- Browse by Author

### Browsing by Author "Reddy, Gadi V. P."

Now showing 1 - 4 of 4

###### Results Per Page

###### Sort Options

- ItemA geometrical model for testing bilateral symmetry of bamboo leaf with a simplified Gielis equation(Wiley Open Access, 2016) Lin, Shuyan; Zhang, Li; Reddy, Gadi V. P.; Hui, Cang; Gielis, Johan; Ding, Yulong; Shi, Peijian
Show more The size and shape of plant leaves change with growth, and an accurate description of leaf shape is crucial for describing plant morphogenesis and development. Bilateral symmetry, which has been widely observed but poorly examined, occurs in both dicot and monocot leaves, including all nominated bamboo species (approximately 1,300 species), of which at least 500 are found in China. Although there are apparent differences in leaf size among bamboo species due to genetic and environmental profiles, bamboo leaves have bilateral symmetry with parallel venation and appear similar across species. Here, we investigate whether the shape of bamboo leaves can be accurately described by a simplified Gielis equation, which consists of only two parameters (leaf length and shape) and produces a perfect bilateral shape. To test the applicability of this equation and the occurrence of bilateral symmetry, we first measured the leaf length of 42 bamboo species, examining >500 leaves per species. We then scanned 30 leaves per species that had approximately the same length as the median leaf length for that species. The leaf-shape data from scanned profiles were fitted to the simplified Gielis equation. Results confirmed that the equation fits the leaf-shape data extremely well, with the coefficients of determination being 0.995 on average. We further demonstrated the bilateral symmetry of bamboo leaves, with a clearly defined leaf-shape parameter of all 42 bamboo species investigated ranging from 0.02 to 0.1. This results in a simple and reliable tool for precise determination of bamboo species, with applications in forestry, ecology, and taxonomy.Show more - ItemInternode morphometrics and allometry of Tonkin Cane Pseudosasa amabilis(John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2017-10) Cheng, Liang; Hui, Cang; Reddy, Gadi V. P.; Ding, Yu-Long; Shi, Pei-Jian
Show more Pseudosasa amabilis (McClure) (Poales: Gramineae) is a typical bamboo species naturally distributed in large area of south China and famous for its culm strength. Although bamboos were found to share the same development rule, the detailed internode morphology of bamboo culm was actually not fully expressed. We explored internode morphology of P. amabilis using 11 different physical parameters in different dimensions (1–4). As Taylor’s power law (TPL) is generally applicable to describe relationship between mean and variance of population density, here we used TPL to evaluate the differences between internodes, and further, the relationship between dimension and TPL. Results showed that length (L), hollow radius (HR), hollow area (HA), hollow cylinder volume (HCV), total cylinder volume (TCV), density (De), and weight (W) all presented positive skewed distribution in varying degrees. For the basic one-dimensional parameters, the 9th internode was the longest, the 7th the heaviest, while thickness (T) decreased with internodes. Diameter (D) decreased in general but with an inconspicuous local mode at the 5–6th internodes, potentially due to the rapid height growth. The longest (9th) internode was the “turning point” for T-D and HR-D relationships. Scatter plot changing trends of W to the one-dimensional parameters after the heaviest (7th) internode were reversed, indicating a deceleration of growth speed. TPL was not holding well in one-dimensional parameters (R2: 0.5413–0.8125), but keep increasing as the parameter’s dimension increasing (R2 > 0.92 for two-dimensional, R2 > 0.97 for three-dimensional, and R2 > 0.99 for four-dimensional parameters.), suggesting an emergence mechanism of TPL related to both the physical dimensions of morphological measures and the allometric growth of bamboo. From the physical fundamental level, all existences are the expression of energy distribution in different dimensions, implying a more general rule that energy distribution holds better TPL in higher dimension level.Show more - ItemThe seesaw effect of winter temperature change on the recruitment of cotton bollworms Helicoverpa armigera through mismatched phenology(John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2015) Reddy, Gadi V. P.; Shi, Peijian; Hui, Cang; Cheng, Xiaofei; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng
Show more Knowing how climate change affects the population dynamics of insect pests is critical for the future of integrated pest management. Rising winter temperatures from global warming can drive increases in outbreaks of some agricultural pests. In contrast, here we propose an alternative hypothesis that both extremely cold and warm winters can mismatch the timing between the eclosion of overwintering pests and the flowering of key host plants. As host plants normally need higher effective cumulative temperatures for flowering than insects need for eclosion, changes in flowering time will be less dramatic than changes in eclosion time, leading to a mismatch of phenology on either side of the optimal winter temperature. We term this the “seesaw effect.” Using a long-term dataset of the Old World cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in northern China, we tested this seesaw hypothesis by running a generalized additive model for the effects of the third generation moth in the preceding year, the winter air temperature, the number of winter days below a critical temperature and cumulative precipitation during winter on the demography of the overwintering moth. Results confirmed the existence of the seesaw effect of winter temperature change on overwintering populations. Pest management should therefore consider the indirect effect of changing crop phenology (whether due to greenhouse cultivation or to climate change) on pest outbreaks. As arthropods from mid- and high latitudes are actually living in a cooler thermal environment than their physiological optimum in contrast to species from lower latitudes, the effects of rising winter temperatures on the population dynamics of arthropods in the different latitudinal zones should be considered separately. The seesaw effect makes it more difficult to predict the average long-term population dynamics of insect pests at high latitudes due to the potential sharp changes in annual growth rates from fluctuating minimum winter temperatures.Show more - ItemWhy does not the leaf weight-area allometry of bamboos follow the 3/2-power law?(Frontiers Media, 2018) Lin, Shuyan; Shao, Lijuan; Hui, Cang; Song, Yu; Reddy, Gadi V. P.; Gielis, Johan; Li, Fang; Ding, Yulong; Wei, Qiang; Shi, Peijian
Show more The principle of similarity (Thompson, 1917) states that the weight of an organism follows the 3/2-power law of its surface area and is proportional to its volume on the condition that the density is constant. However, the allometric relationship between leaf weight and leaf area has been reported to greatly deviate from the 3/2-power law, with the irregularity of leaf density largely ignored for explaining this deviation. Here, we choose 11 bamboo species to explore the allometric relationships among leaf area (A), density (ρ), length (L), thickness (T), and weight (W). Because the edge of a bamboo leaf follows a simplified two-parameter Gielis equation, we could show that A ∝ L2 and that A ∝ T2. This then allowed us to derive the density-thickness allometry ρ ∝ Tb and the weight-area allometry W ∝ A(b+3)/2 ≈ A9/8, where b approximates −3/4. Leaf density is strikingly negatively associated with leaf thickness, and it is this inverse relationship that results in the weight-area allometry to deviate from the 3/2-power law. In conclusion, although plants are prone to invest less dry mass and thus produce thinner leaves when the leaf area is sufficient for photosynthesis, such leaf thinning needs to be accompanied with elevated density to ensure structural stability. The findings provide the insights on the evolutionary clue about the biomass investment and output of photosynthetic organs of plants. Because of the importance of leaves, plants could have enhanced the ratio of dry material per unit area of leaf in order to increase the efficiency of photosynthesis, relative the other parts of plants. Although the conclusion is drawn only based on 11 bamboo species, it should also be applicable to the other plants, especially considering previous works on the exponent of the weight-area relationship being less than 3/2 in plants.Show more