provides a coherent suite of support, available skills and training for clinicians wishing to conduct randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the public sector. We report on a study to assess the need for establishing a national South African Clinical Trials Support Unit. Objectives. To determine the need for additional training and support for conduct of RCTs within South African institutions; identify challenges facing institutions conducting RCTs; and provide recommendations for enhancing trial conduct within South African public institutions. Design. Key informant interviews of senior decision-makers at institutions with a stake in the South African public sector clinical trials research environment. Results. Trial conduct in South Africa faces many challenges, including lack of dedicated funding, the burden on clinical load, and lengthy approval processes. Strengths include the high burden of disease and the prevalence of treatmentnaïve patients. Participants expressed a significant need for a national initiative to support and enhance the conduct of public sector RCTs. Research methods training and statistical support were viewed as key. There was a broad range of views regarding the structure and focus of such an initiative, but there was agreement that the national government should provide specific funding for this purpose. Conclusions. Stakeholders generally support the establishment of a national clinical trials support initiative. Consideration must be given to the sustainability of such an initiative, in terms of funding, staffing, expected research outputs and permanence of location.
- ItemLooking back, moving forward : 50 years of South African Medical Research Council alcohol-related publications(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2019-12-05) Parry, Charles David Heber; Myers, B.; Matzopoulos, R.; Morojele, N.; Siegfried, N.Background. Alcohol is one of the highest risk factors for death and disability in South Africa (SA). Objective. To explore the trajectory of empirical research on alcohol in SA between 1969 and 2019, with an emphasis on South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC) authored publications. Methods. We reviewed published research (Pubmed and Africa-Wide Information) using systematic methods, clear inclusion and exclusion criteria, and defined search terms. The search was not limited by language. Data synthesis was carried out by the first and last authors. Results. A total of 867 journal articles met the inclusion criteria, with 243 (28.0%) authored or co-authored by SAMRC researchers. For the latter group, three-quarters had an SAMRC researcher as first or last author. Over three-quarters (78.6%) of the SAMRC author positions (‘first’, ‘last’ or ‘other, counting researchers from a unit only once, but counting authors across different units on a single publication) were from intramural units. Over half the articles authored by SAMRC researchers focused on non-communicable diseases (55.9%), 23.8% focused on communicable diseases, and 10% on crime, violence or injury. Few articles focused on alcohol and tuberculosis (TB), alcohol and cancer, or alcohol policy. Over three-quarters (76.9%) were epidemiological in nature, and 65.3% were cross-sectional studies. There were 17 reviews (7 systematic) and 11 randomised controlled trials (RCTs). There was an increase in the annual number of publications over the 50-year period for both SAMRC and non-SAMRC researchers. Over time, there has been a trend towards publishing on alcohol research in journals published outside SA, but the SAMJ still remains a popular journal choice. Conclusion. The SAMRC has contributed substantially to the growing field of alcohol research in SA, but gaps in areas such as alcohol policy evaluation, alcohol and its association with TB and cancer, and interventional research, are evident.
- ItemRestricting or banning alcohol advertising to reduce alcohol consumption in adults and adolescents (Review)(2014) Parry, C. D. H.; Jere, M.; Kredo, T.; Volmink, J.; Ataguba, J. E.; Pienaar, D. C.; Siegfried, N.Background: Alcohol is estimated to be the fifth leading risk factor for global disability-adjusted life years. Restricting or banning alcohol advertising may reduce exposure to the risk posed by alcohol at the individual and general population level. To date, no systematic review has evaluated the effectiveness, possible harms and cost-effectiveness of this intervention. Objectives: To evaluate the benefits, harms and costs of restricting or banning the advertising of alcohol, via any format, compared with no restrictions or counter-advertising, on alcohol consumption in adults and adolescents.