Browsing by Author "Sampson, Samantha L."
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- ItemComprehensive characterization of the attenuated double auxotroph mycobacterium tuberculosisΔleuDΔpanCD as an alternative to H37Rv(Frontiers Media, 2019) Mouton, Jomien M.; Heunis, Tiaan; Dippenaar, Anzaan; Gallant, James L.; Kleynhans, Leanie; Sampson, Samantha L.ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Although currently available model organisms such as Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) have significantly contributed to our understanding of tuberculosis (TB) biology, these models have limitations such as differences in genome size, growth rates and virulence. However, attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains may provide more representative, safer models to study M. tuberculosis biology. For example, the M. tuberculosis ΔleuDΔpanCD double auxotroph, has undergone rigorous in vitro and in vivo safety testing. Like other auxotrophic strains, this has subsequently been approved for use in biosafety level (BSL) 2 facilities. Auxotrophic strains have been assessed as models for drug-resistant M. tuberculosis and for studying latent TB. These offer the potential as safe and useful models, but it is important to understand how well these recapitulate salient features of non-attenuated M. tuberculosis. We therefore performed a comprehensive comparison of M. tuberculosis H37Rv and M. tuberculosisΔleuDΔpanCD. These strains demonstrated similar in vitro and intra-macrophage replication rates, similar responses to anti-TB agents and whole genome sequence conservation. Shotgun proteomics analysis suggested that M. tuberculosisΔleuDΔpanCD has a heightened stress response that leads to reduced bacterial replication during exposure to acid stress, which has been verified using a dual-fluorescent replication reporter assay. Importantly, infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with the 2 strains elicited comparable cytokine production, demonstrating the suitability of M. tuberculosisΔleuDΔpanCD for immunological assays. We provide comprehensive evidence to support the judicious use of M. tuberculosisΔleuDΔpanCD as a safe and suitable model organism for M. tuberculosis research, without the need for a BSL3 facility.
- ItemEvolution and expansion of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE and PPE multigene families and their association with the duplication of the ESAT-6 (esx) gene cluster regions(BioMed Central, 2006-11) Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C.; Sampson, Samantha L.; Lee, Hyeyoung; Kim, Yeun; Van Helden, Paul D.; Warren, Robin M.Background: The PE and PPE multigene families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis comprise about 10% of the coding potential of the genome. The function of the proteins encoded by these large gene families remains unknown, although they have been proposed to be involved in antigenic variation and disease pathogenesis. Interestingly, some members of the PE and PPE families are associated with the ESAT-6 (esx) gene cluster regions, which are regions of immunopathogenic importance, and encode a system dedicated to the secretion of members of the potent T-cell antigen ESAT-6 family. This study investigates the duplication characteristics of the PE and PPE gene families and their association with the ESAT-6 gene clusters, using a combination of phylogenetic analyses, DNA hybridization, and comparative genomics, in order to gain insight into their evolutionary history and distribution in the genus Mycobacterium. Results: The results showed that the expansion of the PE and PPE gene families is linked to the duplications of the ESAT-6 gene clusters, and that members situated in and associated with the clusters represent the most ancestral copies of the two gene families. Furthermore, the emergence of the repeat protein PGRS and MPTR subfamilies is a recent evolutionary event, occurring at defined branching points in the evolution of the genus Mycobacterium. These gene subfamilies are thus present in multiple copies only in the members of the M. tuberculosis complex and close relatives. The study provides a complete analysis of all the PE and PPE genes found in the sequenced genomes of members of the genus Mycobacterium such as M. smegmatis, M. avium paratuberculosis, M. leprae, M. ulcerans, and M. tuberculosis. Conclusion: This work provides insight into the evolutionary history for the PE and PPE gene families of the mycobacteria, linking the expansion of these families to the duplications of the ESAT-6 (esx) gene cluster regions, and showing that they are composed of subgroups with distinct evolutionary (and possibly functional) differences.
