Browsing by Author "Shelley, Rachel"
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- ItemAtmospheric deposition fluxes over the Atlantic Ocean : a GEOTRACES case study(Copernicus Publications, 2019-04-11) Barraqueta, Jan-Lukas Menzel; Klar, Jessica K.; Gledhill, Martha; Schlosser, Christian; Shelley, Rachel; Planquette, Helene F.; Wenzel, Bernhard; Sarthou, Geraldine; Achterberg, Eric P.Atmospheric deposition is an important source of micronutrients to the ocean, but atmospheric deposition fluxes remain poorly constrained in most ocean regions due to the limited number of field observations of wet and dry atmospheric inputs. Here we present the distribution of dissolved aluminium (dAl), as a tracer of atmospheric inputs, in surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean along GEOTRACES sections GA01, GA06, GA08, and GA10. We used the surface mixed-layer concentrations of dAl to calculate atmospheric deposition fluxes using a simple steady state model. We have optimized the Al fractional aerosol solubility, the dAl residence time within the surface mixed layer and the depth of the surface mixed layer for each separate cruise to calculate the atmospheric deposition fluxes. We calculated the lowest deposition fluxes of 0.15±0.1 and 0.27±0.13 g m−2 yr−1 for the South and North Atlantic Ocean (>40∘ S and >40∘ N) respectively, and the highest fluxes of 1.8 and 3.09 g m−2 yr−1 for the south-east Atlantic and tropical Atlantic Ocean, respectively. Overall, our estimations are comparable to atmospheric dust deposition model estimates and reported field-based atmospheric deposition estimates. We note that our estimates diverge from atmospheric dust deposition model flux estimates in regions influenced by riverine Al inputs and in upwelling regions. As dAl is a key trace element in the GEOTRACES programme, the approach presented in this study allows calculations of atmospheric deposition fluxes at high spatial resolution for remote ocean regions.
- ItemInputs and processes affecting the distribution of particulate iron in the North Atlantic along the GEOVIDE (GEOTRACES GA01) section(Copernicus Publications, 2019-04-12) Gourain, Arthur; Planquette, Helene; Cheize, Marie; Lemaitre, Nolwenn; Barraqueta, Jan-Lukas Menzel; Shelley, Rachel; Lherminier, Pascale; Sarthou, GeraldineThe aim of the GEOVIDE cruise (May–June 2014, R/V Pourquoi Pas?) was to provide a better understanding of trace metal biogeochemical cycles in the North Atlantic Ocean. As marine particles play a key role in the global biogeochemical cycle of trace elements in the ocean, we discuss the distribution of particulate iron (PFe), in relation to the distribution of particulate aluminium (PAl), manganese (PMn), and phosphorus (PP). Overall, 32 full vertical profiles were collected for trace metal analyses, representing more than 500 samples. This resolution provides a solid basis for assessing concentration distributions, elemental ratios, size fractionation, and adsorptive scavenging processes in key areas of the thermohaline overturning circulation. Total particulate iron concentrations ranged from as low as 9 pmol L−1 in surface waters of the Labrador Sea to 304 nmol L−1 near the Iberian margin, while median PFe concentrations of 1.15 nmol L−1 were measured over the sub-euphotic ocean interior. Within the Iberian Abyssal Plain, the ratio of PFe to PAl was identical to the continental crust molar ratio (0.21 mol mol−1), indicating the important influence of crustal particles in the water column. Overall, the lithogenic component explained more than 87% of PFe variance along the section. Within the Irminger and Labrador basins, the formation of biogenic particles led to an increase in the PFe∕PAl ratio (up to 0.64 mol mol−1) compared to the continental crust ratio. Continental margins induce high concentrations of particulate trace elements within the surrounding water masses (up to 10 nmol L−1 of PFe). For example, horizontal advection of PFe was visible more than 250 km away from the Iberian margin. Additionally, several benthic nepheloid layers were observed more than 200 m above the seafloor along the transect, especially in the Icelandic, Irminger, and Labrador basins, suspending particles with high PFe content of up to 89 nmol L−1.