Browsing by Author "Senekal, M."
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- ItemMarket and product assessment of probiotic/prebiotic - containing functional foods and supplements manufactured in South Africa(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2005) Brink, M.; Senekal, M.; Dicks, L. M. T.Objectives. Probiotic and prebiotic products manufactured in South Africa were identified and health and content claims stated on the labels were evaluated according to available scientific evidence, the proposed South African regulations in the Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act (Act No. 54 of 1972, www.doh.gov.za), and microbial assessment. Results. The range of products identified included probiotic-and/or prebiotic-containing supplements (capsules), food items fortified with probiotics and/or prebiotics, and fermented food containing probiotics, e.g. dairy products. Most of the health-related claims on the labels of the identified products do not comply with proposed South African regulations. However, results also indicate that the proposed South African regulations should be reconsidered to include an additional 5 claims, for which scientifically sound evidence is available. The claims regarding probiotic strains, viable cell numbers, prebiotic type and concentration stated on the labels of the products are mostly in line with the proposed South African regulations. The actual viable cell content of 3 out of 5 probiotic supplements readily available on the South African market did not comply with the content claim stated on the label. However, this problem did not seem to affect the inhibitory activity of the probiotic strains against indicator strains isolated from faeces of patients diagnosed with AIDS. To validate this finding in vivo assessments should be implemented before considering the need to include a wider range of prescribed viable cell numbers in the proposed South African regulations. Conclusions. The proposed South African regulations regarding probiotic- and prebiotic-containing products should be revised based on the results of this research, and the manufacturers of these products should be held responsible for providing the consumer with scientifically sound and legally correct information.
- ItemWeight and health status of black female students(Health & Medical Publishing Group, 2000) Steyn, N. P.; Senekal, M.; Brits, S.; Alberts, M.; Mashego, T.; Nel, J. H.Objective. To examine black female students for the occurrence of risk factors associated with chronic diseases of lifestyle, namely obesity, hypertension, nicotine usage, dyslipidaemia and compromised mental health (depression). Design. A cross-sectional analytical study design was used. All participants were examined within a period of 3 months during 1994. Weight, height, and hip and waist measurements were taken. Body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC) were calculated for each subject. Two systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings were taken for each participant. Questionnaires were used to determine specific risk factors related to lifestyle. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to measure psychological well-being. Fasting blood samples were collected and analysed for serum lipids and iron status. Setting. The University of the North in the Northern Province of South Africa. Subjects. A complete data set of sociodemographic information, anthropometric measurements and blood pressure readings, as well as a psychological health test and a medical questionnaire, were obtained from 231 of the 431 first-year female students who attended the university orientation programme. Only students with a complete data set were included in the sample. Results. Eighteen per cent of students were overweight (BMI 25-29.9), 6.5% were obese (BMI ≥ 30), and 26.8% were underweight. Mean blood pressure, BMI, WHR and WC increased significantly with age and were highest among the ≥ 24-year-olds. Only 1.6% of students had elevated blood pressure, 1.0% smoked and 4.4% took snuff. BMI, WC and WHR were positively correlated with blood pressure and age. Few students had dyslipidaemia (3.8% cholesterol > 5.2 mmol/l). However 14.5% were anaemic (Hb < 11.5 g/dl) and 24.6% had microcytosis (< 80 fl). Nearly one-fifth of students (17.7%) were classified as being moderately to severely depressed. Conclusions. Black female students younger than 24 years exhibited few risk factors associated with chronic diseases of lifestyle. However in older women (≥ 24 years) there were significant increases in BMI, WHR, WC and blood pressure. A large number of students of all ages exhibited moderate to severe depression and anaemia was prevalent.