- ItemGeospatial distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes in Africa(Public Library of Science, 2018-08-01) Chihota, Violet N.; Niehaus, Antoinette; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Wang, Xia; Sampson, Samantha L.; Mason, Peter; Kallenius, Gunilla; Mfinanga, Sayoki G.; Pillay, Marnomorney; Klopper, Marisa; Kasongo, Webster; Behr, Marcel A.; Van Pittius, Nicolaas C. Gey; Van Helden, Paul D.; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin; Warren, Robin M.Objective: To investigate the distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes across Africa. Methods: The SITVIT2 global repository and PUBMED were searched for spoligotype and published genotype data respectively, of M. tuberculosis from Africa. M. tuberculosis lineages in Africa were described and compared across regions and with those from 7 European and 6 South-Asian countries. Further analysis of the major lineages and sub-lineages using Principal Component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis were done to describe clustering by geographical regions. Evolutionary relationships were assessed using phylogenetic tree analysis. Results: The SITVIT2 global repository and PUBMED were searched for spoligotype and published genotype data respectively, of M. tuberculosis from Africa. M. tuberculosis lineages in Africa were described and compared across regions and with those from 7 European and 6 South-Asian countries. Further analysis of the major lineages and sub-lineages using Principal Component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis were done to describe clustering by geographical regions. Evolutionary relationships were assessed using phylogenetic tree analysis. Results: A total of 14727 isolates from 35 African countries were included in the analysis and of these 13607 were assigned to one of 10 major lineages, whilst 1120 were unknown. There were differences in geographical distribution of major lineages and their sub-lineages with regional clustering. Southern African countries were grouped based on high prevalence of LAM11-ZWE strains; strains which have an origin in Portugal. The grouping of North African countries was due to the high percentage of LAM9 strains, which have an origin in the Eastern Mediterranean region. East African countries were grouped based on Central Asian (CAS) and East-African Indian (EAI) strain lineage possibly reflecting historic sea trade with Asia, while West African Countries were grouped based on Cameroon lineage of unknown origin. A high percentage of the Haarlem lineage isolates were observed in the Central African Republic, Guinea, Gambia and Tunisia, however, a mixed distribution prevented close clustering. Conclusions: This study highlighted that the TB epidemic in Africa is driven by regional epidemics characterized by genetically distinct lineages of M. tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis in these regions may have been introduced from either Europe or Asia and has spread through pastoralism, mining and war. The vast array of genotypes and their associated phenotypes should be considered when designing future vaccines, diagnostics and anti-TB drugs.
- ItemA global perspective on pyrazinamide resistance: systematic review and meta-analysis(Public Library of Science, 2015) Whitfield, Michael G.; Soeters, Heidi M.; Warren, Robin M.; York, Talita; Sampson, Samantha L.; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Van Rie, AnneliesBackground: Pyrazinamide (PZA) is crucial for tuberculosis (TB) treatment, given its unique ability to eradicate persister bacilli. The worldwide burden of PZA resistance remains poorly described. Methods Systematic PubMed, Science Direct and Scopus searches for articles reporting phenotypic (liquid culture drug susceptibility testing or pyrazinamidase activity assays) and/or genotypic (polymerase chain reaction or DNA sequencing) PZA resistance. Global and regional summary estimates were obtained from random-effects meta-analysis, stratified by presence or risk of multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB). Regional summary estimates were combined with regional WHO TB incidence estimates to determine the annual burden of PZA resistance. Information on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the pncA gene was aggregated to obtain a global summary. Results: Pooled PZA resistance prevalence estimate was 16.2% (95% CI 11.2-21.2) among all TB cases, 41.3% (29.0-53.7) among patients at high MDR-TB risk, and 60.5% (52.3-68.6) among MDR-TB cases. The estimated global burden is 1.4 million new PZA resistant TB cases annually, about 270,000 in MDR-TB patients. Among 1,815 phenotypically resistant isolates, 608 unique SNPs occurred at 397 distinct positions throughout the pncA gene. Interpretation: PZA resistance is ubiquitous, with an estimated one in six incident TB cases and more than half of all MDR-TB cases resistant to PZA globally. The diversity of SNPs across the pncA gene complicates the development of rapid molecular diagnostics. These findings caution against relying on PZA in current and future TB drug regimens, especially in MDR-TB patients.
