Browsing by Author "Rebe, Kevin"
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- ItemClinical characteristics and initial management of patients with tuberculous pericarditis in the HIV era : the investigation of the management of Pericarditis in Africa (IMPI Africa) registry(BioMed Central, 2006-01) Mayosi, Bongani M.; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Volmink, Jimmy A.; Gumedze, Freedom; Maartens, Gary; Aje, Akinyemi; Thomas, Baby M.; Thomas, Kandathil M.; Awotedu, Abolade A.; Thembela, Bongani; Mntla, Phindile; Maritz [Late], Frans; Ngu Blackett, Kathleen; Nkouonlack, Duquesne C.; Burch, Vanessa C.; Rebe, Kevin; Parish, Andy; Sliwa, Karen; Vezi, Brian Z.; Alam, Nowshad; Brown, Basil G.; Gould, Trevor; Visser, Tim; Shey, Muki S.; Magula, Nombulelo P.; Commerford, Patrick J.Background: The incidence of tuberculous pericarditis has increased in Africa as a result of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, the effect of HIV co-infection on clinical features and prognosis in tuberculous pericarditis is not well characterised. We have used baseline data of the Investigation of the Management of Pericarditis in Africa (IMPI Africa) registry to assess the impact of HIV co-infection on clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of patients with suspected tuberculous pericarditis in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Consecutive adult patients in 15 hospitals in three countries in sub-Saharan Africa were recruited on commencement of treatment for tuberculous pericarditis, following informed consent. We recorded demographic, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic information at baseline, and have used the chi-square test and analysis of variance to assess probabilities of significant differences (in these variables) between groups defined by HIV status. Results: A total of 185 patients were enrolled from 01 March 2004 to 31 October 2004, 147 (79.5%) of whom had effusive, 28 (15.1%) effusive-constrictive, and 10 (5.4%) constrictive or acute dry pericarditis. Seventy-four (40%) had clinical features of HIV infection. Patients with clinical HIV disease were more likely to present with dyspnoea (odds ratio [OR] 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4 to 7.4, P = 0.005) and electrocardiographic features of myopericarditis (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.1 to 6.9, P = 0.03). In addition to electrocardiographic features of myopericarditis, a positive HIV serological status was associated with greater cardiomegaly (OR 3.89, 95% CI 1.34 to 11.32, P = 0.01) and haemodynamic instability (OR 9.68, 95% CI 2.09 to 44.80, P = 0.0008). However, stage of pericardial disease at diagnosis and use of diagnostic tests were not related to clinical HIV status. Similar results were obtained for serological HIV status. Most patients were treated on clinical grounds, with microbiological evidence of tuberculosis obtained in only 13 (7.0%) patients. Adjunctive corticosteroids were used in 109 (58.9%) patients, with patients having clinical HIV disease less likely to be put on them (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.68). Seven patients were on antiretroviral drugs. Conclusion Patients with suspected tuberculous pericarditis and HIV infection in Africa have greater evidence of myopericarditis, dyspnoea, and haemodynamic instability. These findings, if confirmed in other studies, may suggest more intensive management of the cardiac disease is warranted in patients with HIV-associated pericardial disease.
- ItemDetectable HIV-1 in semen in individuals with very low blood viral loads(BioMed Central, 2020-03-05) Kariuki, Samuel Mundia; Selhorst, Philippe; Norman, Jennifer; Cohen, Karen; Rebe, Kevin; Williamson, Carolyn; Dorfman, Jeffrey RBackground: Several reports indicate that a portion (5–10%) of men living with HIV-1 intermittently shed HIV-1 RNA into seminal plasma while on long term effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). This is highly suggestive of an HIV-1 reservoir in the male genital tract. However, the status of this reservoir in men living with HIV-1 who are not under treatment is underexplored and has implications for understanding the origins and evolution of the reservoir. Finding: Forty-three HIV-1 positive, antiretroviral therapy naïve study participants attending a men’s health clinic were studied. Semen viral loads and blood viral loads were generally correlated, with semen viral loads generally detected in individuals with blood viral loads > 10,000 cp/ml. However, we found 1 individual with undetectable viral loads (<20cp/ml) and 2 individuals with very low blood viral load (97 and 333cp/ml), but with detectable HIV-1 in semen (485–1157 copies/ semen sample). Blood viral loads in the first individual were undetectable when tested three times over the prior 5 years. Conclusions: Semen HIV-1 viral loads are usually related to blood viral loads, as we confirm. Nonetheless, this was not true in a substantial minority of individuals suggesting unexpectedly high levels of replication in the male genital tract in a few individuals, despite otherwise effective immune control. This may reflect establishment of a local reservoir of HIV-1 populations.
- ItemMortality in patients treated for tuberculous pericarditis in Sub-Saharan Africa(Health and Medical Publishing Group (HMPG), 2008-01) Mayosi, Bongani M.; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Gumedze, Freedom; Volmink, Jimmy A.; Maartens, Gary; Aje, Akinyemi; Thomas, Baby M.; Thomas, Kandathil M.; Awotedu, Abolade A.; Thembela, Bongani; Mntla, Phindile; Maritz, Frans; Blackett, Kathleen Ngu; Nkouonlack, Duquesne C.; Burch, Vanessa C.; Rebe, Kevin; Parrish, Andy; Sliwa, Karen; Vezi, Brian Z.; Alam, Nowshad; Brown, Basil G.; Gould, Trevor; Visser, Tim; Magula, Nombulelo P.; Commerford, Patrick J.Objective. To determine the mortality rate and its predictors in patients with a presumptive diagnosis of tuberculous pericarditis in sub-Saharan Africa. Design. Between 1 March 2004 and 31 October 2004, we enrolled 185 consecutive patients with presumed tuberculous pericarditis from 15 referral hospitals in Cameroon, Nigeria and South Africa, and observed them during the 6-month course of antituberculosis treatment for the major outcome of mortality. This was an observational study, with the diagnosis and management of each patient left at the discretion of the attending physician. Using Cox regression, we have assessed the effect of clinical and therapeutic characteristics (recorded at baseline) on mortality during follow-up. Results. We obtained the vital status of 174 (94%) patients (median age 33; range 14-87 years). The overall mortality rate was 26%. Mortality was higher in patients who had clinical features of HIV infection than in those who did not (40% v. 17%, p=0.001). Independent predictors of death during follow-up were: (i) a proven non-tuberculosis final diagnosis (hazard ratio (HR) 5.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.76-16.25), (ii) the presence of clinical signs of HIV infection (HR 2.28, CI 1.14-4.56), (iii) coexistent pulmonary tuberculosis (HR 2.33, CI 1.20-4.54), and (iv) older age (HR 1.02, CI 1.01-1.05). There was also a trend towards an increase in death rate in patients with haemodynamic instability (HR 1.80, CI 0.90-3.58) and a decrease in those who underwent pericardiocentesis (HR 0.34, CI 0.10-1.19). Conclusion. A presumptive diagnosis of tuberculous pericarditis is associated with a high mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Attention to rapid aetiological diagnosis of pericardial effusion and treatment of concomitant HIV infection may reduce the high mortality associated with the disease.