Browsing by Author "Roos, Eduard O."
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- ItemMeasuring antigen-specific responses in Mycobacterium bovis-infected warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) using the intradermal tuberculin test(BMC (part of Springer Nature), 2018) Roos, Eduard O.; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Buss, Peter E.; Hausler, Guy; Warren, Robin M.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Parsons, Sven D. C.; De Klerk-Lorist, Lin-Mari; Miller, Michele AnnBackground: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis has previously been diagnosed in warthogs and infection can be highly prevalent (> 30%) in endemic areas. Thus, warthogs could potentially be an important species to consider as sentinels for disease surveillance. However, disease surveillance is dependent on availability of accurate diagnostic assays and only a few diagnostic tests have been investigated for warthogs. Furthermore, the tests that have been used in this species require laboratory equipment and trained personnel to obtain results. Therefore, this study investigated the use of the intradermal tuberculin test (ITT) to screen warthogs for bTB, which can be done with minimal equipment and under field conditions by most veterinarians and other qualified professionals. Changes in skin fold thickness measurements at the bovine purified protein derivative (PPD) administration site, between 0 and 72 h, were compared with differential changes between the bovine and avian PPD sites, for 34 warthogs, to evaluate the performance when different interpretation criteria for the ITT was used. Results: Using an increase of 1.8 mm or more at the bovine PPD site as a cut-off for positive responders, 69% of 16 M. bovis culture-positive warthogs had a positive test result, with 100% of the 18 culture-negative warthogs considered as test negative. When a differential of 1.2 mm or more in skin fold thickness at the bovine PPD compared to the avian PPD site was used as a cut-off for the comparative ITT, 81% of culture-positive warthogs were considered as test positive, with 100% of culture-negative warthogs considered as test negative. Conclusion: The findings in this study suggest that the ITT is a promising tool to use when screening warthogs for M. bovis infection.
- ItemReview of diagnostic tests for detection of mycobacterium bovis infection in South African wildlife(Frontiers Media S.A, 2021-01) Bernitz, Netanya; Kerr, Tanya J.; Goosen, Wynand J.; Chileshe, Josephine; Higgitt, Roxanne L.; Roos, Eduard O.; Meiring, Christina; Gumbo, Rachiel; De Waal, Candice; Clarke, Charlene; Smith, Katrin; Goldswain, Samantha; Sylvester, Taschnica T.; Kleynhans, Léanie; Dippenaar, Anzaan; Buss, Peter E.; Cooper, David V.; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Warren, Robin M.; Van Helden, Paul D.; Parsons, Sven D. C.; Miller, Michele A.Wildlife tuberculosis is a major economic and conservation concern globally. Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused byMycobacteriumbovis (M. bovis), is themost common form of wildlife tuberculosis. In South Africa, to date, M. bovis infection has been detected in 24 mammalian wildlife species. The identification of M. bovis infection in wildlife species is essential to limit the spread and to control the disease in these populations, sympatric wildlife species and neighboring livestock. The detection of M. bovis-infected individuals is challenging as only severely diseased animals show clinical disease manifestations and diagnostic tools to identify infection are limited. The emergence of novel reagents and technologies to identify M. bovis infection in wildlife species are instrumental in improving the diagnosis and control of bTB. This review provides an update on the diagnostic tools to detect M. bovis infection in South African wildlife but may be a useful guide for other wildlife species.