- ItemIdentifying nucleic acid-associated proteins in Mycobacterium smegmatis by mass spectrometry-based proteomics(BioMed Central, 2020-03-23) Kriel, Nastassja L.; Heunis, Tiaan; Sampson, Samantha L.; Gey Van Pittius, Nico C.; Williams, Monique J.; Warren, Robin M.Background: Transcriptional responses required to maintain cellular homeostasis or to adapt to environmental stress, is in part mediated by several nucleic-acid associated proteins. In this study, we sought to establish an affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS) approach that would enable the collective identification of nucleic acidassociated proteins in mycobacteria. We hypothesized that targeting the RNA polymerase complex through affinity purification would allow for the identification of RNA- and DNA-associated proteins that not only maintain the bacterial chromosome but also enable transcription and translation. Results: AP-MS analysis of the RNA polymerase β-subunit cross-linked to nucleic acids identified 275 putative nucleic acid-associated proteins in the model organism Mycobacterium smegmatis under standard culturing conditions. The AP-MS approach successfully identified proteins that are known to make up the RNA polymerase complex, as well as several other known RNA polymerase complex-associated proteins such as a DNA polymerase, sigma factors, transcriptional regulators, and helicases. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of the identified proteins revealed that this approach selected for proteins with GO terms associated with nucleic acids and cellular metabolism. Importantly, we identified several proteins of unknown function not previously known to be associated with nucleic acids. Validation of several candidate nucleic acid-associated proteins demonstrated for the first time DNA association of ectopically expressed MSMEG_1060, MSMEG_2695 and MSMEG_4306 through affinity purification. Conclusions: Effective identification of nucleic acid-associated proteins, which make up the RNA polymerase complex as well as other DNA- and RNA-associated proteins, was facilitated by affinity purification of the RNA polymerase β- subunit in M. smegmatis. The successful identification of several transcriptional regulators suggest that our approach could be sensitive enough to investigate the nucleic acid-associated proteins that maintain cellular functions and mediate transcriptional and translational change in response to environmental stress.
- ItemMechanisms of drug-induced tolerance in mycobacterium tuberculosis(American Society for Microbiology, 2020-10) Goossens, Sander N.; Sampson, Samantha L.; van Rie, AnneliesSuccessful treatment of tuberculosis (TB) can be hampered by Mycobacterium tuberculosis populations that are temporarily able to survive antibiotic pressure in the absence of drug resistance-conferring mutations, a phenomenon termed drug tolerance. We summarize findings on M. tuberculosis tolerance published in the past 20 years. Key M. tuberculosis responses to drug pressure are reduced growth rates, metabolic shifting, and the promotion of efflux pump activity. Metabolic shifts upon drug pressure mainly occur in M. tuberculosis's lipid metabolism and redox homeostasis, with reduced tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in favor of lipid anabolism. Increased lipid anabolism plays a role in cell wall thickening, which reduces sensitivity to most TB drugs. In addition to these general mechanisms, drug-specific mechanisms have been described. Upon isoniazid exposure, M. tuberculosis reprograms several pathways associated with mycolic acid biosynthesis. Upon rifampicin exposure, M. tuberculosis upregulates the expression of its drug target rpoB Upon bedaquiline exposure, ATP synthesis is stimulated, and the transcription factors Rv0324 and Rv0880 are activated. A better understanding of M. tuberculosis's responses to drug pressure will be important for the development of novel agents that prevent the development of drug tolerance following treatment initiation. Such agents could then contribute to novel TB treatment-shortening strategies.
- ItemMycobacterium tuberculosis pncA polymorphisms that do not confer pyrazinamide resistance at a breakpoint concentration of 100 micrograms per milliliter in MGIT(American Society for Microbiology, 2015) Whitfield, Michael G.; Warren, Robin M.; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Sampson, Samantha L.; Sirgel, Frik A.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Mercante, Alexandra; Willby, Melisa; Hughes, Kelsey; Birkness, Kris; Morlock, Glenm; Van Rie, Annelies; Posey, James E.Sequencing of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis pncA gene allows for pyrazinamide susceptibility testing. We summarize data on pncA polymorphisms that do not confer resistance at a susceptibility breakpoint of 100 μg/ml pyrazinamide in MGIT within a cohort of isolates from South Africa and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
- ItemPhosphoproteomics analysis of a clinical mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing isolate : expanding the mycobacterial phosphoproteome catalog(Frontiers Media, 2015) Fortuin, Suereta; Tomazella, Gisele G.; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Sampson, Samantha L.; Gey Van Pittius, Nicolaas C.; Soares, Nelson C.; Wiker, Harald G.; De Souza, Gustavo A.; Warren, Robin M.Reversible protein phosphorylation, regulated by protein kinases and phosphatases, mediates a switch between protein activity and cellular pathways that contribute to a large number of cellular processes. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome encodes 11 Serine/Threonine kinases (STPKs) which show close homology to eukaryotic kinases. This study aimed to elucidate the phosphoproteomic landscape of a clinical isolate of M. tuberculosis. We performed a high throughput mass spectrometric analysis of proteins extracted from an early-logarithmic phase culture. Whole cell lysate proteins were processed using the filter-aided sample preparation method, followed by phosphopeptide enrichment of tryptic peptides by strong cation exchange (SCX) and Titanium dioxide (TiO2) chromatography. The MaxQuant quantitative proteomics software package was used for protein identification. Our analysis identified 414 serine/threonine/tyrosine phosphorylated sites, with a distribution of S/T/Y sites; 38% on serine, 59% on threonine and 3% on tyrosine; present on 303 unique peptides mapping to 214 M. tuberculosis proteins. Only 45 of the S/T/Y phosphorylated proteins identified in our study had been previously described in the laboratory strain H37Rv, confirming previous reports. The remaining 169 phosphorylated proteins were newly identified in this clinical M. tuberculosis Beijing strain. We identified 5 novel tyrosine phosphorylated proteins. These findings not only expand upon our current understanding of the protein phosphorylation network in clinical M. tuberculosis but the data set also further extends and complements previous knowledge regarding phosphorylated peptides and phosphorylation sites in M. tuberculosis.
- ItemRecent developments in the application of flow cytometry to advance our understanding of Mycobacterium tuberculosis physiology and pathogenesis(International Society for Advancement of Cytometry, 2020-05-21) Parbhoo, Trisha; Sampson, Samantha L.; Mouton, Jacoba M.The ability of the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis to adapt and survive within human cells to disseminate to other individuals and cause active disease is poorly understood. Research supports that as M. tuberculosis adapts to stressors encountered in the host, it exhibits variable physiological and metabolic states that are time and niche-dependent. Challenges associated with effective treatment and eradication of tuberculosis (TB) are in part attributed to our lack of understanding of these different mycobacterial phenotypes. This is mainly due to a lack of suitable tools to effectively identify/detect heterogeneous bacterial populations, which may include small, difficult-to-culture subpopulations. Importantly, flow cytometry allows rapid and affordable multiparametric measurements of physical and chemical characteristics of single cells, without the need to preculture cells. Here, we summarize current knowledge of flow cytometry applications that have advanced our understanding of the physiology of M. tuberculosis during TB disease. Specifically, we review how host-associated stressors influence bacterial characteristics such as metabolic activity, membrane potential, redox status and the mycobacterial cell wall. Further, we highlight that flow cytometry offers unprecedented opportunities for insight into bacterial population heterogeneity, which is increasingly appreciated as an important determinant of disease outcome. © 2020 The Authors. Cytometry Part A published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.
- ItemRecombination in pe/ppe genes contributes to genetic variation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages(BioMed Central, 2016-02-29) Phelan, Jody E.; Coll, Francesc; Bergval, Indra; Anthony, Richard M.; Warren, Rob; Sampson, Samantha L.; Gey Van Pittius, Nicolaas C.; Glynn, Judith R.; Crampin, Amelia C.; Alves, Adriana; Bessa, Theolis B.; Campino, Susana; Dheda, Keertan; Grandjean, Louis; Hasan, Rumina; Hasan, Zahra; Miranda, Anabela; Moore, David; Panaiotov, Stefan; Perdigao, Joao; Portugal, Isabel; Sheen, Patricia; De Oliveira Sousa, Erivelton; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Viveiros, Miguel; Hibberd, Martin L.; Pain, Arnab; McNerney, Ruth; Clark, Taane G.Background: Approximately 10 % of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome is made up of two families of genes that are poorly characterized due to their high GC content and highly repetitive nature. The PE and PPE families are typified by their highly conserved N-terminal domains that incorporate proline-glutamate (PE) and proline-proline-glutamate (PPE) signature motifs. They are hypothesised to be important virulence factors involved with host-pathogen interactions, but their high genetic variability and complexity of analysis means they are typically disregarded in genome studies. Results: To elucidate the structure of these genes, 518 genomes from a diverse international collection of clinical isolates were de novo assembled. A further 21 reference M. tuberculosis complex genomes and long read sequence data were used to validate the approach. SNP analysis revealed that variation in the majority of the 168 pe/ppe genes studied was consistent with lineage. Several recombination hotspots were identified, notably pe_pgrs3 and pe_pgrs17. Evidence of positive selection was revealed in 65 pe/ppe genes, including epitopes potentially binding to major histocompatibility complex molecules. Conclusions: This, the first comprehensive study of the pe and ppe genes, provides important insight into M. tuberculosis diversity and has significant implications for vaccine development.
- ItemVersatility of 7-substituted coumarin molecules as antimycobacterial agents, neuronal enzyme inhibitors and neuroprotective agents(MDPI, 2017-09-30) Kapp, Erika; Visser, Hanri; Sampson, Samantha L.; Malan, Sarel F.; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Foka, Germaine B.; Warner, Digby F.; Omoruyi, Sylvester I.; Enogieru, Adaze B.; Ekpo, Okobi E.; Zindo, Frank T.; Joubert, JacquesENGLISH ABSTRACT: A medium-throughput screen using Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was employed to screen an in-house library of structurally diverse compounds for antimycobacterial activity. In this initial screen, eleven 7-substituted coumarin derivatives with confirmed monoamine oxidase-B and cholinesterase inhibitory activities, demonstrated growth inhibition of more than 50% at 50 µM. This prompted further exploration of all the 7-substituted coumarins in our library. Four compounds showed promising MIC99 values of 8.31–29.70 µM and 44.15–57.17 µM on M. tuberculosis H37Rv in independent assays using GAST-Fe and 7H9+OADC media, respectively. These compounds were found to bind to albumin, which may explain the variations in MIC between the two assays. Preliminary data showed that they were able to maintain their activity in fluoroquinolone resistant mycobacteria. Structure-activity relationships indicated that structural modification on position 4 and/or 7 of the coumarin scaffold could direct the selectivity towards either the inhibition of neuronal enzymes or the antimycobacterial effect. Moderate cytotoxicities were observed for these compounds and slight selectivity towards mycobacteria was indicated. Further neuroprotective assays showed significant neuroprotection for selected compounds irrespective of their neuronal enzyme inhibitory properties. These coumarin molecules are thus interesting lead compounds that may provide insight into the design of new antimicrobacterial and neuroprotective agents.